Lentiviral gene therapy vector with UCOE stably restores function in iPSC-derived neutrophils of a CDG patient
Haenseler, Walther; Kuzmenko, Elena; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Browne, Cathy; Seger, Reinhard; James, William S; Cowley, Sally A; Reichenbach, Janine; Siler, Ulrich
A recent gamma-retroviral clinical Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) gene therapy (GT) trial achieved proof-of-concept but was accompanied by activation of oncogenes and transgene silencing. The ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) comprises the sequences of two divergently oriented house-keeping gene promoters and is known to have anti-silencing properties. In a screen we identified two novel UCOE constructs that prevent adjacent promoter methylation in P19 cells. Experiments were continued with the shorter UCOE constructs in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from a p47phox-deficient CGD patient. The iPSC line was transduced with the lentiviral GT vectors expressing P47 under the constitutively active SFFV promoter with UCOE element (UCOE_SF) and without UCOE element (SF) adjacent to the SFFV promoter. The iPSC were expanded before propagation towards neutrophils. 20 days after transduction the UCOE_SF vector was protected from methylation in iPSC as previously shown in P19 cells, whereas the SF vector was heavily methylated in iPSC. The UCOE_SF vector maintained stable transgene expression in iPSC, macrophages and neutrophils, whereas the SF vector was strongly silenced. The UCOE_SF vector stably restored ROS production in neutrophils, whereas for the SF vector the count of ROS producing cells was marginal. To conclude, we have shown that the prevention of transgene silencing by UCOE is functionally and mechanistically preserved upon terminal neutrophil differentiation.
Hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis masked by anorexia nervosa [Case Report]
Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Steinglass, Joanna; Primack, Marshall; Clark-Hamilton, Jill; Bongiovi, Mary
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is typically associated with altered thyroid function tests, notably a low total and free T3 , and lower, but within normal range, free T4 and TSH. A 16-year-old girl with a four-year history of AN presented with elevated TSH that fluctuated with changes in weight. TSH was within normal limits (1.7-3.64 mIU/L) following periods of weight loss and elevated with weight gain (5.9-21.66 mIU/L). Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were markedly elevated, suggesting chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of note, the elevated TSH that would be expected in Hashimoto's thyroiditis was blunted by weight loss associated with AN. Physicians should be aware that AN may contribute to masking thyroid abnormalities in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Comparative efficiency of HIV-1-infected T cell killing by NK cells, monocytes and neutrophils
Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Connors, Mark; Sattentau, Quentin J
HIV-1 infected cells are eliminated in infected individuals by a variety of cellular mechanisms, the best characterized of which are cytotoxic T cell and NK cell-mediated killing. An additional antiviral mechanism is antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we use primary CD4(+) T cells infected with the BaL clone of HIV-1 as target cells and autologous NK cells, monocytes, and neutrophils as effector cells, to quantify the cytotoxicity mediated by the different effectors. This was carried out in the presence or absence of HIV-1-specific antiserum to assess antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. We show that at the same effector to target ratio, NK cells and monocytes mediate similar levels of both antibody-dependent and antibody-independent killing of HIV-1-infected T cells. Neutrophils mediated significant antibody-dependent killing of targets, but were less effective than monocytes or NK cells. These data have implications for acquisition and control of HIV-1 in natural infection and in the context of vaccination.
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells is directly associated with the magnitude of surface IgG binding
Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Klein, Rachel; Patamawenu, Andy; Migueles, Stephen A; Ko, Sung-Youl; Hallahan, Claire W; Wong, Hing; Liu, Bai; You, Lijing; Scheid, Johannes; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Nabel, Gary J; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark
Antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is thought to potentially play a role in vaccine-induced protection from HIV-1. The characteristics of such antibodies remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, correlates between ADCC and HIV-1 immune status are not clearly defined. We screened the sera of 20 HIV-1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients for ADCC. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to derive HIV-infected CD4(+) T cell targets and autologous, freshly isolated, natural killer (NK) cells in a novel assay that measures granzyme B (GrB) and HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cell elimination (ICE) by flow cytometry. We observed that complex sera mediated greater levels of ADCC than anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-specific monoclonal antibodies and serum-mediated ADCC correlated with the amount of IgG and IgG1 bound to HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells. No correlation between ADCC and viral load, CD4(+) T cell count, or neutralization of HIV-1(SF162) or other primary viral isolates was detected. Sera pooled from clade B HIV-1(+) individuals exhibited breadth in killing targets infected with HIV-1 from clades A/E, B, and C. Taken together, these data suggest that the total amount of IgG bound to an HIV-1-infected cell is an important determinant of ADCC and that polyvalent antigen-specific Abs are required for a robust ADCC response. In addition, Abs elicited by a vaccine formulated with immunogens from a single clade may generate a protective ADCC response in vivo against a variety of HIV-1 species. Increased understanding of the parameters that dictate ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells will inform efforts to stimulate ADCC activity and improve its potency in vaccinees.
Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography
Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Irobalieva, Rossitza N; Tolbert, Blanton S; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Iyalla, Kilali; Loeliger, Kelsey; D'Souza, Victoria; Khant, Htet; Schmid, Michael F; Garcia, Eric L; Telesnitsky, Alice; Chiu, Wah; Summers, Michael F
The 5'-untranslated regions of all gammaretroviruses contain a conserved "double-hairpin motif" (Î¨(CD)) that is required for genome packaging. Both hairpins (SL-C and SL-D) contain GACG tetraloops that, in isolated RNAs, are capable of forming "kissing" interactions stabilized by two intermolecular G-C base pairs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the double hairpin from the Moloney murine leukemia virus ([Î¨(CD)](2), 132 nt, 42.8 kDa) using a (2)H-edited NMR-spectroscopy-based approach. This approach enabled the detection of (1)H-(1)H dipolar interactions that were not observed in previous studies of isolated SL-C and SL-D hairpin RNAs using traditional (1)H-(1)H correlated and (1)H-(13)C-edited NMR methods. The hairpins participate in intermolecular cross-kissing interactions (SL-C to SL-D' and SLC' to SL-D) and stack in an end-to-end manner (SL-C to SL-D and SL-C' to SL-D') that gives rise to an elongated overall shape (ca 95 Ã…Ã—45 Ã…Ã—25 Ã…). The global structure was confirmed by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), making [Î¨(CD)](2) simultaneously the smallest RNA to be structurally characterized to date by cryo-ET and among the largest to be determined by NMR. Our findings suggest that, in addition to promoting dimerization, [Î¨(CD)](2) functions as a scaffold that helps initiate virus assembly by exposing a cluster of conserved UCUG elements for binding to the cognate nucleocapsid domains of assembling viral Gag proteins.
HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+T Cells [Meeting Abstract]
Smalls-Mantey, A. R.; Klein, R. M.; Doria-Rose, N. A.; Laub, L. B.; Rood, J. E.; Migueles, S. A.; Mascola, J. R.; Sattentau, Q. J.; Connors, M.
Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus
Dey, Anwesha; York, Danielle; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Summers, Michael F
All retroviruses package two copies of their genomes during virus assembly, both of which are required for strand transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription. Genome packaging is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domains of assembling Gag polyproteins and an RNA packaging signal, located near the 5' end of the genome, called Psi. We recently discovered that the NC protein of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) can bind with high affinity to conserved UCUG elements within the MLV packaging signal [D'Souza, V., and Summers, M. F. (2004) Nature 431, 586-590]. Selective binding to dimeric RNA is regulated by a conformational RNA switch, in which the UCUG elements are sequestered by base pairing in the monomeric RNA and do not bind NC, but become exposed for NC binding upon dimerization. Dimerization-dependent structural changes occur in other regions of the Psi-site, exposing guanosine-containing segments that might also bind NC. Here we demonstrate that short RNAs containing three such sequences, ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG, can bind NC with significant affinity (K(d) = 94-315 nM). Titration experiments with oligoribonucleotides of varying lengths and compositions, combined with NMR-based structural studies, reveal that binding is strictly dependent on the presence of an unpaired guanosine, and that relative binding affinities can vary by more than 1 order of magnitude depending on the nature of the three upstream nucleotides. Binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute significantly to binding. Our findings extend a previously published model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA.