SARS-CoV-2 Among Infants <90 Days of Age Admitted for Serious Bacterial Infection Evaluation
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children [Editorial]
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Here we summarize current knowledge about multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a presumed postinfectious inflammatory condition that has emerged as an important COVID-19-associated complication, to help clinicians identify and manage cases. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Clinical presentation of MIS-C is dominated by significant inflammation. Fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac dysfunction, and hypotension are common features. Kawasaki disease-like findings are common, but epidemiologic data and recent mechanistic studies suggest that distinct inflammatory pathways mediate Kawasaki disease and MIS-C. A broad diagnostic approach is recommended, given overlapping presentations between MIS-C and many other disease processes. Current management of MIS-C is highly variable, depending on illness severity, and can range from supportive care to aggressive immune modulation. A multidisciplinary approach with early involvement of multiple pediatric subspecialists is recommended for complicated cases. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Several studies have described the clinical manifestations of MIS-C, but definitive diagnosis remains challenging. Robust information about long-term outcomes awaits further study, as do immunologic data to refine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Mucocutaneous Manifestations of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Importance/UNASSIGNED:To date, no study has characterized the mucocutaneous features seen in hospitalized children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or the temporal association of these findings with the onset of systemic symptoms. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To describe the mucocutaneous findings seen in children with MIS-C during the height of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective case series was conducted of 35 children admitted to 2 hospitals in New York City between April 1 and July 14, 2020, who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and/or epidemiologic criteria for MIS-C. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Laboratory and clinical characteristics, with emphasis on mucocutaneous findings, of children who met criteria for MIS-C. The characterization of mucocutaneous features was verified by 2 board-certified pediatric dermatologists. Results/UNASSIGNED:Twenty-five children (11 girls [44%]; median age, 3 years [range, 0.7-17 years]) were identified who met definitional criteria for MIS-C; an additional 10 children (5 girls [50%]; median age, 1.7 years [range, 0.2-15 years]) were included as probable MIS-C cases (patients met all criteria with the exception of laboratory test evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection or known exposure). The results of polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2 were positive for 10 patients (29%), and the results of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G tests were positive for 19 patients (54%). Of the 35 patients, 29 (83%) exhibited mucocutaneous changes, with conjunctival injection (nâ€‰=â€‰21), palmoplantar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰18), lip hyperemia (nâ€‰=â€‰17), periorbital erythema and edema (nâ€‰=â€‰7), strawberry tongue (nâ€‰=â€‰8), and malar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰6) being the most common findings. Recognition of mucocutaneous findings occurred a mean of 2.7 days (range, 1-7 days) after the onset of fever. The duration of mucocutaneous findings varied from hours to days (median duration, 5 days [range, 0-11 days]). Neither the presence nor absence of mucocutaneous findings was significantly associated with overall disease severity. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series of hospitalized children with suspected MIS-C during the COVID-19 pandemic, a wide spectrum of mucocutaneous findings was identified. Despite their protean and transient nature, these mucocutaneous features serve as important clues in the recognition of MIS-C.
SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) in febrile infants without respiratory distress
We report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) in infants presenting with fever in the absence of respiratory distress who required hospitalization for evaluation of possible invasive bacterial infections. The diagnoses resulted from routine isolation and real-time RT-PCR-based testing for SARS-CoV-2 for febrile infants in an outbreak setting.
COVID-19-Associated Myocarditis in an Adolescent
A 17-year-old obese male was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after presenting with fluid-responsive septic shock following 7 days of fever, gastrointestinal symptoms and neck pain. Initial workup was positive for SARS-CoV-2 and elevated troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. One week after discharge, repeat echocardiogram demonstrated improved heart function with only residual myocardial dysfunction.
Invasive group G streptococcal infection in a paediatric patient [Case Report]
We present a paediatric case of group G streptococcal bacteraemia and vertebral osteomyelitis. The patient is a 14-year-old girl with Gaucher disease type 1 who presented with severe thoracolumbar pain. She was treated with a 4-week course of antibiotics for presumed osteomyelitis with clinical improvement.
Salvage Regimens Containing Darunavir, Etravirine, Raltegravir, or Enfuvirtide in Highly Treatment-Experienced Perinatally Infected Pregnant Women
Combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus has dramatically decreased maternal-to-child transmission. Highly treatment-experienced pregnant patients have limited effective treatment options due to past toxicities and viral resistance. We present 8 pregnancies in 7 perinatally infected women successfully treated with salvage regimens containing darunavir, etravirine, raltegravir, or enfuvirtide.
Changes in the soluble mucosal immune environment during genital herpes outbreaks
BACKGROUND: Genital tract secretions provide variable inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) ex vivo. We hypothesize that the anti-HSV activity may prevent the spread of virus from the more commonly affected sites, such as the external genitalia, to the upper genital tract. METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and concentrations of mucosal immune mediators were measured in 10 HIV-seronegative women with an active external herpetic lesion and compared with 10 HIV-seronegative women who were HSV-1 and HSV-2 seronegative. Samples were obtained at the time of a symptomatic external lesion (day 0), after 1 week of oral acyclovir (day 7), and 1 week after completing treatment (day 14). Controls were evaluated at parallel intervals. RESULTS: The anti-HSV activity was higher in CVL obtained from cases compared to controls at presentation (day 0) (54.3% vs. 28%), fell to similar levels on day 7, and then rebounded on day 14 (69% vs. 25%). The anti-HSV activity correlated positively and significantly with the concentrations of several inflammatory proteins; the concentrations of these proteins tended to be higher in cases compared with controls and followed a similar temporal pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in inflammatory immune mediators and anti-HSV activity were detected in CVL at the time of clinical outbreaks and after completion of a short course of acyclovir. These mucosal responses may protect against HSV spread but could facilitate HIV infection and contribute to the clinical observation that, independent of clinical lesions, HSV-2 is a risk factor for HIV acquisition.
Small for gestational age birth outcomes in pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV
OBJECTIVE: To compare small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight in children born to women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) vs. those with behaviorally acquired HIV (BAH). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live born at a single hospital in New York City from January 2004 to April 2011. METHODS: We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, antiretroviral therapy (ART), mode of HIV acquisition, and pregnancy outcomes on study participants. We compared rates of these exposures among participants by method of HIV acquisition. Generalized Estimating Equation was applied to evaluate the effect of HIV acquisition type on SGA birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 87 live births evaluated, 17 were born to 14 women with PAH. Overall, 20 (23%) were SGA. Eight of these SGA neonates were born preterm. Live births to women with PAH were more likely to be born SGA in our unadjusted analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-12.41). After adjusting for mother's age, substance use during pregnancy, nadir CD4 cell count during pregnancy, viral suppression at delivery, and second-line ART use during pregnancy, this relationship persisted with an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% CI = 1.03-31.61). CONCLUSION: In comparison to infants born to women with BAH, infants born to women with PAH were at high risk for compromised intrauterine growth. Future studies are warranted to determine possible causal mechanisms.