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Cascante, S D; Blakemore, J K; Parra, C M; DeVore, S; Hodes-Wertz, B; McCaffrey, C; Grifo, J A
Objective: Data regarding the chance of more than one LB from oocyte cryopreservation (OC) is lacking. We reviewed outcomes from patients (pts) with >=1 LB from thawed autologous oocytes (AOs) to examine: 1) how many have inventory (AOs or resultant euploid/untested/no result embryos), and 2) embryo transfer (ET) outcomes after 1st LB.
Material(s) and Method(s): We reviewed all pts who thawed AOs at our center in 2006-2021 and had >=1 resultant LB. Pts were excluded if OC was performed for a medical reason, as research, due to lack of sperm or a natural disaster, with embryo banking or for gestational carrier use.
Result(s): 191 pts had >=1 LB (median # OC cycles 1, median age at 1st OC 37 years (y), median # cryopreserved AOs 18, median # AOs thawed before 1st LB 15). After LB, 61% of pts (n=117) had inventory and 39% (n=74) did not; see table. Among pts with inventory, 12% (n=14) discarded or donated, 3% (n=4) transported out and 10% (n=12) consumed all inventory as of 1/2022. 22% of pts with inventory (n=26) had >=1 ET after LB. Among these pts, 21 thawed embryos (median # thawed 1, range 1-2), 4 thawed AOs (median # thawed 11, range 5-40) and 1 thawed both AOs + embryos (15 AOs + 4 embryos). Median time from the ET that led to 1st LB and next ET was 26 months (range 15-57) and median age at next ET was 44y (range 37-53). This ET resulted in: implantation rate of 63% (19/30), spontaneous abortion rate of 16% (3/19) and ongoing pregnancy (OP) + LB rate of 58% (15/26); 1 pregnancy was terminated for monozygotic twins. Among pts who had a LB from this ET, 66% (10/15) had remaining inventory and 33% (5/15) did not. Among pts who did not have a LB from this ET, 45% (5/11) had remaining inventory and 54% (6/11) did not; 5 of these unsuccessful pts returned for another ET and 2 had a LB. In total, 16 pts had 2 ETs result in OP/LB and 1 pt had 3 ETs result in LB. 10 more pts had >=2 children from a single ET (9 twins, 1 triplet); thus, we report 27 pts with >=2 children from OC. Among pts with >=2 children, median # OC cycles was 1 (range 1-8), median age at 1st OC was 37y (range 34-41), median # cryopreserved AOs was 20 (range 5-102) and median # thawed AOs was 19 (range 5-58).
Conclusion(s): Most pts (61%) had inventory after their 1st LB from OC, and most pts (65%) who returned for ET after LB achieved another OP/LB. Further research must explore pts' thoughts regarding OC inventory after LB and its associated storage fees. Impact Statement: OC can help pts achieve their ideal family size, even if >1 child. [Formula presented] Support: None.
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5366952


Parra, C M; Cascante, S D; Blakemore, J K; DeVore, S; McCulloh, D H; Grifo, J A
Objective: Planned OC is increasing; yet, there is a lack of thaw data to provide an accurate estimate of CLBR.1 We reviewed our AO thaws to determine CLBR by age and #AOs.
Material(s) and Method(s): We reviewed AO thaws at our academic center from 2004-2021. Inclusion criteria: 1) >=1 live birth (LB)/ongoing pregnancy (OP) >12 weeks, or 2) all AOs + embryos from OC consumed. Exclusion criteria: 1) OC for a medical reason, as research, due to lack of sperm or a natural disaster, combined with embryos or for gestational carrier use, or 2) AOs/embryos from OC transported out before a LB. Primary outcome was CLBR (LB + OP). Patients (pts) were stratified by age and #AOs or metaphase II oocytes (M2s) thawed. If pts had >=1 OC cycle, we calculated a weighted age: [SIGMA (#AOs thawed x age at OC)] / [#AOs thawed]. Statistics included multiple logistic regression (MLR), Fischer's exact test, and chi-squared test (p<0.05 significant).
Result(s): 548 pts (median age at OC 38y, range 28-45y; 151 weighted ages used) underwent 767 OC (location: 90% our center, 9% elsewhere, 2% both; method: 77% vitrification, 4% slow cooling, 19% both), 604 thaw and 465 transfer cycles. 40% (n=218) of pts had >=1 LB/OP, resulting in 221 babies + 30 OPs. See table for CLBRs. In pts of all ages and <38y, CLBR increased as #AO/M2s thawed increased from 0-10 to 11-20 to >20 (p<0.03). In pts 38-39y, CLBR was lower if 0-10 vs. 11-20 or >20 AOs were thawed (p<0.01), but was similar if 11-20 vs. >20 AOs (p=0.34) or M2s (p=0.13) were thawed. In pts >=40y, CLBR did not differ based on #AOs (p=0.81) or M2s thawed (p=0.17). For pts with any # or >20 AO/M2s thawed, CLBR was higher in pts <38y and 38-39y vs. pts >=40y (p<0.04). In a MLR model adjusting for effect of age on #AOs, age and age-independent #AOs were predictive of LB.
Conclusion(s): CLBR increases as more AO/M2s are thawed. OC at <38y has a CLBR of ~50%, a reasonable rate in younger pts at an ideal age for OC. Impact Statement: Pts who freeze >20 AOs at <38y can expect >=70% CLBR based on actual outcomes. This is the largest report to date of AO thaw outcomes from a single U.S. center. [Formula presented] REFERENCES:: 1 Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Evidence-based outcomes after oocyte cryopreservation for donor oocyte in vitro fertilization and planned oocyte cryopreservation: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2021 Jul;116(1):36-47.
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5366982


Parra, C M; Shaw, J; Cascante, S D; DeVore, S; Blakemore, J K
Objective: Infertility affects >100 million people worldwide; improving FC access is essential, especially for low socioeconomic and minority groups. In NYC's public hospital system, patients (pts) are referred to a fellow-led reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) clinic that provides consults, work-ups and ultrasound-monitored controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and ovulation induction (OI). REI referrals (REF) are in high demand limiting appointment (appt) availability1 with new pts waiting >5 months. We developed a QIP to identify pts for OI counseling and initiation in GYN clinic.
Material(s) and Method(s): REI fellows screened all REFs, and scheduled eligible pts in GYN. QIP criteria: age <38 years (y); anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) >2ng/mL; normal prolactin, thyroid function and hemoglobin A1C; no known reproductive issues/comorbidities requiring high risk obstetrics; <3 prior OI cycles. Eligible pts received early follicular letrozole 2.5mg for 5 days (d) in GYN and were then followed in REI's OI program. Non-eligible pts were scheduled in REI. To assess effectiveness, we retrospectively compared all REF outcomes from PRE-(3/1/21-5/31/21) to POST-(9/1/21-11/30/21) QIP as of 2/14/22. A transition period (6/1/21-8/31/21) was excluded. Primary outcome was time from REF to scheduled appt. Secondary outcomes included time from REF to OI prescription/cycle start. Statistics included Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fischer's exact and Two-sample t tests (p<0.05 significant).
Result(s): PRE (n=121) and POST (n=102) REFs had similar median ages [36 (interquartile range (IQR): 32-39) PRE vs 35y (IQR: 31-40) POST, p=0.73], ethnic/racial identity [56.2% (68/121) PRE vs 53.9% (55/102) POST Hispanic (p=0.79); 34.7% (42/121) PRE vs 30.4% (31/102) POST Black (p=0.59)], and rates of no prior FC [88.4% (107/121) PRE vs 93.1% (95/102) POST, p=0.15]. QIP identified pts for GYN who were younger [median age 29 (IQR: 27-33) vs 38y (IQR: 33-41), p<0.01], had higher AMHs [median 3.065 (IQR: 2.315-4.883) vs 1.230 ng/mL (IQR: 0.513-3.630), p<0.01], and had fewer comorbidities [100% (19/19) vs 72.5% (50/69), p<0.01] compared to REI. After QIP implementation, median time from REF to scheduled appt decreased from PRE 151 (IQR: 125-173) to POST 98d (IQR: 73-137) (p<0.01). For pts seen in clinic thus far, median time from REF to OI prescription decreased from 150 (IQR: 122-173) to 82d (IQR: 63-119) (p<0.01) and to 1st follicle check from 202 (IQR: 159-221) to 107d (IQR: 98-115) (p<0.04). In the POST cohort, 86.3% (88/102) of REFs had visits scheduled, with 21.6% (19/88) in GYN and 78.4% (69/88) in REI. OI was started at initial visit for 61.5% (8/13) of GYN pts vs 25.8% (8/31) of REI pts (p<0.04). 38.5% (5/13) of GYN pts met criteria for QIP, but were pending >1 blood test, while 51.6% (16/31) of REI pts were pending further work-up.
Conclusion(s): Our QIP expedited FC for all pts by reducing the time from REF to scheduled fertility appt by 35% (median of 53d) and to OI prescription/cycle start by nearly 45% (medians of 68d/95d). Impact Statement: Similar OI pathways could improve access to FC for underserved populations in broader practice settings. REFERENCES: 1 Blakemore JK, Maxwell SM, Hodes-Wertz B, Goldman KN. Access to infertility care in a low-resource setting: bridging the gap through resident and fellow education in a New York City public hospital. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2020 Jul;37(7):1545-1552.
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5367032

Fifteen years of autologous oocyte thaw outcomes from a large university-based fertility center

Cascante, Sarah Druckenmiller; Blakemore, Jennifer K; DeVore, Shannon; Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; Fino, M Elizabeth; Berkeley, Alan S; Parra, Carlos M; McCaffrey, Caroline; Grifo, James A
OBJECTIVE:To review the outcomes of patients who underwent autologous oocyte thaw after planned oocyte cryopreservation. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Large urban university-affiliated fertility center. PATIENT(S)/METHODS:All patients who underwent ≥1 autologous oocyte thaw before December 31, 2020. INTERVENTION(S)/METHODS:None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)/METHODS:The primary outcome was the final live birth rate (FLBR) per patient, and only patients who had a live birth (LB) or consumed all remaining inventory (cryopreserved oocytes and resultant euploid/untested/no result embryos) were included. The secondary outcomes were laboratory outcomes and LB rates per transfer. RESULT(S)/RESULTS:A total of 543 patients underwent 800 oocyte cryopreservations, 605 thaws, and 436 transfers. The median age at the first cryopreservation was 38.3 years. The median time between the first cryopreservation and thaw was 4.2 years. The median numbers of oocytes and metaphase II oocytes (M2s) thawed per patient were 14 and 12, respectively. Overall survival of all thawed oocytes was 79%. Of all patients, 61% underwent ≥1 transfer. Among euploid (n = 262) and nonbiopsied (n = 158) transfers, the LB rates per transfer were 55% and 31%, respectively. The FLBR per patient was 39%. Age at cryopreservation and the number of M2s thawed were predictive of LB; the FLBR per patient was >50% for patients aged <38 years at cryopreservation or who thawed ≥20 M2s. A total of 173 patients (32%) have remaining inventory. CONCLUSION(S)/CONCLUSIONS:Autologous oocyte thaw resulted in a 39% FLBR per patient, which is comparable with age-matched in vitro fertilization outcomes. Studies with larger cohorts are necessary.
PMID: 35597614
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5247762


Cascante, S D; Grifo, J A; DeVore, S; Parra, C M; McCaffrey, C; Blakemore, J K
OBJECTIVE: Oocyte cryo is widely used for fertility preservation, but the value of M1 cryo remains unclear. We evaluated the utility and efficiency of M1 compared to M2 cryo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (pts) who thawed autologous oocytes at our academic center from 2004-2020 were reviewed. Pts were excluded if cryo was performed for a medical indication, as research, due to no sperm or a natural disaster, in combination with embryos or for use with a gestational carrier. At our center, all M1s retrieved from 2004-2015 were cryopreserved; after 2015, M1s were only cryopreserved if <15 M2s were retrieved during the same cryo cycle. Outcomes included survival rate, useable embryo rate and embryo transfer (ET) results.Auseable embryo was defined as an embryo that was transferred, biopsied or cryopreserved for future use. Statistics included Fisher's exact test.
RESULT(S): 543 pts (median age at 1st cryo 38y, interquartile range 37-40y) underwent 800 cryo, 605 thaw and 416 ET cycles. Cryo was performed with vitrification for 72%, slow freezing for 4% and both technologies for 24% of pts. In total, 8511 oocytes (1019M1s + 7492 M2s)were thawed.All pts thawed >=1 M2, and 60% (n=327) thawed >=1 M1. See table for thaw outcomes of M1s vs. M2s. For 30 pts, >=1 M1 led to a useable embryo (n=32 useable embryos). Vitrification was used for 69% of these M1s (n=22) and slow freezing was used for 31% (n=10). Of the 32 useable embryos from M1s, 69% (n=22) underwent PGTand 4were euploid (17 aneuploid, 1 mosaic). Therewere 3 single ETs of euploid embryos from M1s, which led to 1 spontaneous abortion (SAB) and 2 biochemical pregnancies. Therewere 3 single ETs of untested embryos from M1s, which led to 1 negative result, 1 SAB and 1 singleton ongoing pregnancy. The ongoing pregnancy is from an ETof a day 5 morula and is now in the third trimester. There were 6 ETs in which untested embryos from M1s were transferred alongwith untested embryos fromM2s, resulting in 3 negative results, 1 SAB, 1 singleton live birth and 1 unknown outcome (ongoing singleton pregnancy at last contact).
CONCLUSION(S): Cryopreserved M1s can result in useable embryos and pregnancies, but are less likely to survive or form useable embryos than cryopreserved M2s. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ongoing third trimester pregnancy from a cryopreserved M1. This information may be helpful for pt counselling and designing oocyte cryo protocols for embryology labs. IMPACT STATEMENT: Cryopreserved M1s may be a viable option for pts with a low M2 yield. (Table Presented)
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5250732


Weidenbaum, E M; Cascante, S D; DeVore, S; Hodes-Wertz, B; Grifo, J A; Blakemore, J K
OBJECTIVE: The rise of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and temporary closures of fertility centers made the effect on POC cycles uncertain but garnered national attention1,2. We sought to assess the impact of the pandemic on POC cycles in a pandemic epicenter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all POC cycles at an academic fertility center in New York City from 1/1/2019- 12/31/2020. Primary outcomes were number of POC patients (pts) and cycles. Secondary outcomes were pt relationship status, payment method, AMH, and cycle parameters; with subgroup analyses by age groups. We also examined the relationship between monthly number of POC cycles and national SaRS-CoV-2 cases. Statistical analyses included z-score analysis, Mann-Whitney, and Chi-squared, with p<0.05 significant.
RESULT(S): Despite a 5.5 week center closure in 2020, POC pts increased 14% and POC cycles increased 16% from 2019 to 2020 (Table), with a 32% increase seen between June-Dec, 2020 . There was a 28% increase in POC pts <37yo in 2020 (252 pts vs. 323 pts, p<0.04) and no change in pts >37yo in 2020 (p=0.9). Relationship status did not differ between years (16% partnered, 76% single, 8% unknown in 2019 vs. 16% partnered, 73% single, 11% unknown in 2020; p=0.6). Fewer patients in 2020 had insurance coverage (16% vs. 24%, p<0.001). AMH was higher in 2020 (2.3 vs. 2.1, p<0.03), but days of stimulation, oocytes retrieved, oocytes frozen, total gonadotropins, and maximum estradiol (E2) were not different (Table). While national SARS-CoV-2 cases peaked in April, July, and November 2020, monthly POC cycles at our center did not decrease with surges in SARS-CoV-2 after our center reopened in May (p=0.24). In 2020 there were 23 cycles cancelled, none due a positive SARS-CoV-2 test.
CONCLUSION(S): POC volume increased at our center in 2020, especially in young patients, despite center closures and SARS-CoV-2 surges. IMPACT STATEMENT: More young people pursued POC despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Further research is needed to understand POC pt motivations and experiences during a pandemic. (Table Presented)
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5250952


Cascante, S D; Blakemore, J K; DeVore, S; Parra, C M; Hodes-Wertz, B; McCaffrey, C; Grifo, J A
OBJECTIVE: AO cryopreservation (cryo) is widely used, but published thaw data is scarce. We reviewed our elective AO thaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pts who thawed AOs at our FC in 2004- 2020 were reviewed. Pts were excluded if AO cryo was performed for a medical reason, as research, due to no sperm or a natural disaster, with embryo cryo or for use with a gestational carrier. Outcomes included implantation (IR), spontaneous abortion (SABR) and ongoing pregnancy + live birth (LBR) rates / embryo transfer (ET). We calculated a final LBR (FLBR) defined as LBR / pt; FLBR only included pts who a) had live birth (LB) or ongoing pregnancy (OP), or b) consumed all AOs and resultant embryos. Statistics included Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact test.
RESULT(S): 543 pts (median age at 1st cryo 38y) underwent 800 cryos (89% our FC, 9% elsewhere, 2% both), 605 thaws and 416 ETs. Cryo used vitrification for 72%, slow freezing for 4% and both for 24% of pts. Median time from 1st cryo to 1st thaw was 4y. In total, we thawed 8511 AOs (7492 M2s). AO survival was 79%, M2 survival was 80% and 2PN fertilization was 66%. When pts returned for thaw, 25% pursued fresh ET, 73% pursued preimplantation genetic testing (PGT), and 2% pursued a combination of both. In pts who pursued fresh ET, 92% had >=1 embryo for ET. In pts who pursued PGT, 57% had >=1 euploid. 13% of pts had no useable embryos (embryos for fresh ET, PGT, cryo). 59% of pts had >=1 ET. 37% of ETs were fresh, with 2% using rush-PGT. 63% of ETs were frozen, with 97% using PGT. In non-biopsied ETs, IR was 29%, SABR was 19% and LBR was 31%. In euploid ETs, IR was 64%, SABR was 10% and LBR was 55%. In our cohort, FLBR was 38%. In total, 178 babies (11 twin, 1 triplet) and 24 OPs resulted. 176 pts have >=1 LB or OP, and 23 pts have >=2 LBs or OPs from AO thaw. 33% of pts have remaining AOs or euploid or untested embryos; 45% of these pts do not have a LB or OP from AO thaw. See table for outcomes by age.
CONCLUSION(S): AO thaw leads to a FLBR of 38%, comparable to our FC's 34% LBR per intended retrieval in pts of similar age1 . IMPACT STATEMENT: Our real thaw data may be more useful than models in pt counseling
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5250982


Parra, C M; Cascante, S D; Blakemore, J K; DeVore, S; McCulloh, D H; Grifo, J A
OBJECTIVE: OC is widely used for fertility preservation. Many models predict the live birth (LB) rate of OC, but real-world data is lacking. We reviewed our LBs from OC to develop an OC counseling tool based on real outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed patients (pts) who thawed autologous oocytes (AOs) at our academic fertility center from 2004-2020. We included pts who: 1) had a LB or ongoing pregnancy (OP) >12 weeks at last contact, or 2) consumed all AOs and resultant embryos. Pts were excluded if they transferred AOs or resultant embryos to another center or if OC was performed for a medical reason, as research, due to no sperm or a natural disaster, combined with embryos or for use with a gestational carrier. We calculated OP + LB rate (LBR) based on number of AOs and metaphase II oocytes (M2s) thawed. Data were stratified by age (<38y vs. >=38y). For pts who underwent OC at <38y and >=38y, a weighted age was calculated (for each OC cycle, #AOs thawed was multiplied by age at OC; the sum of these numbers was then divided by total #AOs thawed). Statistics included Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 significant).
RESULT(S): We included 462 pts (median age at 1st OC 38.5y). Weighted ages were used for 21 pts (5%). Our pts underwent 650 OCs (90% our center, 9% elsewhere, 1% both), 512 thaws and 385 embryo transfers. OC involved vitrification for 72%, slow freezing for 4% and both for 24% of pts. A total of 7050 AOs and 6178 M2s were thawed. 38% of pts (n=176) have >=1 LB or OP from AO thaw. See table for outcomes. Pts who thawed 0-10 AOs had a lower LBR than pts who thawed 11-20, 21-30, or >30 AOs (p<=0.03). Pts who thawed 0-10 M2s had a lower LBR than pts who thawed 11-20 or 21- 30 M2s (p<=0.02). LBR was not significantly different between pts who thawed 11-20, 21-30, or >30 AOs or M2s.
CONCLUSION(S): Pts who thawed 0-10 AOs had a lower LBR (27%) than pts who thawed >10 AOs (LBR >= 43%), and pts who thawed 0-10 M2s had a lower LBR (30%) than pts who thawed > 10 M2s (LBR >= 42%), but LBR was not different with >10 thawed AOs. IMPACT STATEMENT: Our real-world OC outcomes are not consistent with LBRs in published models. These results provide more realistic expectations about OC outcomes and may help pts decide how many AOs to freeze
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5251002

Planned oocyte cryopreservation-10-15-year follow-up: return rates and cycle outcomes

Blakemore, Jennifer K; Grifo, James A; DeVore, Shannon M; Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; Berkeley, Alan S
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the outcomes of planned oocyte cryopreservation patients most likely to have a final disposition. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent at least 1 cycle of planned oocyte cryopreservation between Jan 2005 and December 2009. SETTING/METHODS:Large urban University-affiliated fertility center PATIENT(S): All patients who underwent ≥1 cycle of planned oocyte cryopreservation in the study period. INTERVENTION(S)/METHODS:None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Primary outcome was the disposition of oocytes at 10-15 years. Secondary outcomes included thaw/warming types, laboratory outcomes, and live birth rates. Outcomes and variables treated per patient. RESULT(S)/RESULTS:A total of 231 patients with 280 cycles were included. The mean age at the first retrieval was 38.2 years (range 23-45). A total of 3,250 oocytes were retrieved, with an average of 10 metaphase II frozen/retrieval. To date, the oocytes of 88 patients (38.1%) have been thawed/warmed, 109 (47.2%) remain in storage, 27 (11.7%) have been discarded, and 7 (3.0%) have been transported elsewhere. The return rate (patients who thawed/warmed oocytes) was similar by Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology age group. The mean age of patients discarding oocytes was 47.4 years (range, 40-57). Of the 88 patients who thawed/warmed oocytes, the mean age at the time of thaw/warming was 43.9 years (range, 38-50) with a mean of 5.9 years frozen (range, 1-12). Nine patients (10.2%) thawed/warmed for secondary infertility. A total of 62.5% of patients created embryos with a partner, and 37.5% used donor sperm. On average, 14.3 oocytes were thawed/warmed per patient, with 74.2% survival (range, 0%-100%) and a mean fertilization rate of 68.8% of surviving oocytes. Of 88 patients, 39 (44.3%) planned a fresh embryo transfer (ET); 36 of 39 patients had at least 1 embryo for fresh ET, and 11 had a total of 14 infants. Forty-nine of 88 patients (55.7%) planned for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy, with a mean of 4.2 embryos biopsied (range, 0-14) and a euploidy rate of 28.9%. Of the 49 patients, 17 (34.7%) had all aneuploidy or no embryos biopsied. Twenty-four patients underwent a total of 36 single euploid ET with 18 live births from 16 patients. Notably, 8 PGT-A patients had a euploid embryo but no ET, affecting the future cumulative pregnancy rate. Overall, 80 patients with thaw/warming embryos had a final outcome. Of these, 20 had nothing for ET (arrested/aneuploid), and of the 60 who had ≥1 ET, 27 had a total of 32 infants, with a live birth rate of 33.8% (27/80). CONCLUSION(S)/CONCLUSIONS:We report the final outcomes of patients most likely to have returned, which is useful for patient counseling: a utilization rate of 38.1% and a no-use rate of 58.9%, similar across age groups. Further studies with larger cohorts as well as epidemiologic comparisons to patients currently cryopreserving are needed.
PMID: 33712289
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 4817192


Cascante, Sarah Druckenmiller; Devore, Shannon; Blakemore, Jennifer K.; Lee, Tsai-Ling; McCaffrey, Caroline; Grifo, James A.
ISSN: 0015-0282
CID: 4685262