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Anti-angiogenic agents in metastatic colorectal cancer

Konda, Bhavana; Shum, Helen; Rajdev, Lakshmi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health concern being the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. The availability of better therapeutic options has led to a decline in cancer mortality in these patients. Surgical resection should be considered in all stages of the disease. The use of conversion therapy has made surgery a potentially curative option even in patients with initially unresectable metastatic disease. In this review we discuss the role of various anti-angiogenic agents in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We describe the mechanism of action of these agents, and the rationale for their use in combination with chemotherapy. We also review important clinical studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these agents in mCRC patients. Despite the discovery of several promising anti-angiogenic agents, mCRC remains an incurable disease with a median overall survival of just over 2 years in patients exposed to all available treatment regimens. Further insights into tumor biology and tumor microenvironment may help improve outcomes in these patients.
PMID: 26191351
ISSN: 1948-5204
CID: 5274502

Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer : An Updated Review

Shum, Helen; Rajdev, Lakshmi
ISSN: 2377-9292
CID: 5328062

Multimodality management of resectable gastric cancer: A review

Shum, Helen; Rajdev, Lakshmi
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach carries a poor prognosis and is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is recommended that surgical resection with a D1 or a modified D2 gastrectomy (with at least 15 lymph nodes removed for examination) be performed in the United States, though D2 lymphadenectomies should be performed at experienced centers. A D2 lymphadenectomy is the recommended procedure in Asia. Although surgical resection is considered the definitive treatment, rates of recurrences are high, necessitating the need for neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This review article aims to outline and summarize some of the pivotal trials that have defined optimal treatment options for non-metastatic non-cardia gastric cancer. Some of the most notable trials include the INT-0116 trial, which established a benefit in concurrent chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. This was again confirmed in the ARTIST trial, especially in patients with nodal involvement. Later, the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy trial provided evidence for the use of perioperative chemotherapy. Targeted agents such as ramucirumab and trastuzumab are also being investigated for use in locally advanced gastric cancers after demonstrating a benefit in the metastatic setting. Given the poor response rate of this difficult disease to various treatment modalities, numerous studies are currently ongoing in an attempt to define a more effective therapy, some of which are briefly introduced in this review as well.
PMID: 25320655
ISSN: 1948-5204
CID: 5274492

Prognosis in primary effusion lymphoma is associated with the number of body cavities involved

Castillo, Jorge J; Shum, Helen; Lahijani, Majid; Winer, Eric S; Butera, James N
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare lymphoma associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), and characterized by a malignant body cavity effusion without solid organ or nodal involvement. Prognostic factors in patients with PEL have not been systematically studied. We conducted a literature search for patients with HHV8-positive PEL to identify potential prognostic factors for survival. Our search identified 147 patients, among which 104 patients were HHV8-positive. The median overall survival was 9 months. The median age was 57 years with a male predominance (6:1). Pathologically, 33% of the patients expressed CD20 and 69% expressed CD30. Patients with PEL with > 1 body cavity involved had a median overall survival (OS) of 4 months compared with 18 months in patients with only one cavity involved (p = 0.003). Additionally, in patients with one involved body cavity, pericardial involvement was associated with a longer median OS than pleural followed by peritoneal involvement (40, 27 and 5 months, respectively; p = 0.04). In conclusion, our study suggests that the number and location of body cavities involved are prognostic in patients with PEL.
PMID: 22591071
ISSN: 1029-2403
CID: 5274482

Meta-analysis of the association between cigarette smoking and incidence of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Castillo, Jorge J; Dalia, Samir; Shum, Helen
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested a relationship between smoking and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). The main objective of this study was to evaluate this potential association with a meta-analysis of observational studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:A literature search was undertaken through December 2010 looking for observational studies evaluating the association between smoking and HL. From 714 articles, 17 were included in this study. Outcome was calculated and reported as odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) index. Publication bias was evaluated by trim-and-fill analysis. Quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS:Our analysis showed an OR of developing HL of 1.35 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.56; P < .001) in current smokers. Former smokers did not have an increased risk of HL. In subset analyses of current smokers, men and older individuals had ORs of HL of 1.78 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.17; P < .001) and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.54; P = .002), respectively. In addition, the OR of HL was increased in individuals who smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day, have smoked more than 20 years, or have smoked more than 15 pack-years at 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.98; P = .002), 1.84 (95% CI, 1.47 to 2.32; P < .001), and 1.97 (1.53 to 2.54; P < .001), respectively. Meta-regression analyses showed a relative OR of HL of 1.007 (95% CI, 1.001 to 1.013; P = .025) per cigarette per day and of 1.013 (95% CI, 1.006 to 1.019; P < .001) per year of smoking. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Smoking seems to increase the odds of developing HL in current smokers. The risk of HL is higher in men and older individuals and increases with higher intensity and longer duration of smoking.
PMID: 21911724
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 5274472

Phosphatidylserine binding sites in erythroid spectrin: location and implications for membrane stability

An, Xiuli; Guo, Xinhua; Sum, Helen; Morrow, Jon; Gratzer, Walter; Mohandas, Narla
The erythrocyte membrane is a composite structure consisting of a lipid bilayer tethered to the spectrin-based membrane skeleton. Two complexes of spectrin with other proteins are known to participate in the attachment. Spectrin has also been shown to interact with phosphatidylserine (PS), a component of the lipid bilayer, which is confined to its inner leaflet. That there may be multiple sites of interaction with PS in the spectrin sequence has been inferred, but they have not hitherto been identified. Here we have explored the interaction of PS-containing liposomes with native alpha- and beta-spectrin chains and with recombinant spectrin fragments encompassing the entire sequences of both chains. We show that both alpha-spectrin and beta-spectrin bind PS and that sites of high affinity are located within 8 of the 38 triple-helical structural repeats which make up the bulk of both chains; these are alpha8, alpha9-10, beta2, beta3, beta4, beta12, beta13, and beta14, and PS affinity was also found in the nonhomologous N-terminal domain of the beta-chain. No other fragments of either chain showed appreciable binding. Binding of spectrin and its constituent chains to mixed liposomes of PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC) depended on the proportion of PS. Binding of spectrin dimers to PS liposomes was inhibited by single repeats containing PS binding sites. It is noteworthy that the PS binding sites in beta-spectrin are grouped in close proximity to the sites of attachment both of ankyrin and of 4.1R, the proteins engaged in attachment of spectrin to the membrane. We conjecture that direct interaction of spectrin with PS in the membrane may modulate its interactions with the proteins and that (considering also the known affinity of 4.1R for PS) the formation of PS-rich lipid domains, which have been observed in the red cell membrane, may be a result.
PMID: 14717584
ISSN: 0006-2960
CID: 5328082