Undiagnosed ventricular septal defect with resultant Eisenmenger syndrome presenting with diplopia [Case Report]
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart lesion among children. In most cases, however, it is identified and corrected in childhood, before long-term sequelae such as pulmonary hypertension develop. In this case report, we present a young man with an undiagnosed VSD with consequent Eisenmenger syndrome who initially presented to medical attention with diplopia found to be caused by cerebral infarcts.
Multimodality Imaging of Caval and Coronary Sinus Venous Anomalies [Case Report]
Delivery Timing and Associated Outcomes in Pregnancies With Maternal Congenital Heart Disease at Term
Background Current recommendations for delivery timing of pregnant persons with congenital heart disease (CHD) are based on expert opinion. Justification for early-term birth is based on the theoretical concern of increased cardiovascular stress. The objective was to evaluate whether early-term birth with maternal CHD is associated with lower adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. Methods and Results This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnant persons with CHD who delivered a singleton after 37 0/7â€‰weeks gestation at a quaternary care center with a multidisciplinary cardio-obstetrics care team between 2013 and 2021. Patients were categorized as early-term (37 0/7 to 38 6/7â€‰weeks) or full-term (â‰¥39 0/7) births and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcomes. The primary outcomes were composite adverse cardiovascular, maternal obstetric, and adverse neonatal outcome. Of 110 pregnancies delivering at term, 55 delivered early-term and 55 delivered full-term. Development of adverse cardiovascular and maternal obstetric outcome was not significantly different by delivery timing. The rate of composite adverse neonatal outcomes was significantly higher in early-term births (36% versus 5%, P<0.01). After adjusting for confounding variables, early-term birth remained associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes (adjusted odds ratio 11.55 [95% CI, 2.59-51.58]). Conclusions Early-term birth for pregnancies with maternal CHD was associated with an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, without an accompanying decreased rate in adverse cardiovascular or obstetric outcomes. In the absence of maternal or fetal indications for early birth, induction of labor before 39â€‰weeks for pregnancies with maternal CHD should be reserved for routine obstetrical indications.
Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
Isolated Anomalous Right Superior Pulmonary Venous Return to the Inferior Vena Cava [Case Report]
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital abnormality. We present images from an atypical case of isolated anomalous right superior pulmonary venous return to the inferior vena cava without other cardiac abnormalities.
Emotions, Perceptions and Health Behaviors of Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients during COVID-19 in New York City
Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) have increased prevalence of mood and anxiety dis-orders. There are limited data regarding the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and health behaviors of these patients. Objective: The purpose is to evaluate the perceptions, emotions, and health behaviors of ACHD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of ACHD patients, we administered surveys evaluating self-reported emotions, perceptions and health behaviors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the adjusted odds of displaying each perception, emotion and health behavior based on predictor variables. Results: Ninety-seven patients (mean age 38.3 years, 46.4% female, 85.6% moderate or complex lesion) completed the survey. The majority of patients reported feeling moderately or very sad (63.1%), and 48.4% of patients identified themselves as feeling moderately or very anxious. The majority of patients perceived their risk of COVID-19 as moderate or high. Females were more likely to report feeling sad and anxious (95% CI 1.06"“10.96, p-value 0.039, and 95% CI 1.44"“15.30, p-value = 0.012, respectively), and were associated with higher odds of having a perceived increased risk of COVID-19 (95% CI 1.33"“10.59, p-value 0.012). There was no association between ACHD anatomic or physiologic classification and perceptions, emotions and health behaviors. Conclusions: Females were more likely to report feeling sad, anxious and an increased risk of COVID-19 in comparison to males. These findings indicate the need for mental health support and promotion of health behaviors during the pandemic amongst all ACHD patients, regardless of underlying condition.
Short-Segment Type B Interrupted Aortic Arch Presenting With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage With Subsequent Primary Percutaneous Repair
This report describes a young adult man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to an intracranial aneurysm who was found to have a short-segment type B interrupted aortic arch. We describe the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of this patient and highlight imaging findings and percutaneous repair of the aneurysm and interrupted aortic arch. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).
Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis resulting in haemoptysis: a case series [Case Report]
Background/UNASSIGNED:Acquired pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an infrequent complication of atrial fibrillation ablation that is often misdiagnosed due to predominant respiratory symptoms. It can result in pulmonary venous hypertension, with varying presentations, ranging from shortness of breath to haemoptysis. Case summary/UNASSIGNED:We report two patients with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treated with radiofrequency ablation and pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, who subsequently developed PVS. Case 1 initially presented with indolent symptoms of shortness of breath and cough. He was initially diagnosed with and treated for pneumonia. In contrast, Case 2 presented with massive haemoptysis, requiring intubation and intensive care unit admission. Both patients were eventually diagnosed with PVS by computed tomography. They were treated with PV angioplasty and stenting. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:While previously limited to the congenital heart disease population, PVS is occurring more frequently now in adult patients as a complication of ablation procedures. It is most effectively treated with angioplasty and stent implantation but has a high rate of recurrence.
Peripheral venous pressure accurately predicts central venous pressure in the adult Fontan circulation
BACKGROUND:Patients with the Fontan circulation lack a subpulmonary ventricular pump and thus the main driver for pulmonary blood flow is a high central venous pressure. Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) measurement has been shown to be a reproducible and fairly accurate surrogate for central venous pressure (CVP), but not specifically for the adult Fontan circulation. This study aims to determine the relationship of PVP to CVP in adult Fontan patients. METHODS:All adult patients (â‰¥18 yo) with a Fontan circulation undergoing cardiac catheterization were included. Both CVP and PVP were measured during the catheterization. The relationship between the peripheral venous and central venous pressures was assessed using simple linear regression and the Bland-Altman plot analysis for differences. RESULTS:value of 0.83 (pÂ <Â 0.001). The CVP can be estimated with PVP measurements using the formula CVPÂ =Â (0.86 * PVP)Â +Â 1.3. A Bland-Altman plot for PVP and CVP demonstrated that the PVP overestimated CVP by a mean of 1.2Â mmHg, with a 95% limit of agreement of -5.2Â mmHg to 2.8Â mmHg. CONCLUSIONS:In adult Fontan patients, measuring PVP is a reliable, less-invasive, and accurate method of estimating the CVP during cardiac catheterization procedures. These findings may enable outpatient monitoring of Fontan hemodynamics.
High-Output Heart Failure From Growth of Vascular Malformations in Multiple Gestation Pregnancy [Case Report]