Addressing the burden of gastric cancer disparities in low-income New York City Chinese American immigrants [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. In the US, gastric cancer incidence for Chinese Americans is nearly twice that for non-Hispanic whites. Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese New Yorkers who experience higher mortality for gastric cancer than other New Yorkers overall. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer, and eradication of H. pylori through triple antibiotic therapy is the most effective prevention strategy for gastric cancer. Despite the elevated burden, there are no culturally and linguistically tailored evidence-based intervention strategies to address H. pylori medication adherence and gastric cancer prevention for Chinese Americans in NYC, a largely foreign-born (72%), limited English proficient (61%), and low-income (21% living in poverty) population.
Objective(s): The study objective was to develop and pilot a community health worker (CHW)-delivered linguistically and culturally adapted gastric cancer prevention intervention to improve H. pylori treatment adherence and address modifiable cancer prevention risk factors, including improved nutrition for low-income, LEP, Chinese American immigrants.
Method(s): We used a mixed methods and community-engaged research approach to develop and pilot the intervention curriculum and materials. Methods included: 1) a comprehensive scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on gastric cancer prevention programs and strategies targeting Chinese Americans; 2) 15 key informant interviews with gatekeepers and stakeholders serving the New York Chinese immigrant community to assess the knowledge and perception of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer among Chinese New Yorkers; and 3) pilot implementation of the collaboratively developed intervention with H. pylori-infected LEP Chinese immigrant participants (n=7).
Result(s): Study process findings and pilot results will be presented. Preliminary results indicate high patient- and community-level need and acceptability for the intervention. Baseline and 1-month post-treatment outcomes and survey data, qualitative data analysis of the CHW session notes, and key informant interviews will be presented.
Conclusion(s): Findings suggest that a CHW-delivered culturally adapted gastric cancer prevention intervention can result in meaningful health information and treatment adherence for at-risk, low-income Chinese immigrant communities. Study findings are being applied to inform a randomized controlled trial being implemented in safety net hospital settings
Patient Experiences with the Use of Telephone Interpreter Services: An Exploratory, Qualitative Study of Spanish-Speaking Patients at an Urban Community Health Center
Racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. experience higher incidence of and greater morbidity from chronic disease. Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a known contributor to these health disparities. The Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services promote health equity through the incorporation of professional interpreter services. While such services have been shown to improve quality of care, limited data exist on patient perspectives regarding these services. Better understanding patient experiences with telephone interpreter services (TIS), an increasingly used modality for professional interpretation, could elucidate ways of improving care for this population. This study explored Spanish-speaking patient experiences with TIS at an urban community clinic. Qualitative data collected via focus groups was analyzed using content analysis and grounded theory methods. Our findings suggest that TIS are generally well accepted by Spanish-speaking LEP patients. Limited relationship development with providers and physician attitudes toward TIS were among reported barriers to the use of these services.
Telephone interpreter patient perspectives: A qualitative study of spanish-speaking patient experiences with medical interpreter services [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Racial and ethnic minorities in the US, a large and growing population, experience higher incidence of and greater morbidity from chronic disease. Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a known contributor to these health disparities. The Culturally & Linguistically Appropriate Services standards promote health equality through the incorporation of interpreter services (IS). IS have shown improved quality of care, but limited data exist on patient perspectives of IS; particularly telephone interpreter services (TIS), an increasingly used form of IS. Better understanding patient experiences with TIS could elucidate ways of enhancing patient-centered care for this patient population; potentially improving health outcomes. Methods: Participants were recruited via flyers, telephone, and face-to-face encounters. They completed a semi-structured questionnaire and participated in a 1-hour, audio-recorded focus group. The focus group facilitator completed field notes after each group. Audio recordings were transcribed then analyzed by content analysis approach and grounded theory. Results: Thirteen individuals participated in 4 focus groups (Group1 n = 4; Group 2 n = 3; Group 3 n = 3; Group 4 n = 3). Participants were female (n=13), ages 33-73 years (mean 55), from Mexico (n=7), Ecuador (n=2), Dominican Republic (n=3), and Columbia (n=1), and had resided in the US for an average of 22 years (range 1-38). 70% reported poor self-rated English language ability (20% fair, 10% not reported). Ten thematic codes in 3 major domains (general attitudes, facilitators, barriers) were identified. Participants reported gratitude for TIS, perceiving TIS increased access to healthcare, and preference for TIS to family members as interpreters. Barriers to the use of TIS were concerns of confidentiality, lack of interpersonal development with physicians, and preference for language-congruent providers. Facilitators to the use of TIS were positive physician attitude toward TIS, physician framing of TIS as a tool in providing quality care, and assurance of accurate communication. Conclusions: Telephone interpreter services (TIS) are generally accepted by Spanish-speaking, LEP patients, and perceived as increasing access to care and assuring accuracy of medical communication. Participants seemed to balance accessing healthcare with concerns of confidentiality when using TIS. Overall, participants fell into two groups; one prioritized access to healthcare, timely and accurate, and the other prioritized relationship building with medical providers. The later was limited in TIS based encounters. Positive physician attitudes toward TIS facilitated their use. This highlights a need for healthcare provider awareness of the impact their attitudes have on patient experiences and acceptance of TIS, and for provider training on relationship building with use of TIS. Lastly, information gathered about patient preferences for language congruent providers speaks to a need for continuing workforce diversification efforts
Addendum to: The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) for Insulin Glargine Titration in an Urban, Low-Income Population: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol
The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) for Insulin Adjustment in an Urban, Low-Income Population: Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND: Diabetes patients are usually started on a low dose of insulin and their dose is adjusted or "titrated" according to their blood glucose levels. Insulin titration administered through face-to-face visits with a clinician can be time consuming and logistically burdensome for patients, especially those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Given the wide use of mobile phones among this population, there is the potential to use short message service (SMS) text messaging and phone calls to perform insulin titration remotely. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this pilot study were to (1) evaluate if our Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) intervention using text messaging and phone calls was effective in helping patients reach their optimal insulin glargine dose within 12 weeks, (2) assess the feasibility of the intervention within our clinic setting and patient population, (3) collect data on the cost savings associated with the intervention, and (4) measure patient satisfaction with the intervention. METHODS: This was a pilot study evaluating an intervention for patients requiring insulin glargine titration in the outpatient medical clinic of Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City. Patients in the intervention arm received weekday SMS text messages from a health management platform requesting their fasting blood glucose values. The clinic's diabetes nurse educator monitored the texted responses on the platform website each weekday for alarm values. Once a week, the nurse reviewed the glucose values, consulted the MITI titration algorithm, and called patients to adjust their insulin dose. Patients in the usual care arm continued to receive their standard clinic care for insulin titration. The primary outcome was whether a patient reached his/her optimal insulin glargine dose within 12 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients consented and were randomized into the study. A significantly greater proportion of patients in the intervention arm reached their optimal insulin glargine dose than patients in the usual care arm (88%, 29/33 vs 37%, 10/27; P<.001). Patients responded to 84.3% (420/498) of the SMS text messages requesting their blood glucose values. The nurse reached patients within 2 attempts or by voicemail 91% of the time (90/99 assigned calls). When patients traveled to the clinic, they spent a median of 45 minutes (IQR 30-60) on travel and 39 minutes (IQR 30-64) waiting prior to appointments. A total of 61% (37/61) of patients had appointment copays. After participating in the study, patients in the intervention arm reported higher treatment satisfaction than those in the usual care arm. CONCLUSIONS: MITI is an effective way to help low-SES patients reach their optimal insulin glargine dose using basic SMS text messaging and phone calls. The intervention was feasible and patients were highly satisfied with their treatment. The intervention was cost saving in terms of time for patients, who were able to have their insulin titrated without multiple clinic appointments. Similar interventions should be explored to improve care for low-SES patients managing chronic disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01879579; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01879579 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YZik33L3).
THE MOBILE INSULIN TITRATION INTERVENTION (MITI) STUDY: INNOVATIVE CHRONIC DISEASE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES [Meeting Abstract]
The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) for Insulin Glargine Titration in an Urban, Low-Income Population: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol
BACKGROUND: Patients on insulin glargine typically visit a clinician to obtain advice on how to adjust their insulin dose. These multiple clinic visits can be costly and time-consuming, particularly for low-income patients. It may be feasible to achieve insulin titration through text messages and phone calls with patients instead of face-to-face clinic visits. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to (1) evaluate if the Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) is clinically effective by helping patients reach their optimal dose of insulin glargine, (2) determine if the intervention is feasible within the setting and population, (3) assess patient satisfaction with the intervention, and (4) measure the costs associated with this intervention. METHODS: This is a pilot study evaluating an approach to insulin titration using text messages and phone calls among patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes in the outpatient medical clinic of Bellevue Hospital Center, a safety-net hospital in New York City. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the MITI arm (texting/phone call intervention) or the usual-care arm (in-person clinic visits). Using a Web-based platform, weekday text messages will be sent to patients in the MITI arm, asking them to text back their fasting blood glucose values. In addition to daily reviews for alarm values, a clinician will rereview the texted values weekly, consult our physician-approved titration algorithm, and call the patients with advice on how to adjust their insulin dose. The primary outcome will be whether or not a patient reaches his/her optimal dose of insulin glargine within 12 weeks. RESULTS: Recruitment for this study occurred between June 2013 and December 2014. We are continuing to collect intervention and follow-up data from our patients who are currently enrolled. The results of our data analysis are expected to be available in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This study explores the use of widely-available text messaging and voice technologies for insulin titration. We aim to show that remote insulin titration is clinically effective, feasible, satisfactory, and cost saving for low-income patients in a busy, urban clinic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01879579; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01879579 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6WUEgjZUO).
Contact isolation for infection control in hospitalized patients: is patient satisfaction affected?
The effects of contact isolation on patient satisfaction are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey and found that most patients lack education and knowledge regarding isolation but feel that it improves their care. In multivariable analysis, isolated patients were not less satisfied with inpatient care than were nonisolated patients.
Comprehensive association testing of common mitochondrial DNA variation in metabolic disease
Many lines of evidence implicate mitochondria in phenotypic variation: (a) rare mutations in mitochondrial proteins cause metabolic, neurological, and muscular disorders; (b) alterations in oxidative phosphorylation are characteristic of type 2 diabetes, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, and other diseases; and (c) common missense variants in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) have been implicated as having been subject to natural selection for adaptation to cold climates and contributing to "energy deficiency" diseases today. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variation influences human physiology and disease, we identified all 144 variants with frequency >1% in Europeans from >900 publicly available European mtDNA sequences and selected 64 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms that efficiently capture all common variation (except the hypervariable D-loop). Next, we evaluated the complete set of common mtDNA variants for association with type 2 diabetes in a sample of 3,304 diabetics and 3,304 matched nondiabetic individuals. Association of mtDNA variants with other metabolic traits (body mass index, measures of insulin secretion and action, blood pressure, and cholesterol) was also tested in subsets of this sample. We did not find a significant association of common mtDNA variants with these metabolic phenotypes. Moreover, we failed to identify any physiological effect of alleles that were previously proposed to have been adaptive for energy metabolism in human evolution. More generally, this comprehensive association-testing framework can readily be applied to other diseases for which mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated.