Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
Short-Segment Type B Interrupted Aortic Arch Presenting With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage With Subsequent Primary Percutaneous Repair
This report describes a young adult man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to an intracranial aneurysm who was found to have a short-segment type B interrupted aortic arch. We describe the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of this patient and highlight imaging findings and percutaneous repair of the aneurysm and interrupted aortic arch. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).
Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis resulting in haemoptysis: a case series [Case Report]
Background/UNASSIGNED:Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an infrequent complication of atrial fibrillation ablation that is often misdiagnosed due to predominant respiratory symptoms. It can result in pulmonary venous hypertension, with varying presentations, ranging from shortness of breath to haemoptysis. Case summary/UNASSIGNED:We report two patients with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treated with radiofrequency ablation and pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, who subsequently developed PVS. Case 1 initially presented with indolent symptoms of shortness of breath and cough. He was initially diagnosed with and treated for pneumonia. In contrast, Case 2 presented with massive haemoptysis, requiring intubation and intensive care unit admission. Both patients were eventually diagnosed with PVS by computed tomography. They were treated with PV angioplasty and stenting. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:While previously limited to the congenital heart disease population, PVS is occurring more frequently now in adult patients as a complication of ablation procedures. It is most effectively treated with angioplasty and stent implantation but has a high rate of recurrence.
Peripheral venous pressure accurately predicts central venous pressure in the adult Fontan circulation
BACKGROUND:Patients with the Fontan circulation lack a subpulmonary ventricular pump and thus the main driver for pulmonary blood flow is a high central venous pressure. Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) measurement has been shown to be a reproducible and fairly accurate surrogate for central venous pressure (CVP), but not specifically for the adult Fontan circulation. This study aims to determine the relationship of PVP to CVP in adult Fontan patients. METHODS:All adult patients (â‰¥18 yo) with a Fontan circulation undergoing cardiac catheterization were included. Both CVP and PVP were measured during the catheterization. The relationship between the peripheral venous and central venous pressures was assessed using simple linear regression and the Bland-Altman plot analysis for differences. RESULTS:value of 0.83 (pÂ <Â 0.001). The CVP can be estimated with PVP measurements using the formula CVPÂ =Â (0.86 * PVP)Â +Â 1.3. A Bland-Altman plot for PVP and CVP demonstrated that the PVP overestimated CVP by a mean of 1.2Â mmHg, with a 95% limit of agreement of -5.2Â mmHg to 2.8Â mmHg. CONCLUSIONS:In adult Fontan patients, measuring PVP is a reliable, less-invasive, and accurate method of estimating the CVP during cardiac catheterization procedures. These findings may enable outpatient monitoring of Fontan hemodynamics.
High-Output Heart Failure From Growth of Vascular Malformations in Multiple Gestation Pregnancy [Case Report]
Left Atrial Wall Trauma Causing Intracardiac Thrombus After Device Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale [Case Report]
Thromboprophylaxis in Adults With Atrio-Pulmonary Fontan
BACKGROUND:Although aspirin has been compared to warfarin for thromboembolic prophylaxis in the general Fontan population, little is known about the optimal preventative strategy for the atriopulmonary right atrium-pulmonary artery [RA-PA]) Fontan particularly. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed including adult patients identified in the Ahmanson/UCLA Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center database with a history of RA-PA Fontan and use of either aspirin or warfarin as most recent primary prophylaxis against thromboembolism. Primary outcome was incident thromboembolism, defined as space-occupying lesion on imaging consistent with thrombus within the Fontan or pulmonary arterial circuit. Secondary outcomes were death, transplantation, Fontan conversion, and bleeding requiring either transfusion or invasive intervention. Follow-up was terminated upon achievement of a primary outcome or achievement of a secondary outcome other than bleeding. Kaplan-Meier analysis of freedom from thrombosis was performed. RESULTS:Twenty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Thirteen (50%) received aspirin as most recent primary prophylaxis and 13 (50%) received warfarin. Tricuspid atresia was the most common underlying diagnosis (42%), followed by double-inlet left ventricle (38%). Median age at Fontan operation was 8.2 years; median age at prophylaxis initiation was 25.9 years. After six years, the aspirin group had 50% Â± 35% freedom from thrombosis and the warfarin group 92% Â± 8% ( P = .15). Incidences of secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION:In this cohort of long-term Fontan survivors with RA-PA Fontan, the risk of thromboembolic complications is high, especially in those taking aspirin rather than warfarin. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation after extracardiac Fontan operation [Case Report]
Spatial and temporal variations in hemodynamic forces initiate cardiac trabeculation
Hemodynamic shear force has been implicated as modulating Notch signaling-mediated cardiac trabeculation. Whether the spatiotemporal variations in wall shear stress (WSS) coordinate the initiation of trabeculation to influence ventricular contractile function remains unknown. Using light-sheet fluorescent microscopy, we reconstructed the 4D moving domain and applied computational fluid dynamics to quantify 4D WSS along the trabecular ridges and in the groves. In WT zebrafish, pulsatile shear stress developed along the trabecular ridges, with prominent endocardial Notch activity at 3 days after fertilization (dpf), and oscillatory shear stress developed in the trabecular grooves, with epicardial Notch activity at 4 dpf. Genetic manipulations were performed to reduce hematopoiesis and inhibit atrial contraction to lower WSS in synchrony with attenuation of oscillatory shear index (OSI) during ventricular development. Î³-Secretase inhibitor of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) abrogated endocardial and epicardial Notch activity. Rescue with NICD mRNA restored Notch activity sequentially from the endocardium to trabecular grooves, which was corroborated by observed Notch-mediated cardiomyocyte proliferations on WT zebrafish trabeculae. We also demonstrated in vitro that a high OSI value correlated with upregulated endothelial Notch-related mRNA expression. In silico computation of energy dissipation further supports the role of trabeculation to preserve ventricular structure and contractile function. Thus, spatiotemporal variations in WSS coordinate trabecular organization for ventricular contractile function.
The Challenge of Identifying and Addressing Psychological Comorbidities [Editorial]