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Admission Serum Bicarbonate Predicts Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Cirrhotic Patients

Schopis, Michael; Kumar, Anand; Parides, Michael; Tepler, Adam; Sigal, Samuel
A low serum bicarbonate (SB) level is predictive of adverse outcomes in kidney injury, infection, and aging. Because the liver plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis and lactic acid metabolism, we speculated that such a relationship would exist for patients with cirrhosis. To assess the prognostic value of admission SB on adverse hospital outcomes, clinical characteristics were extracted and analyzed from a large electronic health record system. Patients were categorized based on admission SB (mEq/L) into 7 groups based on the reference range (22-25) into mildly (18-21), moderately (14-17), and severely (<14) decreased groups and mildly (26-29), moderately (30-33), and severely (>30) increased groups, and the relationship of SB category with the frequency of complications (acute kidney injury/hepatorenal syndrome, portosystemic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis) and hospital metrics (length of stay [LOS], admission to an intensive care unit [ICU], and mortality) was assessed. A total of 2,693 patients were analyzed. Mean SB was 22.9 ± 4.5 mEq/L. SB was within the normal range (22-25 mEq/L) in 1,072 (39.8%) patients, and 955 patients (36%) had a low SB. As the SB category decreased, the incidence of complications progressively increased (p < 0.001). Increased MELD-Na score and low serum albumin also correlated with frequency of complications (p < 0.001). As the SB category decreased, LOS, ICU admission, and mortality progressively increased (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the association of decreased SB with higher odds of complications, LOS, ICU admission, and mortality persisted. Conclusion. Low admission SB in patients with cirrhosis is associated with cirrhotic complications, longer LOS, increased ICU admissions, and increased hospital mortality.
PMID: 34055676
ISSN: 2291-2797
CID: 4890902

Clinical Implications of Thrombocytopenia for the Cirrhotic Patient

Sigal, Samuel H; Sherman, Zachary; Jesudian, Arun
Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication in patients with cirrhosis. As many as 84% of patients with cirrhosis have thrombocytopenia, and it is an independent variable indicative of advanced disease and poor prognosis. Although there is great concern that it may aggravate bleeding during surgical procedures, there is limited evidence to inform decisions regarding the treatment of cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia undergoing invasive procedures. Finally, there is evidence that platelets play a significant role in liver regeneration. In this report, the clinical implications of thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients are reviewed. The utility of platelet counts in the prognosis of cirrhosis and relationship to complications of advanced liver disease, including portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The impact of low platelet counts on bleeding complications during invasive procedures is outlined. Finally, the role of platelets and potential adverse impact in liver regeneration is reviewed.
PMID: 32341665
ISSN: 1179-1535
CID: 4412062


Advani, Rashmi; Barboza, Katherine; Kumar, Anand; Jesudian, Arun B.; Sigal, Samuel H.
ISSN: 0270-9139
CID: 4155652

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation for cirrhotic portal hypertension is well tolerated among patients with portal vein thrombosis

Merola, Jonathan; Fortune, Brett E; Deng, Yanhong; Ciarleglio, Maria; Amirbekian, Smbat; Chaudhary, Noami; Shanbhogue, Alampady; Ayyagari, Rajasekhara; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Teperman, Lewis; Charles, Hearns W; Sigal, Samuel H
BACKGROUND:Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) develops in cirrhotic patients because of stagnation of blood flow. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creates a low-resistance conduit that restores portal venous patency and blood flow. AIM/OBJECTIVE:The effect of PVT on transplant-free survival in cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPS creation was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:A multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent TIPS creation for cirrhotic portal hypertension was carried out. A Cox model with propensity score adjustment was developed to evaluate the effect of PVT on 90-day and 3-year transplant-free survival. A subgroup analysis examining mortality of those with superior and distal PVT was also carried out. RESULTS:A total of 252 consecutive TIPS creations were assessed, including 65 in patients with PVT. Survival of patients with high Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores (≥18) and PVT was not statistically different compared with patients with low Model for End-stage Liver Disease scores (<18) and no PVT at 90 days (P=0.46) and 3 years (P=0.42). Those with inferior PVT had improved 90-day and 3-year survival both compared with patients with a superior PVT and those without a PVT (P<0.01, all cases). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The presence of PVT does not impair the prognosis of patients following TIPS creation, particularly in patients with distal portal occlusion.
PMID: 29462027
ISSN: 1473-5687
CID: 2963662

Management Strategies and Outcomes for Hyponatremia in Cirrhosis in the Hyponatremia Registry

Sigal, Samuel H; Amin, Alpesh; Chiodo, Joseph A; Sanyal, Arun
Aim/UNASSIGNED:Treatment practices and effectiveness in cirrhotic patients with hyponatremia (HN) in the HN Registry were assessed. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were compared between patients with HN at admission and during hospitalization. For HN at admission, serum sodium concentration [Na] response was analyzed until correction to > 130 mmol/L, switch to secondary therapy, or discharge or death with sodium ≤ 130 mmol/L. Results/UNASSIGNED:< 0.001). 34% admitted with HN were discharged with HN corrected. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Treatment approaches for HN were variable and frequently ineffective. Success was greatest with HS and Tol. Relapse of HN is associated with increased LOS.
PMID: 30363747
ISSN: 2291-2797
CID: 3385442

Frequency and Pathological Characteristics of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in a Tertiary Medical Center

Ettel, Mark; Gonzalez, Gabriel Acosta; Gera, Shweta; Eze, Ogechukwu; Sigal, Samuel; Park, James S; Xu, Ruliang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) accounts for approximately 10% of acute hepatitis cases. DILI can arise as idiosyncratic or intrinsic injury from hundreds of drugs, herbals, and nutritional supplements and is essential to recognize as one of the differential diagnoses of hepatitis in a liver biopsy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency and pathological characteristics of DILI related to the variety of hepatotoxic agents. We searched our pathology database for all patients with hepatitis diagnosed on liver biopsy from January 2012 to May 2016, and selected patients with a diagnosis of DILI. Electronic medical records were reviewed for patient medication list, history of herbal medicine or supplement use, and pre-biopsy liver function test (LFT) results. Clinical and pathologic correlation was used to determine the causative or related agents for DILI. We then assessed histopathologic features of liver injury and categorized biopsy findings as primarily bile duct injury, lobular/portal hepatitis, or mixed changes. 604 total liver biopsies for hepatitis or liver injury were identified, of which 70 cases (11.6%) carried the diagnosis of DILI confirmed by clinical correlation. The most common etiologies associated with DILI were supplements and herbal products (31.4%), antimicrobials (14.3%), chemotherapeutics (11.4%), antilipidemics (7.1%) and immunomodulatory agents (7.1%). LFT results positively correlated with histological findings. Nutritional/herbal supplements have emerged as one of the major hepatotoxicity agents. DILI can manifest as predominantly hepatitis, bile duct injury or combination. Histological pattern recognition in the liver biopsy may help identify specific hepatotoxic agents causing DILI.
PMID: 28873351
ISSN: 1532-8392
CID: 2688712

Child-Turcotte-Pugh Class is Best at Stratifying Risk in Variceal Hemorrhage: Analysis of a US Multicenter Prospective Study

Fortune, Brett E; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Ciarleglio, Maria; Deng, Yanhong; Fallon, Michael B; Sigal, Samuel; Chalasani, Naga P; Lim, Joseph K; Reuben, Adrian; Vargas, Hugo E; Abrams, Gary; Lewis, Michele D; Hassanein, Tarek; Trotter, James F; Sanyal, Arun J; Beavers, Kimberly L; Ganger, Daniel; Thuluvath, Paul J; Grace, Norman D; Groszmann, Roberto J
GOALS/BACKGROUND: Data on acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) in the United States is limited and the best method to stratify risk is not clear. Taking advantage of a prospective US cohort study, we aimed to (1) describe clinical outcomes of AVH and their predictors; (2) compare predictors of 6-week mortality. STUDY: Prospective 15-center US cohort of patients with cirrhosis presenting with endoscopically proven AVH, all of whom received antibiotics, vapreotide (a somatostain analog) infusion and endoscopic band ligation. Patients were enrolled between August 2006 and April 2008. Primary outcome was 6-week mortality. Secondary outcome was 5-day treatment failure. The prognostic value of Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and a recent recalibrated MELD were compared. RESULTS: Seventy eligible patient were enrolled; 18 (26%) patients died within 6-weeks of index bleed. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Multivariate models showed that admission CTP or the MELD score (separately) were independent predictors of survival. The discriminative values of CTP (area under receiver operating characteristic: 0.75) and MELD (area under receiver operating characteristic: 0.79) were good and not significantly different (P=0.27). However, calibration (correlation between observed and predicted mortality) test was significantly better for CTP than for MELD, with the recently described recalibrated MELD model having the worst agreement. Predicted mortality for CTP-A was <10%, CTP-B 10% to 30%; and CTP-C >33%. CONCLUSIONS: AVH mortality of 26% in the United States is in the upper range limit compared with recent series but may be due to inclusion of patients with more advanced cirrhosis. CTP score has the best overall performance in the prediction of 6-week mortality and is best at stratifying risk.
PMID: 27779613
ISSN: 1539-2031
CID: 2535132

Abstract No. 549 - The prognostic utility of MELD-Na for early mortality following TIPS

Yuhasz, M; Morris, E; Merola, J; Chaudhary, N; Sigal, S; Gross, J; Aaltonen, E
ISSN: 1051-0443
CID: 2463952

Colchicine-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Abbott, Collette E; Xu, Ruliang; Sigal, Samuel H
Drug-induced injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of abnormal liver tests and a leading cause of liver failure in the United States. Colchicine has long been used as a systemic anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of gout by inhibiting mitotic activity and neutrophil function. We present the first case of colchicine-induced hepatoxicity, supported by histopathologic findings characteristic of colchicine-induced injury and resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities after its discontinuation. Colchicine-associated DILI has implications for the evaluation of patients with abnormal liver tests and gout, especially for patients with alcoholism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, in whom there is an increased incidence of gout.
PMID: 29201931
ISSN: 2326-3253
CID: 2892912

Impact of depressive symptoms and hepatic encephalopathy on health-related quality of life in cirrhotic hepatitis C patients

Barboza, Katherine C; Salinas, Lilian M; Sahebjam, Farhad; Jesudian, Arun B; Weisberg, Ilan L; Sigal, Samuel H
Depression, common in chronic medical conditions, and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome due to liver dysfunction, are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in cirrhosis and hepatitis C (HCV). This study investigated the impact of depression and HE on HRQOL in cirrhotic patients with HCV. A convenience sample of 43 ambulatory patients, with varying degrees of cirrhosis secondary to HCV, was prospectively enrolled in this study. Participants were assessed for any current depressive, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness symptoms and underwent a psychometric evaluation to determine the presence of HE symptoms. Participants reported current HRQOL on general health and liver disease-specific questionnaires. Diagnosis and current health status were confirmed via medical records. The associations between disease severity, depressive symptoms, HE, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness were measured. Predictors of HRQOL in this sample were determined. Depressive symptoms (70 %) and HE (77 %) were highly prevalent in this sample, with 58 % actively experiencing both conditions at the time of study participation. A significant positive association was found between depressive symptoms and HE severity (P = .05). Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with fatigue (P < .001), daytime sleepiness (P < .001), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). HE was significantly associated with fatigue (P = .02), general HRQOL (P < .001), and disease-specific HRQOL (P < .001). Depressive symptoms and HE were significant predictors of reduced HRQOL (P < .001), with depressive symptoms alone accounting for 58.8 % of the variance. Depressive symptoms and HE accounted for 68.0 % of the variance. Findings suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and HE in cirrhosis, and potentially a wider-reaching benefit of treating minimal and overt HE than previously appreciated.
PMID: 27032930
ISSN: 1573-7365
CID: 2059262