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Multisite MRI Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Repeatability and Reproducibility across 3 T Scanners in a Breast Diffusion Phantom: A BReast Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Multisite (BRIMM) Study

Basukala, Dibash; Mikheev, Artem; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Gilani, Nima; Moy, Linda; Pinker, Katja; Thakur, Sunitha B; Sigmund, Eric E
BACKGROUND:Monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful in the characterization of breast tumors. However, repeatability/reproducibility studies across scanners and across sites are scarce. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:)) within and across sites employing MRI scanners from different vendors utilizing 16-channel breast array coils in a breast diffusion phantom. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Phantom repeatability. PHANTOM/UNASSIGNED:A breast phantom containing tubes of different polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentrations, water, fat, and sponge flow chambers, together with an MR-compatible liquid crystal (LC) thermometer. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:Bipolar gradient twice-refocused spin echo sequence and monopolar gradient single spin echo sequence at 3 T. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:Studies were performed twice in each of two scanners, located at different sites, on each of 2 days, resulting in four studies per scanner. ADCs of the PVP and water were normalized to the vendor-provided calibrated values at the temperature indicated by the LC thermometer for repeatability/reproducibility comparisons. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:ADC and IVIM repeatability and reproducibility within and across sites were estimated via the within-system coefficient of variation (wCV). Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was also computed between IVIM metrics and flow speed. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:correlations with flow speed were significant at both sites. DATA CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.
PMID: 37702382
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5593502

Spatial profiling of in vivo diffusion-weighted MRI parameters in the healthy human kidney

Gilani, Nima; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M.; Kumbella, Malika; Babb, James S.; Basukala, Dibash; Wetscherek, Andreas; Benkert, Thomas; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigmund, Eric E.
Objective: Diffusion-weighted MRI is a technique that can infer microstructural and microcirculatory features from biological tissue, with particular application to renal tissue. There is extensive literature on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of anisotropy in the renal medulla, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements separating microstructural from microcirculation effects, and combinations of the two. However, interpretation of these features and adaptation of more specific models remains an ongoing challenge. One input to this process is a whole organ distillation of corticomedullary contrast of diffusion metrics, as has been explored for other renal biomarkers. Materials and methods: In this work, we probe the spatial dependence of diffusion MRI metrics with concentrically layered segmentation in 11 healthy kidneys at 3 T. The metrics include those from DTI, IVIM, a combined approach titled "REnal Flow and Microstructure AnisotroPy (REFMAP)", and a multiply encoded model titled "FC-IVIM" providing estimates of fluid velocity and branching length. Results: Fractional anisotropy decreased from the inner kidney to the outer kidney with the strongest layer correlation in both parenchyma (including cortex and medulla) and medulla with Spearman correlation coefficients and p-values (r, p) of (0.42, <0.001) and (0.37, <0.001), respectively. Also, dynamic parameters derived from the three models significantly decreased with a high correlation from the inner to the outer parenchyma or medulla with (r, p) ranges of (0.46"“0.55, <0.001). Conclusions: These spatial trends might find implications for indirect assessments of kidney physiology and microstructure using diffusion MRI.
ISSN: 0968-5243
CID: 5661722

Renal MRI: From Nephron to NMR Signal

Bane, Octavia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Cox, Eleanor; Stabinska, Julia; Bechler, Eric; Lewis, Sara; Hickson, LaTonya J; Francis, Sue; Sigmund, Eric; Niendorf, Thoralf
Renal diseases pose a significant socio-economic burden on healthcare systems. The development of better diagnostics and prognostics is well-recognized as a key strategy to resolve these challenges. Central to these developments are MRI biomarkers, due to their potential for monitoring of early pathophysiological changes, renal disease progression or treatment effects. The surge in renal MRI involves major cross-domain initiatives, large clinical studies, and educational programs. In parallel with these translational efforts, the need for greater (patho)physiological specificity remains, to enable engagement with clinical nephrologists and increase the associated health impact. The ISMRM 2022 Member Initiated Symposium (MIS) on renal MRI spotlighted this issue with the goal of inspiring more solutions from the ISMRM community. This work is a summary of the MIS presentations devoted to: 1) educating imaging scientists and clinicians on renal (patho)physiology and demands from clinical nephrologists, 2) elucidating the connection of MRI parameters with renal physiology, 3) presenting the current state of leading MR surrogates in assessing renal structure and functions as well as their next generation of innovation, and 4) describing the potential of these imaging markers for providing clinically meaningful renal characterization to guide or supplement clinical decision making. We hope to continue momentum of recent years and introduce new entrants to the development process, connecting (patho)physiology with (bio)physics, and conceiving new clinical applications. We envision this process to benefit from cross-disciplinary collaboration and analogous efforts in other body organs, but also to maximally leverage the unique opportunities of renal physiology. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
PMID: 37243378
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5508772

Probing Renal Microstructure and Function with Advanced Diffusion MRI: Concepts, Applications, Challenges, and Future Directions

Stabinska, Julia; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Lerman, Lilach O; Ljimani, Alexandra; Sigmund, Eric E
Diffusion measurements in the kidney are affected not only by renal microstructure but also by physiological processes (i.e., glomerular filtration, water reabsorption, and urine formation). Because of the superposition of passive tissue diffusion, blood perfusion, and tubular pre-urine flow, the limitations of the monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) model in assessing pathophysiological changes in renal tissue are becoming apparent and motivate the development of more advanced diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) variants. These approaches take advantage of the fact that the length scale probed in DWI measurements can be adjusted by experimental parameters, including diffusion-weighting, diffusion gradient directions and diffusion time. This forms the basis by which advanced DWI models can be used to capture not only passive diffusion effects, but also microcirculation, compartmentalization, tissue anisotropy. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in the field of renal DWI. Following a short introduction on renal structure and physiology, we present the key methodological approaches for the acquisition and analysis of renal DWI data, including intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), non-Gaussian diffusion, and hybrid IVIM-DTI. We then briefly summarize the applications of these methods in chronic kidney disease and renal allograft dysfunction. Finally, we discuss the challenges and potential avenues for further development of renal DWI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
PMID: 37991093
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5608492

Cardiac Phase and Flow Compensation Effects on REnal Flow and Microstructure AnisotroPy MRI in Healthy Human Kidney

Sigmund, Eric E; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Gilani, Nima; Babb, James S; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Veraart, Jelle; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Renal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) involves microstructure and microcirculation, quantified with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and hybrid models. A better understanding of their contrast may increase specificity. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To measure modulation of DWI with cardiac phase and flow-compensated (FC) diffusion gradient waveforms. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. POPULATION/METHODS:Six healthy volunteers (ages: 22-48 years, five females), water phantom. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:3-T, prototype DWI sequence with 2D echo-planar imaging, and bipolar (BP) or FC gradients. 2D Half-Fourier Single-shot Turbo-spin-Echo (HASTE). Multiple-phase 2D spoiled gradient-echo phase contrast (PC) MRI. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:), for each tissue (cortex/medulla, segmented on b0/FA respectively), phase, and waveform (BP, FC). Monte Carlo water diffusion simulations aided data interpretation. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:Mixed model regression probed differences between tissue types and pulse sequences. Univariate general linear model analysis probed variations among cardiac phases. Spearman correlations were measured between diffusion metrics and renal artery velocities. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS:, MD for FC. FA correlated significantly with velocity. Monte Carlo simulations indicated medullary measurements were consistent with a 34 μm tubule diameter. DATA CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac gating and flow compensation modulate of measurements of renal diffusion. EVIDENCE LEVEL/METHODS:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
PMID: 36399101
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5371702

Characterization of motion dependent magnetic field inhomogeneity for DWI in the kidneys

Gilani, Nima; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Kumbella, Malika; Babb, James S; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigmund, Eric E
PURPOSE:Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen has increased dramatically for both research and clinical purposes. Motion and static field inhomogeneity related challenges limit image quality of abdominopelvic imaging with the most conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. While reversed phase encoded imaging is increasingly used to facilitate distortion correction, it typically assumes one motion independent magnetic field distribution. In this study, we describe a more generalized workflow for the case of kidney DWI in which the field inhomogeneity at multiple respiratory phases is mapped and used to correct all images in a multi-contrast DWI series. METHODS:In this HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved prospective study, 8 volunteers (6 M, ages 28-51) had abdominal imaging performed in a 3 T MRI system (MAGNETOM Prisma; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) with ECG gating. Coronal oblique T2-weighted HASTE images were collected for anatomical reference. Sagittal phase-contrast (PC) MRI images through the left renal artery were collected to determine systolic and diastolic phases. Cardiac triggered oblique coronal DWI were collected at 10 b-values between 0 and 800 s/mm2 and 12 directions. DWI series were distortion corrected using field maps generated by forward and reversed phase encoded b = 0 images collected over the full respiratory cycle and matched by respiratory phase. Morphologic accuracy, intraseries spatial variability, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were compared for results generated with no distortion correction, correction with only one respiratory bin, and correction with multiple respiratory bins across the breathing cycle. RESULTS:Computed field maps showed significant variation in static field with kidney laterality, region, and respiratory phase. Distortion corrected images showed significantly better registration to morphologic images than uncorrected images; for the left kidney, the multiple bin correction outperformed one bin correction. Line profile analysis showed significantly reduced spatial variation with multiple bins than one bin correction. DTI metrics were mostly similar between correction methods, with some differences observed in MD between uncorrected and corrected datasets. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate improved morphology of kidney DWI and derived parametric maps as well as reduced variability over the full image series using the motion-resolved distortion correction. This work highlights some morphologic and quantitative metric improvements can be obtained for kidney DWI when distortion correction is performed in a respiratory-resolved manner.
PMID: 36924807
ISSN: 1873-5894
CID: 5462552

A survey by the European Society of Breast Imaging on the implementation of breast diffusion-weighted imaging in clinical practice

Lo Gullo, Roberto; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Baltzer, Pascal; Le Bihan, Denis; Camps-Herrero, Julia; Clauser, Paola; Gilbert, Fiona J; Iima, Mami; Mann, Ritse M; Partridge, Savannah C; Patterson, Andrew; Sigmund, Eric E; Thakur, Sunitha; Thibault, Fabienne E; Martincich, Laura; Pinker, Katja
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To perform a survey among all European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) radiologist members to gather representative data regarding the clinical use of breast DWI. METHODS:An online questionnaire was developed by two board-certified radiologists, reviewed by the EUSOBI board and committees, and finally distributed among EUSOBI active and associated (not based in Europe) radiologist members. The questionnaire included 20 questions pertaining to technical preferences (acquisition time, magnet strength, breast coils, number of b values), clinical indications, imaging evaluation, and reporting. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test of independence, and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS:being the preferred value for appraisal among those acquiring more than two b values (71/171, 42%). Most did not use synthetic b values (169/217, 78%). While most mention hindered diffusion in the MRI report (161/213, 76%), only 142/217 (57%) report ADC values. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The utilization of DWI in clinical practice among EUSOBI radiologists who responded to the survey is generally in line with international recommendations, with the main application being the differentiation of benign and malignant enhancing lesions, treatment response assessment, and prediction of response to chemotherapy. Report integration of qualitative and quantitative DWI data is not uniform. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• Clinical performance of breast DWI is in good agreement with the current recommendations of the EUSOBI International Breast DWI working group. • Breast DWI applications in clinical practice include the differentiation of benign and malignant enhancing, treatment response assessment, and prediction of response to chemotherapy. • Report integration of DWI results is not uniform.
PMID: 35507050
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5216172

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Skeletal Muscle: Review and Future Directions

Englund, Erin K; Reiter, David A; Shahidi, Bahar; Sigmund, Eric E
Throughout the body, muscle structure and function can be interrogated using a variety of noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Recently, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI has gained momentum as a method to evaluate components of blood flow and tissue diffusion simultaneously. Much of the prior research has focused on highly vascularized organs, including the brain, kidney, and liver. Unique aspects of skeletal muscle, including the relatively low perfusion at rest and large dynamic range of perfusion between resting and maximal hyperemic states, may influence the acquisition, postprocessing, and interpretation of IVIM data. Here, we introduce several of those unique features of skeletal muscle; review existing studies of IVIM in skeletal muscle at rest, in response to exercise, and in disease states; and consider possible confounds that should be addressed for muscle-specific evaluations. Most studies used segmented nonlinear least squares fitting with a b-value threshold of 200 sec/mm2 to obtain IVIM parameters of perfusion fraction (f), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and diffusion coefficient (D). In healthy individuals, across all muscles, the average ± standard deviation of D was 1.46 ± 0.30 × 10-3  mm2 /sec, D* was 29.7 ± 38.1 × 10-3  mm2 /sec, and f was 11.1 ± 6.7%. Comparisons of reported IVIM parameters in muscles of the back, thigh, and leg of healthy individuals showed no significant difference between anatomic locations. Throughout the body, exercise elicited a positive change of all IVIM parameters. Future directions including advanced postprocessing models and potential sequence modifications are discussed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
PMID: 34390617
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5183222

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of the Breast

Chapter by: Sigmund, Eric E.; Furman-Haran, Edna; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Partridge, Savannah C.
in: Diffusion MRI of the Breast by
[S.l.] : Elsevier, 2022
pp. 144-161
ISBN: 9780323811026
CID: 5445942

IVIM and Non-Gaussian DWI of the Breast

Chapter by: Iima, Mami; Thakur, Sunitha B.; Jerome, Neil Peter; Honda, Maya; Kataoka, Masako; Bathen, Tone Frost; Sigmund, Eric E.
in: Diffusion MRI of the Breast by
[S.l.] : Elsevier, 2022
pp. 116-143
ISBN: 9780323811026
CID: 5445952