Commentary: Normothermic regional perfusion: Ethical issues in thoracic organ donation: An important discussion, but stop the press! [Editorial]
Pulmonary Pathology of End-Stage COVID-19 Disease in Explanted Lungs and Outcomes After Lung Transplantation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may develop end-stage lung disease requiring lung transplantation. We report the clinical course, pulmonary pathology with radiographic correlation, and outcomes after lung transplantation in three patients who developed chronic respiratory failure due to postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:A retrospective histologic evaluation of explanted lungs due to coronavirus disease 2019 was performed. RESULTS:None of the patients had known prior pulmonary disease. The major pathologic findings in the lung explants were proliferative and fibrotic phases of diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial capillary neoangiogenesis, and mononuclear inflammation, specifically macrophages, with varying numbers of T and B lymphocytes. The fibrosis varied from early collagen deposition to more pronounced interstitial collagen deposition; however, pulmonary remodeling with honeycomb change was not present. Other findings included peribronchiolar metaplasia, microvascular thrombosis, recanalized thrombi in muscular arteries, and pleural adhesions. No patients had either recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or allograft rejection following transplant at this time. CONCLUSIONS:The major pathologic findings in the lung explants of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest ongoing fibrosis, prominent macrophage infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and microvascular thrombosis. Characterization of pathologic findings could help develop novel management strategies.
Missed Opportunities in Identifying Cardiomyopathy Aetiology Prior to Advanced Heart Failure Therapy
BACKGROUND:Specific aetiologies of cardiomyopathy can significantly impact treatment options as well as appropriateness and prioritisation for advanced heart failure therapies such as ventricular assist device (VAD) or orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). We reviewed the tissue diagnoses of patients who underwent advanced therapies for heart failure (HF) to identify diagnostic discrepancies. METHODS:This study presents a retrospective cohort of the aetiology of cardiomyopathy in 118 patients receiving either durable VAD or OHT. Discrepancies between the preoperative aetiological diagnosis of cardiomyopathy with the pathological diagnosis were recorded. Echocardiographic and haemodynamic data were reviewed to examine differences in patients with differing aetiological diagnoses. RESULTS:Twelve (12) of 118 (12/118) (10.2%) had a pathological diagnosis that was discordant with pre-surgical diagnosis. The most common missed diagnoses were infiltrative cardiomyopathy (5) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (3). Patients with misidentified aetiology of cardiomyopathy had smaller left ventricular (LV) dimensions on echocardiography than patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.8Â±0.9 vs 6.7Â±1.1 respectively p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Most HF patients undergoing VAD and OHT had a correct diagnosis for their heart failure prior to treatment, but a missed diagnosis at time of intervention (VAD or OHT) was not uncommon. Smaller LV dimension on echocardiogram in a patient with a non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy warrants further workup for a more specific aetiology.
Safety and Feasibility of an Early Mobilization Protocol for Patients with Femoral Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps as Bridge to Heart Transplant
Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) can be used to provide hemodynamic support in patients with end-stage heart failure as a bridge to transplantation (BTT). The IABP is commonly inserted via the common femoral artery, which can limit patients' mobility. The Ramsey protocol, developed by a critical care physical therapist, allows patients with femoral IABPs to ambulate with the assistance of a tilt table. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a modified Ramsey protocol for early mobilization of patients with femoral IABPs as BTT. This is a retrospective single-center review of patients with femoral IABPs as BTT using a tilt table protocol from May 2019 to May 2020. Primary outcomes were time to successful ambulation, number of successful ambulation events, and ambulation-associated adverse events, including IABP augmentation, waveform, positioning changes, and vascular complications at the insertion site. Twenty-four patients (mean age 55 Â± 16 years) underwent femoral IABP insertion as BTT and were mobilized following our protocol. Nineteen patients (79.2%) successfully ambulated with a median of three sessions (interquartile range, 2-4) per patient. The median time from IABP insertion to ambulation was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). Twenty-one patients underwent heart transplantation, of which all 19 who ambulated were successfully bridged to transplantation. Early mobilization in select patients with femoral IABPs can be performed safely and successfully, avoiding the deleterious effects of bed rest that have been historically seen in this patient population.
Tocilizumab Accelerates Recovery in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia on Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Logistics for expanding heart transplantation from donation after circulatory death using normothermic regional perfusion [Editorial]
Commentary: Heart transplantation from donation after circulatory death: Coming to a hospital near you [Editorial]
Prior Infrarenal Aortic Surgery is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Complex Endovascular Aortic Repair
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with prior infrarenal aortic intervention represent an increasing demographic of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and/or complex EVAR. Studies have suggested that prior abdominal aortic surgery is a risk factor for spinal cord ischemia (SCI). However, these results are largely based on single-center experiences with limited multi-institutional and national data assessing clinical outcomes in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior infrarenal aortic surgery on SCI. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients â‰¥18 years old undergoing TEVAR/complex EVAR from January 2012 to June 2020. Patients with previous thoracic or suprarenal aortic repairs were excluded. Baseline and procedural characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared by group: TEVAR/complex EVAR with or without previous infrarenal aortic repair. The primary outcome was postoperative SCI. Secondary outcomes included postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), bowel ischemia, renal ischemia, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors of postoperative SCI. Additional analysis was performed for patients undergoing isolated TEVAR. RESULTS:A total of 9506 patients met the inclusion criteria: 8691 (91.4%) had no history of infrarenal aortic repair and 815 (8.6%) had previous infrarenal aortic repair. Patients with previous infrarenal repair were older with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (p=0.001) and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking history (p<0.001). These patients presented with larger maximal aortic diameters (6.06Â±1.47 cm versus 5.15Â±1.76 cm; p<0.001) and required more stent grafts (p<0.001) with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (p<0.001), and longer procedure times (p<0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated no difference in postoperative SCI, postoperative hospital LOS, bowel ischemia, or renal ischemia between the two groups. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with prior infrarenal repair (p=0.001). On multivariate regression, prior infrarenal aortic repair was not a predictor of postoperative SCI, while aortic dissection (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.16, p<0.001), number of stent grafts deployed (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.30-1.62, p<0.001), and units of packed red blood cells transfused intraoperatively (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.73, p=0.032) were independent predictors of SCI. CONCLUSIONS:Although TEVAR/complex EVAR patients with prior infrarenal aortic repair constituted a sicker cohort with higher 30-day mortality, the rate of SCI was comparable to patients without prior repair. Previous infrarenal repair was not associated with risk of SCI.
Transplant Outcomes in Hearts with Moderate to Severe Left Ventricular Hypertrophy After the 2018 OPTN/UNOS Allocation Changes [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: After the 2018 OPTN/UNOS heart transplant (HT) allocation changes, there has been an increase in graft ischemia time, a factor shown to worsen HT outcomes in recipients of hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We compare HT outcomes in moderate to severe LVH defined by left ventricular wall thickness >= 1.4cm and non-LVH hearts and determine if there were changes in LVH HT outcomes after 2018.
Method(s): The UNOS database was queried for all HT recipients ages >18 from 2016 to 2020. Multi-organ transplants were excluded. Demographic, donor, and recipient information were compared between LVH and non-LVH hearts. The primary outcome was post-transplant survival with secondary outcomes of rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and post-transplant ejection fraction, all at one year. Comparisons were made using Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank-sum. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were used to discern the predictors of survival and the effect of LVH on outcomes.
Result(s): 10,175 HTs were analyzed: 491 LVH and 9784 non-LVH. After the 2018 changes, compared to non-LVH HT donors, LVH HT donors were older, had higher BMI, more often had HTN, were male, and had kidney disease. LVH HT recipients were older, higher BMI, and had greater HLA mismatch. Graft ischemia time, survival, and secondary outcomes were similar. Examining the LVH cohort specifically before and after the 2018 changes, there were no differences in survival or most secondary outcomes (decrease in CAV) despite increases in recipient BMI, recipient prior cardiac surgery, and graft ischemia time, which were independent predictors of worse outcomes in the overall cohort. LVH was not a predictor of survival or any secondary outcome.
Conclusion(s): Outcomes for recipients of hearts with moderate to severe LVH were not negatively impacted by the 2018 OPTN/UNOS changes despite longer graft ischemia time, and outcomes for recipients of LVH hearts were similar to those receiving hearts without LVH.
Results of Heart Transplants from Donation After Circulatory Death (DCD) Donors Using Thoraco-Abdominal Normothermic Regional Perfusion (TA-NRP) Compared to Donation After Brain Death ( [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: In the U.S., heart transplantation from donation after circulatory death (DCD) is increasing. We present our institutional experience of DCD transplantation by using a thoracoabdominal-normothermic regional perfusion (TA-NRP) protocol and compare the results to a cohort concomitantly transplanted, from standard brain death (