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Correction of Severe Facial Asymmetry in Patients With Unilateral Craniofacial Microsomia Using Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology: An Evaluation of Postsurgical Results

Shetye, Pradip R; Grayson, Barry H; McCarthy, Joseph G
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:This is a retrospective study to evaluate the postsurgical position of the maxilla and mandible in 5 matured craniofacial patients with unilateral craniofacial microsomia who underwent 2 jaw surgical procedures using computerized surgical planning. The craniofacial surgeon and orthodontist completed the virtual surgical treatment plan with a biomedical engineer's assistance via a web meeting. The treatment plan of each patient included 2 jaw surgery with genioplasty. At the maxillary dental midline, the planned mean advancement was 4 mm; yaw, a rotational correction towards the unaffected side was 4.96 mm; and impaction was 2.74 mm. The mean advancement measured at point B was 10.5 mm, and the rotational correction towards the unaffected side was 6.58 mm. The mean advancement following genioplasty was 8.43 mm, and the mean transverse correction was 6.33 mm towards the midsagittal plane. The intermediate surgical splint, final surgical splint, bone graft templates, and cutting guides were constructed utilizing computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology. The surgeon executed the treatment plan in the operating room using appropriate computer-generated guides and splints. A postsurgical cone-beam computed tomography scan was obtained and superimposed on the surgical treatment plan using Simplant OMS 10.1 software. The cranial base was used as a reference for superimposition. Three-dimensional color-coded displacement maps were generated to visually and quantitatively assess the surgical outcome. There was a mean error of 0.88 mm (+0.30) for the position of the maxillary anatomical structures from the planned position, and the anterior mandibular anatomical structures were on average 0.96 mm (+0.26) from the planned position.
PMID: 34260455
ISSN: 1536-3732
CID: 5038842

Skeletal and Dental Stability Following Different Magnitude of Le Fort I Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate

Wangsrimongkol, Buddhathida; Flores, Roberto L; Staffenberg, David A; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Shetye, Pradip R
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to measure the association between the magnitude of advancement and dental and skeletal relapse in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). METHODS:A single-institution retrospective cohort study of skeletally matured patients with CLP who underwent isolated Le Fort I advancement surgery between 2013 and 2019 was studied. Patients were included if they had lateral cephalograms or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at preoperative (T1), immediately postoperative (T2), and 1-year follow-up (T3). Lateral cephalometric landmarks were digitized and measured. The sample was divided on the basis of the magnitude of skeletal advancement: minor (<5 mm), moderate (≥5 but <10 mm), and major (≥10 mm) advancement groups. The mean advancement and relapse were compared between groups using 1-way ANOVA. Correlation between the amount of surgical advancement and relapse was evaluated. RESULTS:Forty-nine patients with nonsyndromic CLP with hypoplastic maxilla met inclusion criteria and the sample consisted of 36 males and 13 females with the mean age of 19.5 years. In the minor, moderate, and major advancement groups, the mean advancement at point A was +4.1 ± 0.4, + 7.5 ± 1.4, and +11.3 ± 1.3 mm, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, the mean relapse at point A was -1.3 ± 1.2, -1.1 ± 1.2, and -1.7 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the relapse amount between all surgical groups. No correlation between the magnitude of advancement and relapse was found. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference in skeletal stability between a minor (<5 mm), moderate (≥5 but <10 mm), and major (≥10 mm) Le Fort I advancement groups in patients with clefts. Regardless of the degree of advancement, mild skeletal relapse was observed in all 3 groups.
PMID: 34153247
ISSN: 1531-5053
CID: 4918192

Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Alveolus Treated With Gingivoperiosteoplasty

Gibson, Travis L; Grayson, Barry H; Cutting, Court B; Shetye, Pradip R
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To compare the prevalence of dental malformations and agenesis in patients who received or did not receive gingivoperiosteoplasty (GPP). DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS/UNASSIGNED:Review of patients born January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus, with or without clefting of the secondary palate, who received GPP and/or secondary alveolar bone grafting (ABG). Patients were included if they had clinical images and dental radiographs available at ages 5 to 9 and 10 to 12 years. Ninety-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 46 treated with GPP, and 48 who did not receive GPP. OUTCOME MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:tests. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Cleft side lateral incisors were absent in 54% of GPP patients, compared to 50% in the no-GPP group. Two patients in the GPP group and 1 in the no-GPP group had supernumerary lateral incisors. Most lateral incisors were undersized or peg shaped in both the no-GPP (83.3%) and GPP (71.4%) groups. In the GPP group, 5 (10.9%) patients exhibited central incisor agenesis, and 3 had significant hypoplasia. In the no-GPP group, 4 (8.3%) patients exhibited central incisor agenesis, and 5 (10.5%) significant hypoplasia. These differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Gingivoperiosteoplasty was not associated with increased prevalence of dental malformation or agenesis. When performed appropriately, GPP is a safe treatment technique that does not increase the risk of dental anomalies.
PMID: 34259074
ISSN: 1545-1569
CID: 4938562

Effect of One-Stage Bilateral Cleft Lip, Nose, and Alveolus Repair Following Nasoalveolar Molding on the Premaxilla Position at Preadolescence: An 8-Year Retrospective Study

Traube, Isaac M; Cutting, Court B; Grayson, Barry H; Shetye, Pradip R
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:This paper describes the changes in maxillary arch morphology in infants with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) following nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and with follow up to assess the need for secondary alveolar bone grafting (ABG) and premaxillary repositioning surgery at preadolescence. METHODS/DESCRIPTION/UNASSIGNED:Treatment records of infants with BCLP treated with NAM between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. Patients with complete BCLP who underwent NAM and had complete sets of maxillary casts at T 0 pre-NAM (mean = 27 days), T 1 post-NAM (mean = 6 months and 5 days), and T 2 before palate surgery (mean = 11 months and 15 days) were included. The sample comprised 23 infants (18 male, 5 female). Casts were digitized and analyzed using three dimensional software. The need for secondary ABG and premaxillary repositioning surgery was assessed at preadolescent follow-up (mean = 8.3 years). RESULTS:Cleft width was reduced on average by 4.73 mm (SD ± 3.15 mm) and 6.56 mm (SD ± 4.65) on the right and left sides, respectively. At T 1, 13 (56.52%) patients underwent bilateral gingivoperiosteoplasty (GPP), 8 (34.78%) patients unilateral GPP, and 2 patients (8.7%) did not undergo GPP. 34/46 clefts sites (73.91%) underwent GPP while 12 (26.08%) did not. At preadolescent follow-up of 19 patients, 7 patients (36.84%) did not need ABG on either side, 8 (42.10%) needed ABG on 1 side, and 4 (21.05%) needed ABG on both sides. None of the patients needed premaxillary repositioning surgery. CONCLUSIONS:Nasoalveolar molding treatment significantly improves the position of the premaxilla before primary repair, and there is a significant reduction in the need for secondary ABG and premaxillary repositioning surgery at preadolescence.
PMID: 34260466
ISSN: 1536-3732
CID: 4938622

Craniofacial Distraction: Orthodontic Considerations

Avinoam, Shayna; Shetye, Pradip R
A combined surgical and orthodontic approach to midface and mandibular distraction optimizes stability and outcomes. Orthodontic considerations include proper planning of the distraction vector, appropriate device use, and thorough follow-up through the consolidation and postoperative period. The dental occlusion must be managed throughout treatment in order to achieve ideal results.
PMID: 34051904
ISSN: 1558-0504
CID: 5075012

Three-Dimensional Nasolabial Changes After Nasoalveolar Molding and Primary Lip/Nose Surgery in Infants With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

Mancini, Laura; Avinoam, Shayna; Grayson, Barry H; Flores, Roberto L; Staffenberg, David A; Shetye, Pradip R
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Utilize 3-dimensional (3D) photography to evaluate the nasolabial changes in infants with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) who underwent nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and primary reconstructive surgery. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:coordinates to obtain the linear and angular measurements. Nasal form changes were measured and analyzed between T1 (0.5 months old), T2 (5 months old), and T3 (6 months old). Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed for intrarater reliability. Averaged data from the 3D images was statistically analyzed from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 with Wilcoxon tests. Unaffected infant norms from the Farkas publication were used as a control sample. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:After NAM therapy, statistically significant changes in the position of subnasale and labius superius improved nasolabial symmetry. Both retruded after NAM were displaced downward after NAM and surgical correction with respect to soft tissue nasion. The nasal tip's projection was maintained with NAM and surgical correction. The columella lengthened from 1.4 to 4.71 mm following NAM. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:There was a significant improvement in the nasolabial anatomy after NAM, and this was further enhanced after primary reconstructive surgery.
PMID: 34032145
ISSN: 1545-1569
CID: 4887702

The Nasoalveolar Molding Cleft Protocol: Long-Term Treatment Outcomes from Birth to Facial Maturity

Yarholar, Lauren M; Shen, Chen; Wangsrimongkol, Buddhathida; Cutting, Court B; Grayson, Barry H; Staffenberg, David A; Shetye, Pradip R; Flores, Roberto L
BACKGROUND:The authors present outcomes analysis of the nasoalveolar molding treatment protocol in patients with a cleft followed from birth to facial maturity. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of cleft patients who underwent nasoalveolar molding between 1990 and 2000. Collected data included surgical and orthodontic outcomes and incidence of gingivoperiosteoplasty, alveolar bone grafting, surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, palatal fistula repair, orthognathic surgery, nose and/or lip revision, and facial growth. RESULTS:One hundred seven patients met inclusion criteria (69 with unilateral and 38 with bilateral cleft lip and palate). Eighty-five percent (91 of 107) underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty (unilateral: 78 percent, 54 of 69; bilateral: 97 percent, 37 of 38). Of those patients, 57 percent (52 of 91) did not require alveolar bone grafting (unilateral: 59 percent, 32 of 54; bilateral: 54 percent, 20 of 37). Twelve percent (13 of 107) of all study patients underwent revision surgery to the lip and/or nose before facial maturity (unilateral: 9 percent, six of 69; bilateral: 18 percent, seven of 38). Nineteen percent (20 of 107) did not require a revision surgery, alveolar bone grafting, or orthognathic surgery (unilateral: 20 percent, 14 of 69; bilateral: 16 percent, six of 38). Cephalometric analysis was performed on all patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. No significant statistical difference was found in maxillary position or facial proportion. Average age at last follow-up was 20 years (range, 15 years 4 months to 26 years 10 months). CONCLUSIONS:Nasoalveolar molding demonstrates a low rate of soft-tissue revision and alveolar bone grafting, and a low number of total operations per patient from birth to facial maturity. Facial growth analysis at facial maturity in patients who underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty and nasoalveolar molding suggests that this proposal may not hinder midface growth. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, IV.
PMID: 33890899
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 4847552

Simulation-based comprehensive cleft care workshops: A reproducible model for sustainable education [Meeting Abstract]

Melhem, A; Al, Abyad O; Chahine, E; Breugem, C; Keith, K; Kassam, S; Vijayakumar, C; Bow, M; Alfonso, A; Esenlik, E; Patel, K; Shetye, P; Santiago, P; Losee, J; Steinbacher, D; Kummer, A; Flores, R; Rossell-Perry, P; Garib, D; Alonso, N; Mann, R; Pamplona, M; Giugliano, C; Prada-Madrid, J R; Padwa, B; Raposo-Amaral, C -E; Sommerlad, B; Tse, R; Bennun, R; Collares, M; Kantar, R; Hamdan, U
Background/Purpose: Newborns with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) exceed 100 000 per year in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Patients, if left untreated, are at high risk of morbidity, due to functional deficits, malnutrition, aspiration, and infections. Limited resources in LMICs create barriers for establishing Interdisciplinary Cleft Care programs. Surgical missions driven by nonprofit organizations have been able to partially address this need, but their ability to promote long-term sustainable cleft care has come to a question. Simulation-based training has emerged as an essential tool for enhancing medical education and training. Global Smile Foundation, a nonprofit organization, is a leader in the establishment of Interdisciplinary Cleft Care programs, with its volunteers being involved in cleft care for over 3 decades. We were able to demonstrate the efficacy of our first Simulation-Based Comprehensive Cleft Care Workshop (SBCCW), in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region, and its wide acceptance by our recipients. In the current study, we want to prove the effectiveness and successfulness of our second SBCCW, in Latin America. Methods/Description: Our second SBCCW took place in Lima, Peru, in October 2019. Hands-on simulations of CLP repair using highfidelity CLP simulators were also provided to our participants. Participants were asked to complete a satisfaction survey at the end. Attendees were also asked about the obstacles facing cleft care in their countries and the possible interventions to overcome these obstacles. Short-term (at the end of the SBCCW) and medium-term (6 months later) follow ups were conducted by our team collecting data about improvements in the participants' competence, performance, outcomes, clinical care, and whether the SBCCW has changed their practice. Procedural confidence for pre- and postsimulation was evaluated using the psychometrically validated tool for measuring selfconfidence during surgical learning. Descriptive statistics were used for the collected data. Data analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. XXResult(s): Ninety-eight of the 198 participants from 29 different countries filled the satisfaction survey at the end of the workshop. The 2 most common barriers to cleft care in LMICs identified by our participants are the absence of financial support and the absence of multidisciplinary teams. Respondents claimed an improvement in their procedural confidence after the simulation sessions. Respondents had consistent short-term and medium-term impressions about the SBCCW positively impacting their competence, performance, outcomes, clinical care, and even changing their practice. XXConclusion(s): This study provides evidence that implementation of a SBCCW leads to a significantly improved procedural confidence, as well as a sustained positive impact on the clinical practice of the participants, reinforcing its role as a cleft care capacity-building tool
EMBASE:635187570
ISSN: 1545-1569
CID: 4911892

Skeletal and Dental Correction and Stability Following LeFort I Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate With Mild, Moderate, and Severe Maxillary Hypoplasia

Wangsrimongkol, Buddhathida; Flores, Roberto L; Staffenberg, David A; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Shetye, Pradip R
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:This study evaluates skeletal and dental outcomes of LeFort I advancement surgery in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with varying degrees of maxillary skeletal hypoplasia. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective study. METHOD/UNASSIGNED:: ≤-10 mm. PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-one patients with nonsyndromic CLP with hypoplastic maxilla who met inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION/UNASSIGNED:LeFort I advancement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE/UNASSIGNED:Skeletal and dental stability post-LeFort I surgery at a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:At T2, LeFort I surgery produced an average correction of maxillary hypoplasia by 6.4 ± 0.6, 8.1 ± 0.4, and 10.7 ± 0.8 mm in the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. There was a mean relapse of 1 to 1.5 mm observed in all groups. At T3, no statistically significant differences were observed between the surgical groups and controls at angle Sella, Nasion, A point (SNA), A point, Nasion, B point (ANB), and overjet outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:LeFort I advancement produces a stable correction in mild, moderate, and severe skeletal maxillary hypoplasia. Overcorrection is recommended in all patients with CLP to compensate for the expected postsurgical skeletal relapse.
PMID: 33722088
ISSN: 1545-1569
CID: 4817482

Nasal Duplication: A Review of Literature and Case Report

Shen, Chen; Shetye, Pradip R; Flores, Roberto L
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Nasal duplication is a rare congenital deformity with many subtypes including supernumerary nostril. The challenge of surgical correction is to achieve nasal symmetry and restore nasal airflow. However, there is no defined protocol for treatment, especially with regard to presurgical therapy. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a review of literature of studies reporting on patients with supernumerary nostril to complete this review. We then report on a patient with supernumerary nostril who was treated with nostril expansion therapy prior to surgical intervention. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:We identified 59 cases of nostril duplication. Because of the rarity of the condition, treatment protocols varied greatly. For our patient, preoperative nasal appliance therapy was implemented for 3 months prior to surgical intervention. Patient was followed-up regularly for 1 year. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Although literature on nasal duplication is scarce, there is a general agreement that early intervention has psychological, anatomic, and functional benefits to the patient. In our case report, nostril expansion therapy was easy to implement and facilitated surgical reconstruction, resulting in aesthetic outcome and expanded airway 1 year postoperatively.
PMID: 33054357
ISSN: 1545-1569
CID: 4642772