How many brain metastases can be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery before the radiation dose delivered to normal brain tissue rivals that associated with standard whole brain radiotherapy?
Becker, Stewart J; Lipson, Evan J; Jozsef, Gabor; Molitoris, Jason K; Silverman, Joshua S; Presser, Joseph; Kondziolka, Douglas
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Clinical trial data comparing outcomes after administration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to patients with brain metastases (BM) suggest that SRS better preserves cognitive function and quality of life without negatively impacting overall survival. Here, we estimate the maximum number of BM that can be treated using single and multi-session SRS while limiting the dose of radiation delivered to normal brain tissue to that associated with WBRT. METHODS:Multiple-tumor SRS was simulated using a Monte Carlo - type approach and a pre-calculated dose kernel method. Tumors with diameters ≤36 mm were randomly placed throughout the contoured brain parenchyma until the brain mean dose reached 3 Gy, equivalent to the radiation dose delivered during a single fraction of a standard course of WBRT (a total dose of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions of 3 Gy). Distribution of tumor sizes, dose coverage, selectivity, normalization, and maximum dose data used in the simulations were based on institutional clinical metastases data. RESULTS:The mean number of tumors treated, mean volume of healthy brain tissue receiving > 12 Gy (V12) per tumor, and total tumor volume treated using mixed tumor size distributions were 12.7 ± 4.2, 2.2 cc, and 12.9 cc, respectively. Thus, we estimate that treating 12-13 tumors per day over 10 days would deliver the dose of radiation to healthy brain tissue typically associated with a standard course of WBRT. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although in clinical practice, treatment with SRS is often limited to patients with ≤15 BM, our findings suggest that many more lesions could be targeted while still minimizing the negative impacts on quality of life and neurocognition often associated with WBRT. Results from this in silico analysis require clinical validation.
Extended Survival in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Associated Brain Metastases in the Modern Era
Berger, Assaf; Mullen, Reed; Bernstein, Kenneth; Alzate, Juan Diego; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Donahue, Bernadine R; Chachoua, Abraham; Shum, Elaine; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Sabari, Joshua; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:Brain metastases (BM) have long been considered a terminal diagnosis with management mainly aimed at palliation and little hope for extended survival. Use of brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and/or resection, in addition to novel systemic therapies, has enabled improvements in overall and progression-free (PFS) survival. OBJECTIVE:To explore the possibility of extended survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in the current era. METHODS:During the years 2008 to 2020, 606 patients with NSCLC underwent their first Gamma Knife SRS for BM at our institution with point-of-care data collection. We reviewed clinical, molecular, imaging, and treatment parameters to explore the relationship of such factors with survival. RESULTS:The median overall survival was 17 months (95% CI, 13-40). Predictors of increased survival in a multivariable analysis included age <65 years (P < .001), KPS ≥80 (P < .001), absence of extracranial metastases (P < .001), fewer BM at first SRS (≤3, P = .003), and targeted therapy (P = .005), whereas chemotherapy alone was associated with shorter survival (P = .04). In a subgroup of patients managed before 2016 (n = 264), 38 (14%) were long-term survivors (≥5 years), of which 16% required no active cancer treatment (systemic or brain) for ≥3 years by the end of their follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Long-term survival in patients with brain metastases from NSCLC is feasible in the current era of SRS when combined with the use of effective targeted therapeutics. Of those living ≥5 years, the chance for living with stable disease without the need for active treatment for ≥3 years was 16%.
Up-front single-session radiosurgery for large brain metastases-volumetric responses and outcomes
Benjamin, Carolina; Gurewitz, Jason; Nakamura, Aya; Mureb, Monica; Mullen, Reed; Pacione, Donato; Silverman, Joshua; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:Patients presenting with large brain metastases (LBM) pose a management challenge to the multidisciplinary neuro-oncologic team. Treatment options include surgery, whole-brain or large-field radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or a combination of these. OBJECTIVE:To determine if corticosteroid therapy followed by SRS allows for efficient minimally invasive care in patients with LBMs not compromised by mass effect. METHODS:We analyzed the change in tumor volume to determine the efficacy of single-session SRS in the treatment of LBM in comparison to other treatment modalities. Twenty-nine patients with systemic cancer and brain metastasis (≥ 2.7 cm in greatest diameter) who underwent single-session SRS were included. RESULTS:(range 1.56-25.31). The median margin dose was 16 Gy (range 12-18). The average percent decrease in tumor volume compared to pre-SRS volume was 55% on imaging at 1-2 months, 58% at 3-5 months, 64% at 6-8 months, and 57% at > 8 months. There were no adverse events immediately following SRS. Median corticosteroid use after SRS was 21 days. Median survival after radiosurgery was 15 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Initial high-dose corticosteroid therapy followed by prompt single-stage SRS is a safe and efficacious method to manage patients with LBMs (defined as ≥ 2.7 cm).
Impact of Dosimetric Factors on Local Failure in Patients with Spine Metastasis after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study [Meeting Abstract]
LeCompte, M C; Chen, X; Tseng, C L; Campbell, M; Balagamwala, E H; Hanan, J; Byun, D J; Silverman, J S; Foote, M C; Gatt, N; Mahadevan, A; Grimm, J; Redmond, K J
Purpose/Objective(s): Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly utilized in the treatment of spine metastasis. Preliminary data suggest that higher doses may improve local control, but may also increase risk of toxicity including vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Our single institution study recently found that a minimum dose of at least 21 Gy to 80% of planning target volume (PTV D80%) in 2 fractions was associated with higher risk of VCF. The purpose of this study is to assess this variable's relationship with local failure (LF) and VCF in an international, multi-institutional cohort. Materials/Methods: Patients with radiation naive solid tumor spine metastases treated with SBRT at 5 international institutions from 2010 - 2020 were included. Patients with surgical stabilization were excluded. LF was defined per spine response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria. Variables examined included spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) factors and dosimetric/volumetric characteristics of radiation planning. All fractionation scheme doses were converted to 2-fraction equivalent doses (2fxED) using the linear quadratic model with an alpha/beta of 3 and used in analyses of PTV D80%. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models for LF and VCF were constructed using the Fine and Gray competing risk method.
Result(s): 357 vertebral segments from 234 patients were treated with SBRT. Common primary tumor types were prostate (n = 50, 22%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 42, 18%), breast (n = 35, 15%), and kidney (n = 25, 11%). Most (n = 199 pts, 242 segments) were treated with 2 or 3 fractions with a median prescription dose of 24 Gy or 27 Gy, respectively (range: 14-45 Gy in 1-5 fractions). Median follow was 21.1 months (0.6-88.4 mo). LF was 12.6% and 18.1% at 1- and 2-years, respectively. Variables associated with increased LF on univariate analysis were lower PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.65, p = 0.001) and lower prescription dose BED3 (HR 0.98 as continuous variable, CI 0.97-0.99, p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, only PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy remained associated with increased risk of LF (HR 0.46, CI 0.24-0.85, p = 0.01). VCF incidence was low, at 4.2% and 6.7% at 1- and 2-years, respectively. Higher SINS was predictive of VCF (HR 1.22, CI 1.1-1.36, p <0.001). Patients with higher PTVD80% at 2fxED>21 Gy had a higher, albeit non-significant, risk of VCF (HR 3.30, CI 0.80-13.6, p = 0.10), consistent with our previous single institution study.
Conclusion(s): This multi-institutional, international study suggests that a PTV D80% at 2fxED <=21 Gy may increase the risk of LF, while >21 Gy may increase the likelihood of VCF. Prospective studies are needed to further explore this complex relationship and identify the dose/fractionation schedule that best balances local control with normal tissue toxicity including VCF.
Modern Hearing Preservation Outcomes After Vestibular Schwannoma Stereotactic Radiosurgery
Berger, Assaf; Alzate, Juan Diego; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mullen, Reed; McMenomey, Sean; Jethanemest, Daniel; Friedmann, David R; Smouha, Eric; Sulman, Erik P; Silverman, Joshua S; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:For patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven effective in controlling tumor growth while hearing preservation remains a key goal. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate hearing outcomes in the modern era of cochlear dose restriction. METHODS:During the years 2013 to 2018, 353 patients underwent Gamma knife surgery for VS at our institution. We followed 175 patients with pre-SRS serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson Score, GR 1 and 2). Volumetric and dosimetry data were collected, including biological effective dose, integral doses of total and intracanalicular tumor components, and hearing outcomes. RESULTS:The mean age was 56 years, 74 patients (42%) had a baseline GR of 2, and the mean cochlear dose was 3.5 Gy. The time to serviceable hearing loss (GR 3-4) was 38 months (95% CI 26-46), with 77% and 62% hearing preservation in the first and second years, respectively. Patients optimal for best hearing outcomes were younger than 58 years with a baseline GR of 1, free canal space â‰¥0.041 cc (diameter of 4.5 mm), and mean cochlear dose <3.1 Gy. For such patients, hearing preservation rates were 92% by 12 months and 81% by 2 years, staying stable for >5 years post-SRS, significantly higher than the rest of the population. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hearing preservation after SRS for patients with VS with serviceable hearing is correlated to the specific baseline GR score (1 or 2), age, cochlear dose, and biological effective dose. Increased tumor-free canal space correlates with better outcomes. The most durable hearing preservation correlates with factors commonly associated with smaller tumors away from the cochlea.
Preoperative flow analysis of arteriovenous malformations and obliteration response after stereotactic radiosurgery
Alzate, Juan Diego; Berger, Assaf; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mullen, Reed; Qu, Tanxia; Silverman, Joshua S; Shapiro, Maksim; Nelson, Peter K; Raz, Eytan; Jafar, Jafar J; Riina, Howard A; Kondziolka, Douglas
OBJECTIVE:Morphological and angioarchitectural features of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have been widely described and associated with outcomes; however, few studies have conducted a quantitative analysis of AVM flow. The authors examined brain AVM flow and transit time on angiograms using direct visual analysis and a computer-based method and correlated these factors with the obliteration response after Gamma Knife radiosurgery. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single institution using a prospective registry of patients managed from January 2013 to December 2019: 71 patients were analyzed using a visual method of flow determination and 38 were analyzed using a computer-based method. After comparison and validation of the two methods, obliteration response was correlated to flow analysis, demographic, angioarchitectural, and dosimetric data. RESULTS:The mean AVM volume was 3.84 cm3 (range 0.64-19.8 cm3), 32 AVMs (45%) were in critical functional locations, and the mean margin radiosurgical dose was 18.8 Gy (range 16-22 Gy). Twenty-seven AVMs (38%) were classified as high flow, 37 (52%) as moderate flow, and 7 (10%) as low flow. Complete obliteration was achieved in 44 patients (62%) at the time of the study; the mean time to obliteration was 28 months for low-flow, 34 months for moderate-flow, and 47 months for high-flow AVMs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors predicting obliteration included AVM nidus volume, age, and flow. Adverse radiation effects were identified in 5 patients (7%), and 67 patients (94%) remained free of any functional deterioration during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:AVM flow analysis and categorization in terms of transit time are useful predictors of the probability of and the time to obliteration. The authors believe that a more quantitative understanding of flow can help to guide stereotactic radiosurgery treatment and set accurate outcome expectations.
Significant survival improvements for patients with melanoma brain metastases: can we reach cure in the current era?
Berger, Assaf; Bernstein, Kenneth; Alzate, Juan Diego; Mullen, Reed; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Donahue, Bernadine R; Pavlick, Anna C; Gurewitz, Jason; Mureb, Monica; Mehnert, Janice; Madden, Kathleen; Palermo, Amy; Weber, Jeffrey S; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:New therapies for melanoma have been associated with increasing survival expectations, as opposed to the dismal outcomes of only a decade ago. Using a prospective registry, we aimed to define current survival goals for melanoma patients with brain metastases (BM), based on state-of-the-art multimodality care. METHODS:We reviewed 171 melanoma patients with BM receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) who were followed with point-of-care data collection between 2012 and 2020. Clinical, molecular and imaging data were collected, including systemic treatment and radiosurgical parameters. RESULTS:SRS were predictors of long-term survival ([Formula: see text] 5Â years) from initial SRS (pâ€‰=â€‰0.023 and pâ€‰=â€‰0.018, respectively). Five patients (16%) of the long-term survivors required no active treatment for [Formula: see text] 5Â years. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Long-term survival in patients with melanoma BM is achievable in the current era of SRS combined with immunotherapies. For those alive [Formula: see text] 5Â years after first SRS, 16% had been also off systemic or local brain therapy for over 5Â years. Given late recurrences of melanoma, caution is warranted, however prolonged survival off active treatment in a subset of our patients raises the potential for cure.
Just Because You Can Does Not Mean That You Shouldâ€¦ [Letter]
Silverman, Joshua S
Survival and outcomes in patients with â‰¥ 25 cumulative brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery
Benjamin, Carolina Gesteira; Gurewitz, Jason; Kavi, Ami; Bernstein, Kenneth; Silverman, Joshua; Mureb, Monica; Donahue, Bernadine; Kondziolka, Douglas
OBJECTIVE:In the era in which more patients with greater numbers of brain metastases (BMs) are being treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, it is critical to understand how patient, tumor, and treatment factors affect functional status and overall survival (OS). The authors examined the survival outcomes and dosimetry to critical structures in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for â‰¥ 25 metastases in a single session or cumulatively over the course of their disease. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single institution. The institution's prospective Gamma Knife (GK) SRS registry was queried to identify patients treated with GKRS for â‰¥ 25 cumulative BMs between June 2013 and April 2020. Ninety-five patients were identified, and their data were used for analysis. Treatment plans for dosimetric analysis were available for 89 patients. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were identified, and outcomes and OS were evaluated. RESULTS:The authors identified 1132 patients with BMs in their institutional registry. Ninety-five patients were treated for â‰¥ 25 cumulative metastases, resulting in a total of 3596 tumors treated during 373 separate treatment sessions. The median number of SRS sessions per patient was 3 (range 1-12 SRS sessions), with nearly all patients (n = 93, 98%) having > 1 session. On univariate analysis, factors affecting OS in a statistically significant manner included histology, tumor volume, tumor number, diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA), brain metastasis velocity (BMV), and need for subsequent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The median of the mean WB dose was 4.07 Gy (range 1.39-10.15 Gy). In the top quartile for both the highest cumulative number and highest cumulative volume of treated metastases, the median of the mean WB dose was 6.14 Gy (range 4.02-10.15 Gy). Seventy-nine patients (83%) had all treated tumors controlled at last follow-up, reflecting the high and durable control rate. Corticosteroids for tumor- or treatment-related effects were prescribed in just over one-quarter of the patients. Of the patients with radiographically proven adverse radiation effects (AREs; 15%), 4 were symptomatic. Four patients required subsequent craniotomy for hemorrhage, progression, or AREs. CONCLUSIONS:In selected patients with a large number of cumulative BMs, multiple courses of SRS are feasible and safe. Together with new systemic therapies, the study results demonstrate that the achieved survival rates compare favorably to those of larger contemporary cohorts, while avoiding WBRT in the majority of patients. Therefore, along with the findings of other series, this study supports SRS as a standard practice in selected patients with larger numbers of BMs.
The incidence and predictors of new brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer following discontinuation of systemic therapy
London, Dennis; Patel, Dev N; Donahue, Bernadine; Navarro, Ralph E; Gurewitz, Jason; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik; Bernstein, Kenneth; Palermo, Amy; Golfinos, John G; Sabari, Joshua K; Shum, Elaine; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Chachoua, Abraham; Kondziolka, Douglas
OBJECTIVE:Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastatic to the brain are living longer. The risk of new brain metastases when these patients stop systemic therapy is unknown. The authors hypothesized that the risk of new brain metastases remains constant for as long as patients are off systemic therapy. METHODS:A prospectively collected registry of patients undergoing radiosurgery for brain metastases was analyzed. Of 606 patients with NSCLC, 63 met the inclusion criteria of discontinuing systemic therapy for at least 90 days and undergoing active surveillance. The risk factors for the development of new tumors were determined using Cox proportional hazards and recurrent events models. RESULTS:The median duration to new brain metastases off systemic therapy was 16.0 months. The probability of developing an additional new tumor at 6, 12, and 18 months was 26%, 40%, and 53%, respectively. There were no additional new tumors 22 months after stopping therapy. Patients who discontinued therapy due to intolerance or progression of the disease and those with mutations in RAS or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways (e.g., KRAS, EGFR) were more likely to develop new tumors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-3.81, p = 2.5 Ã— 10-3; HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.45-4.34, p = 9.8 Ã— 10-4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The rate of new brain metastases from NSCLC in patients off systemic therapy decreases over time and is uncommon 2 years after cessation of cancer therapy. Patients who stop therapy due to toxicity or who have RAS or RTK pathway mutations have a higher rate of new metastases and should be followed more closely.