Application of GATA 3 and TTF-1 in differentiating parathyroid and thyroid nodules on cytology specimens
BACKGROUND:Differentiating parathyroid from thyroid lesions can be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) due to overlapping cytomorphologic features. While the traditional parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays can help in the distinction, these tests may be cumbersome, particularly when the lesion is unexpected clinically and a needle wash is not collected at the time of FNA. Therefore, we chose to investigate the application of immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with GATA 3 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) on air-dried cytology smears to distinguish parathyroid and thyroid lesions. METHODS:Air-dried touch preparation (TP) slides were prepared from consecutively selected parathyroid and thyroid specimens. Thirteen FNA cases with the clinical concern for parathyroid lesions were also included in the study. IHC was performed on unstained and ultrafast Papanicolaou (UFP) stained air-dried slides. RESULTS:On TP slides, GATA 3 expression was observed in all cases of parathyroid origin but no immunoreactivity was present in thyroid lesions. TTF-1 expression was observed in all cases of thyroid origin but not in parathyroid lesions. GATA 3 and TTF-1 expression of 13 FNA cases were consistent with the clinical impression or concurrent PTH tests. CONCLUSIONS:IHC with GATA 3 and TTF-1 on air-dried cytology smears is a simple and effective way to differentiate parathyroid vs thyroid lesions on FNA. Air-dried unstained and UFP-stained slides perform equally well with IHC, but UFP-stained slides provide the added benefit of morphologic evaluation and assessment of smear cellularity prior to IHC.
New Dimensions of Antigen Retrieval Technique: 28 Years of Development, Practice, and Expansion
This review article summarized recent advances in the heat-induced antigen retrieval technique with numerous scientific fields in addition to immunohistochemistry. Particularly, proteomics including imaging mass spectrometry, extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Some novel approaches such as FFPE tissue-based renal immunopathology based on modified double heating protocols are also introduced in this review for further development. In general, the FFPE tissue housed in pathology worldwide is an invaluable treasure, and the simple method of heat-induced antigen retrieval is the gold key to open the door of this treasure.
Correlation of Thyroid Molecular Alterations with 2017 ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Scoring [Meeting Abstract]
Does Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP) Have a Unique Molecular Profile?
Objectives/UNASSIGNED:Recognizing preoperative characteristics of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is important for clinical management. Therefore, we assessed presurgical NIFTP molecular profiles using fine-needle aspiration (FNA) material. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Presurgical FNA reports of 39 surgically confirmed NIFTP cases from January 2013 through May 2017 were assessed for Afirma and ThyroSeq results. Results/UNASSIGNED:Twenty-one of 39 NIFTP nodules were preoperatively tested with Afirma with two benign and 19 suspicious results. Twenty-seven of 39 nodules were tested with ThyroSeq (nine of 39 had both Afirma and Thyroseq): 18 (67%) had RAS mutations (13 NRAS, four HRAS, one KRAS), and three of 18 had multiple alterations (NRAS + TP53, n = 1; NRAS + PTEN, n = 2). BRAF T599_R603 + EIF1AX mutation (n = 1), PTEN mutation (n = 1), MET overexpression (n = 1), PAX8/PPARG fusion (n = 3), and THADA/IGF2BP3 fusion (n = 3) comprised the remainder. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:NIFTP cases most commonly displayed suspicious Afirma results and RAS mutations on ThyroSeq, lacking aggressive/BRAF-V600E-like mutations. While NIFTP remains a surgical entity, the lack of aggressive/BRAF-V600E-like mutations can aid in determining the extent of surgery.
Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: The Diagnostic Role of Urine Cytology and Endoscopic Biopsies of Ureter and Renal Pelvis [Meeting Abstract]
Does Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP) Have a Unique Molecular Profile? [Meeting Abstract]
Self-clotting method improves cell block preparation
BACKGROUND: The success of cell block preparation is crucial for ancillary diagnostic tests in cytology. However, achieving an optimal cell block can be challenging. The current study describes a self-clotting-based technique for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cell block preparations and evaluates its usefulness in comparison with the conventional needle wash technique. METHODS: The clinical data, FNA procedure, and cellularity of cell blocks of the self-clotting group (37 cases) and the conventional needle wash group (33 cases) were compared. The cellularity was evaluated using a scoring system (0 indicated acellular, 1 indicated 1-50 cells, and 2 indicated >50 cells). RESULTS: Approximately 76% of cases in the self-clotting group received a score of 2 versus 36% in the conventional needle wash group. Approximately 14% received a score of 1 in the self-clotting group compared with 9% in the conventional needle wash group, whereas 11% in the self-clotting group received a score of 0 versus 55% in the conventional needle wash group. The differences between the 2 methods were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrate that the self-clotting method is superior to the conventional needle wash method for FNA samples. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. (c) 2017 American Cancer Society.
Does noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) have a unique molecular profile? [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), formerly a malignant diagnosis and variant of PTC, has recently been reclassified to NIFTP on surgical pathology. Because of the indolent nature and potentially conservative treatment of NIFTP, it is crucial to identify features early on during patient evaluation which may suggest the possibility of this entity. One such feature is the molecular profile of thyroid nodules determined preoperatively utilizing fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cellular material. Design: Pre-surgical FNA Cytopathology reports of 41 confirmed cases of NIFTP from 1/2013-8/2016 were assessed for molecular testing (Afirma and/or ThyroSeq) results. Results: Bethesda System cytology diagnoses were: Benign (n=1), Atypia of Undetermined Significance (n=24), Follicular Neoplasm (n=14), and Suspicious for Malignancy (n=2). Of the 41 NIFTP cases, 22 nodules were pre-operatively tested with Afirma: 2 were benign; 20 were suspicious. 12 cases were Afirma MTC negative; 4 were BRAF negative. 27 nodules were pre-operatively tested with ThyroSeq: 2 had insufficient material; 15 cases (55.6%) had RAS mutations (11 NRAS, 4 HRAS); 3 of the 15 had two mutations [NRAS and TP53 (n=1); NRAS and PTEN (n=2)]. One additional case with 2 mutations showed BRAF T599-R603 and EIF1AX mutations (n=1). Other isolated molecular changes included PTEN mutation (n=1), MET overexpression (n=1), PAX8/PPARG fusion (n=4), and THADA/IGF2BP3 fusion (n=3). Conclusions: While NIFTP remains a surgical entity, the molecular profile of thyroid nodules can be analyzed pre-operatively in order to determine appropriate treatment. Our findings demonstrate that NIFTP cases most commonly displayed Suspicious Afirma results and RAS mutations on ThyroSeq, and several molecular alterations not characteristic of classical PTC or poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The molecular profile of thyroid nodules must be considered together with the patients' clinical, sonographic and cytologic results in order to raise the possibility of NIFTP early on in determining proper management
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: The diagnostic role of urine cytology and endoscopic biopsies of ureter and renal pelvis [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Urothelial carcinoma of the upper tract (UTUC) is relatively rare. Urine cytology has been used in the diagnosis and surveillance of UTUC but its utility is not well established. Another method of UTUC detection is via endoscopic biopsy which itself can be limited due to inadequate sampling. Our study aims to explore the efficacy of urine cytology alone and in combination with endoscopic biopsy results in detecting UTUC. Design: We searched our pathology database for cases with both urine cytology specimen and subsequent histologic followup including endoscopic biopsies, ureterectomy, nephrectomy or nephroureterectomy over a 10 year period. Urine cytology and biopsies done concurrently or within 6 months follow-up are included in the study and the highest degree of abnormality was selected if multiple specimen available. For cases with both biopsies and surgical specimen diagnoses, the final diagnosis from surgery was used. Results: 154 cases of confirmed UTUC were included in the study. Among them, urine diagnoses of suspicious or positive for malignancy were made in 106 cases (69%): 7 cases were low grade UC (LGUC) and 99 cases were high grade UC (HGUC) upon surgical pathology evaluation. 32/154 cases (21%) were atypical urothelial cells (AUC) on cytology, among which 27 had confirmed HGUC and 5 cases had LGUC on surgical pathology. 16/154 urine cytology cases (10%) were negative: 11/16 had HGUC and 5/16 cases had LGUC in the concurrent or follow-up biopsies or surgery. The sensitivity for abnormal urine cytology was 89.6% for detecting UTUC. We also compared the urine cytology and endoscopic biopsies (within 6 months) in detecting UTUC. There are 62 cases are positive for both methods. Four cases show positive urine but negative biopsy, and 1 with negative urine but positive biopsy (HGUC). The sensitivity for combined urine cytology and biopsy is slightly higher for one method alone. Conclusions: Urine cytology is highly sensitive for detecting UTUCespecially for HGUC. Combining urine cytology and endoscopic biopsy results increases the sensitivity for detecting UTUC and should therefore be recommended for clinical practice
Peripancreatic paraganglioma mimics pancreatic/gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumor on fine needle aspiration: report of two cases and review of the literature
Cytologic diagnosis of extra-adrenal paraganglioma presenting as a peripancreatic mass is challenging with a high error rate due to its rarity. We report two cases of peripancreatic masses identified by radiology. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the masses showed a moderately cellular tumor composed of small to medium sized neoplastic cells with round to oval nuclei, arranged singly and in loose clusters. Focal rosette-like structures were present. The cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin). A diagnosis of a neoplasm with neuroendocrine differentiation and neuroendocrine tumor was made respectively on FNA for each case. The subsequent surgical resection of the tumors revealed peripancreatic paraganglioma. Although paraganglioma has been reported in the literature, the detailed comparison of perpancreatic paraganglioma versus pancreatic/gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumor is still lacking. Therefore using these two cases with literature review, we wish to illustrate the differential diagnosis between these two entities based on cytomorphology and immunohistochemical study.