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Longitudinal study of immunity to SARS-CoV2 in ocrelizumab-treated MS patients up to 2 years after COVID-19 vaccination

Kister, Ilya; Curtin, Ryan; Piquet, Amanda L; Borko, Tyler; Pei, Jinglan; Banbury, Barbara L; Bacon, Tamar E; Kim, Angie; Tuen, Michael; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Selva, Sean; Samanovic, Marie I; Mulligan, Mark J; Patskovsky, Yury; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:(1) To plot the trajectory of humoral and cellular immune responses to the primary (two-dose) COVID-19 mRNA series and the third/booster dose in B-cell-depleted multiple sclerosis (MS) patients up to 2 years post-vaccination; (2) to identify predictors of immune responses to vaccination; and (3) to assess the impact of intercurrent COVID-19 infections on SARS CoV-2-specific immunity. METHODS:Sixty ocrelizumab-treated MS patients were enrolled from NYU (New York) and University of Colorado (Anschutz) MS Centers. Samples were collected pre-vaccination, and then 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-primary series, and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-booster. Binding anti-Spike antibody responses were assessed with multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MBI) and electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys®, Roche Diagnostics), and neutralizing antibody responses with live-virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay. Spike-specific cellular responses were assessed with IFNγ/IL-2 ELISpot (Invitrogen) and, in a subset, by sequencing complementarity determining regions (CDR)-3 within T-cell receptors (Adaptive Biotechnologies). A linear mixed-effect model was used to compare antibody and cytokine levels across time points. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of immune responses. RESULTS:The primary vaccination induced an 11- to 208-fold increase in binding and neutralizing antibody levels and a 3- to 4-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2 responses, followed by a modest decline in antibody but not cytokine responses. Booster dose induced a further 3- to 5-fold increase in binding antibodies and 4- to 5-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2, which were maintained for up to 1 year. Infections had a variable impact on immunity. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Humoral and cellular benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in B-cell-depleted MS patients were sustained for up to 2 years when booster doses were administered.
PMID: 38713096
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5652462

The gut microbiome in systemic lupus erythematosus: lessons from rheumatic fever

Silverman, Gregg J; Azzouz, Doua F; Gisch, Nicolas; Amarnani, Abhimanyu
For more than a century, certain bacterial infections that can breach the skin and mucosal barriers have been implicated as common triggers of autoimmune syndromes, especially post-infection autoimmune diseases that include rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. However, only in the past few years has the importance of imbalances within our own commensal microbiota communities, and within the gut, in the absence of infection, in promoting autoimmune pathogenesis become fully appreciated. A diversity of species and mechanisms have been implicated, including disruption of the gut barrier. Emerging data suggest that expansions (or blooms) of pathobiont species are involved in autoimmune pathogenesis and stimulate clonal expansion of T cells and B cells that recognize microbial antigens. This Review discusses the relationship between the gut microbiome and the immune system, and the potential consequence of disrupting the community balance in terms of autoimmune development, focusing on systemic lupus erythematosus. Notably, inter-relationships between expansions of certain members within gut microbiota communities and concurrent autoimmune responses bear features reminiscent of classical post-infection autoimmune disease. From such insights, new therapeutic opportunities are being considered to restore the balance within microbiota communities or re-establishing the gut-barrier integrity to reinforce immune homeostasis in the host.
PMID: 38321297
ISSN: 1759-4804
CID: 5632582

Longitudinal study of immunity to SARS-CoV2 in ocrelizumab-treated MS patients up to 2 years after COVID-19 vaccination

Kister, Ilya; Curtin, Ryan; Piquet, Amanda L.; Borko, Tyler; Pei, Jinglan; Banbury, Barbara L.; Bacon, Tamar E.; Kim, Angie; Tuen, Michael; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Selva, Sean; Samanovic, Marie I.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Patskovsky, Yury; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C.; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J.
Objectives: (1) To plot the trajectory of humoral and cellular immune responses to the primary (two-dose) COVID-19 mRNA series and the third/booster dose in B-cell-depleted multiple sclerosis (MS) patients up to 2 years post-vaccination; (2) to identify predictors of immune responses to vaccination; and (3) to assess the impact of intercurrent COVID-19 infections on SARS CoV-2-specific immunity. Methods: Sixty ocrelizumab-treated MS patients were enrolled from NYU (New York) and University of Colorado (Anschutz) MS Centers. Samples were collected pre-vaccination, and then 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-primary series, and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks post-booster. Binding anti-Spike antibody responses were assessed with multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MBI) and electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys®, Roche Diagnostics), and neutralizing antibody responses with live-virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay. Spike-specific cellular responses were assessed with IFNγ/IL-2 ELISpot (Invitrogen) and, in a subset, by sequencing complementarity determining regions (CDR)-3 within T-cell receptors (Adaptive Biotechnologies). A linear mixed-effect model was used to compare antibody and cytokine levels across time points. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of immune responses. Results: The primary vaccination induced an 11- to 208-fold increase in binding and neutralizing antibody levels and a 3- to 4-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2 responses, followed by a modest decline in antibody but not cytokine responses. Booster dose induced a further 3- to 5-fold increase in binding antibodies and 4- to 5-fold increase in IFNγ/IL-2, which were maintained for up to 1 year. Infections had a variable impact on immunity. Interpretation: Humoral and cellular benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in B-cell-depleted MS patients were sustained for up to 2 years when booster doses were administered.
SCOPUS:85192269979
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5661482

Understanding the roles of the microbiome in autoimmune rheumatic diseases

Amarnani, Abhimanyu; Silverman, Gregg J.
The gut microbiome represents a potential promising therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the links between the gut microbiome and several autoimmune rheumatic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) spondyloarthropathies (SpA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Evidence from studies of RA and SLE patients suggests that alterations in the gut microbiome composition and function contribute to disease development and progression through increased gut permeability, with microbes and microbial metabolites driving an excessive systemic activation of the immune system. Also, there is growing evidence that gut dysbiosis and subsequent immune cell activation may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SpA and SS. For SSc, there are fewer, but these are still informative, reports on alterations in the gut microbiome. In general, the complex interplay between the microbiome and the immune system is still not fully understood. Here we discuss the current knowledge of the link between the gut microbiome and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, highlighting potentially fertile areas for future research and make considerations on the potential benefits of strategies that restore gut microbiome homeostasis.
SCOPUS:85180338352
ISSN: 2719-4523
CID: 5620912

Longitudinal gut microbiome analyses and blooms of pathogenic strains during lupus disease flares

Azzouz, Doua F; Chen, Ze; Izmirly, Peter M; Chen, Lea Ann; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Chongda; Mieles, David; Trujillo, Kate; Heguy, Adriana; Pironti, Alejandro; Putzel, Greg G; Schwudke, Dominik; Fenyo, David; Buyon, Jill P; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Gisch, Nicolas; Silverman, Gregg J
OBJECTIVE:Whereas genetic susceptibility for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been well explored, the triggers for clinical disease flares remain elusive. To investigate relationships between microbiota community resilience and disease activity, we performed the first longitudinal analyses of lupus gut-microbiota communities. METHODS:In an observational study, taxononomic analyses, including multivariate analysis of ß-diversity, assessed time-dependent alterations in faecal communities from patients and healthy controls. From gut blooms, strains were isolated, with genomes and associated glycans analysed. RESULTS:(RG) occurred at times of high-disease activity, and were detected in almost half of patients during lupus nephritis (LN) disease flares. Whole genome sequence analysis of RG strains isolated during these flares documented 34 genes postulated to aid adaptation and expansion within a host with an inflammatory condition. Yet, the most specific feature of strains found during lupus flares was the common expression of a novel type of cell membrane-associated lipoglycan. These lipoglycans share conserved structural features documented by mass spectroscopy, and highly immunogenic repetitive antigenic-determinants, recognised by high-level serum IgG2 antibodies, that spontaneously arose, concurrent with RG blooms and lupus flares. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings rationalise how blooms of the RG pathobiont may be common drivers of clinical flares of often remitting-relapsing lupus disease, and highlight the potential pathogenic properties of specific strains isolated from active LN patients.
PMID: 37365013
ISSN: 1468-2060
CID: 5540152

Pharmacologic inhibition of glycolysis prevents the development of lupus by altering the gut microbiome in mice

Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ge, Yong; Brown, Josephine; Kanda, Nathalie; Zadeh, Mojgan; Abboud, Georges; Choi, Seung-Chul; Silverman, Gregg; Garrett, Timothy J; Clapp, William L; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Morel, Laurence
Gut dysbiosis has been associated with lupus pathogenesis, and fecal microbiota transfers (FMT) from lupus-prone mice shown to induce autoimmune activation into healthy mice. The immune cells of lupus patients exhibit an increased glucose metabolism and treatments with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), a glycolysis inhibitor, are therapeutic in lupus-prone mice. Here, we showed in two models of lupus with different etiologies that 2DG altered the composition of the fecal microbiome and associated metabolites. In both models, FMT from 2DG-treated mice protected lupus-prone mice of the same strain from the development of glomerulonephritis, reduced autoantibody production as well as the activation of CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells as compared to FMT from control mice. Thus, we demonstrated that the protective effect of glucose inhibition in lupus is transferable through the gut microbiota, directly linking alterations in immunometabolism to gut dysbiosis in the hosts.
PMCID:10320500
PMID: 37416482
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 5539412

Local and Systemic Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients

Barnett, C.R.; Krolikowski, K.; Tsay, J.J.; Wu, B.G.; Li, Y.; Chang, M.; Kyeremateng, Y.; Brosnahan, S.; Singh, S.; Kocak, I.; Collazo, D.E.; Mukherjee, V.; Lubinsky, A.S.; Postelnicu, R.; Ghedin, E.; Chung, M.; Angel, L.F.; Sulaiman, I.; Duerr, R.; Schluger, R.; Rafeq, S.; Carpenito, J.; Bakker, J.; Amoroso, N.E.; Kaufman, D.A.; Pradhan, D.; Li, H.; Wang, C.; Silverman, G.; Segal, L.N.
ORIGINAL:0017185
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 5651662

Hybrid and vaccine-induced immunity against SAR-CoV-2 in MS patients on different disease-modifying therapies

Kister, Ilya; Curtin, Ryan; Pei, Jinglan; Perdomo, Katherine; Bacon, Tamar E; Voloshyna, Iryna; Kim, Joseph; Tardio, Ethan; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Valeria Calderon, Andrea; Dibba, Fatoumatta; Stanzin, Igda; Samanovic, Marie I; Raut, Pranil; Raposo, Catarina; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C; Mulligan, Mark J; Patskovsky, Yury; Silverman, Gregg J; Krogsgaard, Michelle
OBJECTIVE:To compare "hybrid immunity" (prior COVID-19 infection plus vaccination) and post-vaccination immunity to SARS CoV-2 in MS patients on different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and to assess the impact of vaccine product and race/ethnicity on post-vaccination immune responses. METHODS:Consecutive MS patients from NYU MS Care Center (New York, NY), aged 18-60, who completed primary COVID-19 vaccination series ≥6 weeks previously were evaluated for SARS CoV-2-specific antibody responses with electro-chemiluminescence and multiepitope bead-based immunoassays and, in a subset, live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay. SARS CoV-2-specific cellular responses were assessed with cellular stimulation TruCulture IFNγ and IL-2 assay and, in a subset, with IFNγ and IL-2 ELISpot assays. Multivariate analyses examined associations between immunologic responses and prior COVID-19 infection while controlling for age, sex, DMT at vaccination, time-to-vaccine, and vaccine product. RESULTS:Between 6/01/2021 and 11/11/2021, 370 MS patients were recruited (mean age 40.6 years; 76% female; 53% non-White; 22% with prior infection; common DMT classes: ocrelizumab 40%; natalizumab 15%, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators 13%; and no DMT 8%). Vaccine-to-collection time was 18.7 (±7.7) weeks and 95% of patients received mRNA vaccines. In multivariate analyses, patients with laboratory-confirmed prior COVID-19 infection had significantly increased antibody and cellular post-vaccination responses compared to those without prior infection. Vaccine product and DMT class were independent predictors of antibody and cellular responses, while race/ethnicity was not. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Prior COVID-19 infection is associated with enhanced antibody and cellular post-vaccine responses independent of DMT class and vaccine type. There were no differences in immune responses across race/ethnic groups.
PMID: 36165097
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5334142

Cellular and Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Ocrelizumab and Other Disease-Modifying Therapies: A Multi-Ethnic Observational Study

Kister, Ilya; Patskovsky, Yury; Curtin, Ryan; Pei, Jinglan; Perdomo, Katherine; Rimler, Zoe; Voloshyna, Iryna; Samanovic, Marie I; Cornelius, Amber R; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Kim, Joseph J; Tardio, Ethan; Bacon, Tamar E; Zhovtis Ryerson, Lana; Raut, Pranil; Pedotti, Rosetta; Hawker, Kathleen; Raposo, Catarina; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C; Mulligan, Mark J; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the development of cellular and humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS:Patients with MS aged 18 to 60 years were evaluated for anti-nucleocapsid and anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody with electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay; antibody responses to Spike protein, RBD, N-terminal domain with multiepitope bead-based immunoassays (MBI); live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay; T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike using TruCulture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and IL-2 and IFNγ ELISpot assays. Assay results were compared by DMT class. Spearman correlation and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations between immunologic responses and infection severity. RESULTS:Between January 6, 2021, and July 21, 2021, 389 patients with MS were recruited (mean age 40.3 years; 74% women; 62% non-White). Most common DMTs were ocrelizumab (OCR)-40%; natalizumab -17%, Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators -12%; and 15% untreated. One hundred seventy-seven patients (46%) had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 130 had symptomatic infection, and 47 were asymptomatic. Antibody responses were markedly attenuated in OCR compared with other groups (p ≤0.0001). T-cell responses (IFNγ) were decreased in S1P (p = 0.03), increased in natalizumab (p <0.001), and similar in other DMTs, including OCR. Cellular and humoral responses were moderately correlated in both OCR (r = 0.45, p = 0.0002) and non-OCR (r = 0.64, p <0.0001). Immune responses did not differ by race/ethnicity. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical course was mostly non-severe and similar across DMTs; 7% (9/130) were hospitalized. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:DMTs had differential effects on humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune responses did not correlate with COVID-19 clinical severity in this relatively young and nondisabled group of patients with MS. ANN NEUROL 2022.
PMID: 35289960
ISSN: 1531-8249
CID: 5191732

Faster B-cell repletion after anti-CD20 infusion in Black patients compared to white patients with neurologic diseases [Letter]

Saidenberg, Lucia; Arbini, Arnaldo A; Silverman, Gregg J; Lotan, Itay; Cutter, Gary; Kister, Ilya
This retrospective, single-center study aimed to characterize and compare the kinetics of B-cell reemergence following anti-CD20 infusion (anti-CD20i) in African American (AA) and white patients with MS or NMOSD. In a logistic regression model that included race, time since anti-CD20i, body mass index, and diagnosis, only AA race (p=0.01) and time since anti-CD20i (p=0.0003) were significant predictors of B-cell repletion. However, B-cell subset composition was similar between AA and white patients with detectable CD19+ B-cell counts. These findings highlight the importance of including a diverse study population in future studies of anti-CD20 therapies.
PMID: 35490448
ISSN: 2211-0356
CID: 5215682