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Persistent telomere cohesion protects aged cells from premature senescence

Azarm, Kameron; Bhardwaj, Amit; Kim, Eugenie; Smith, Susan
Human telomeres are bound by the telomere repeat binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2. Telomere shortening in human cells leads to a DNA damage response that signals replicative senescence. While insufficient loading of TRF2 at shortened telomeres contributes to the DNA damage response in senescence, the contribution of TRF1 to senescence induction has not been determined. Here we show that counter to TRF2 deficiency-mediated induction of DNA damage, TRF1 deficiency serves a protective role to limit induction of DNA damage induced by subtelomere recombination. Shortened telomeres recruit insufficient TRF1 and as a consequence inadequate tankyrase 1 to resolve sister telomere cohesion. Our findings suggest that the persistent cohesion protects short telomeres from inappropriate recombination. Ultimately, in the final division, telomeres are no longer able to maintain cohesion and subtelomere copying ensues. Thus, the gradual loss of TRF1 and concomitant persistent cohesion that occurs with telomere shortening ensures a measured approach to replicative senescence.
PMID: 32620872
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 4525052

Multiple E3 ligases control tankyrase stability and function

Perrard, Jerome; Smith, Susan
Tankyrase 1 and 2 are ADP-ribosyltransferases that catalyze formation of polyADP-Ribose (PAR) onto themselves and their binding partners. Tankyrase protein levels are regulated by the PAR-binding E3 ligase RNF146, which promotes K48-linked polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of tankyrase and its partners. We identified a novel interaction between tankyrase and a distinct class of E3 ligases: the RING-UIM (Ubiquitin-Interacting Motif) family. We show that RNF114 and RNF166 bind and stabilize monoubiquitylated tankyrase and promote K11-linked diubiquitylation. This action competes with RNF146-mediated degradation, leading to stabilization of tankyrase and its binding partner, Angiomotin, a cancer cell signaling protein. Moreover, we identify multiple PAR-binding E3 ligases that promote ubiquitylation of tankyrase and induce stabilization or degradation. Discovery of K11 ubiquitylation that opposes degradation, along with identification of multiple PAR-binding E3 ligases that ubiquitylate tankyrase, provide insights into mechanisms of tankyrase regulation and may offer additional uses for tankyrase inhibitors in cancer therapy.
PMID: 37938264
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5609832

TERRA R-loops connect and protect sister telomeres in mitosis

Sze, Samantha; Bhardwaj, Amit; Fnu, Priyanka; Azarm, Kameron; Mund, Rachel; Ring, Katherine; Smith, Susan
Resolution of cohesion between sister telomeres in human cells depends on TRF1-mediated recruitment of the polyADP-ribosyltransferase tankyrase to telomeres. In human aged cells, due to insufficient recruitment of TRF1/tankyrase to shortened telomeres, sisters remain cohered in mitosis. This persistent cohesion plays a protective role, but the mechanism by which sisters remain cohered is not well understood. Here we show that telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) holds sister telomeres together through RNA-DNA hybrid (R-loop) structures. We show that a tankyrase-interacting partner, the RNA-binding protein C19orf43, is required for repression of TERRA R-loops. Persistent telomere cohesion in C19orf43-depleted cells is counteracted by RNaseH1, confirming that RNA-DNA hybrids hold sisters together. Consistent with a protective role for persistent telomere cohesion, depletion of C19orf43 in aged cells reduces DNA damage and delays replicative senescence. We propose that the inherent inability of shortened telomeres to recruit R-loop-repressing machinery permits a controlled onset of senescence.
PMID: 37843976
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 5609622

ADP-ribosyltransferases, an update on function and nomenclature

Lüscher, Bernhard; Ahel, Ivan; Altmeyer, Matthias; Ashworth, Alan; Bai, Peter; Chang, Paul; Cohen, Michael; Corda, Daniela; Dantzer, Françoise; Daugherty, Matthew D; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L; Deindl, Sebastian; Fehr, Anthony R; Feijs, Karla L H; Filippov, Dmitri V; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Guettler, Sebastian; Hoch, Nicolas C; Hottiger, Michael O; Korn, Patricia; Kraus, W Lee; Ladurner, Andreas; Lehtiö, Lari; Leung, Anthony K L; Lord, Christopher J; Mangerich, Aswin; Matic, Ivan; Matthews, Jason; Moldovan, George-Lucian; Moss, Joel; Natoli, Gioacchino; Nielsen, Michael L; Niepel, Mario; Nolte, Friedrich; Pascal, John; Paschal, Bryce M; PawÅ‚owski, Krzysztof; Poirier, Guy G; Smith, Susan; Timinszky, Gyula; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Yélamos, José; Yu, Xiaochun; Zaja, Roko; Ziegler, Mathias
ADP-ribosylation, a modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites, confers broad functions, including roles in stress responses elicited, for example, by DNA damage and viral infection and is involved in intra- and extracellular signaling, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, protein biosynthesis, and cell death. ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs), which transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ onto substrates. The modification, which occurs as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation, is reversible due to the action of different ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Importantly, inhibitors of ARTs are approved or are being developed for clinical use. Moreover, ADP-ribosylhydrolases are being assessed as therapeutic targets, foremost as antiviral drugs and for oncological indications. Due to the development of novel reagents and major technological advances that allow the study of ADP-ribosylation in unprecedented detail, an increasing number of cellular processes and pathways are being identified that are regulated by ADP-ribosylation. In addition, characterization of biochemical and structural aspects of the ARTs and their catalytic activities have expanded our understanding of this protein family. This increased knowledge requires that a common nomenclature be used to describe the relevant enzymes. Therefore, in this viewpoint, we propose an updated and broadly supported nomenclature for mammalian ARTs that will facilitate future discussions when addressing the biochemistry and biology of ADP-ribosylation. This is combined with a brief description of the main functions of mammalian ARTs to illustrate the increasing diversity of mono- and poly-ADP-ribose mediated cellular processes.
PMID: 34323016
ISSN: 1742-4658
CID: 5010662

Nuclear PARPs and genome integrity

Azarm, Kameron; Smith, Susan
Effective maintenance and stability of our genomes is essential for normal cell division, tissue homeostasis, and cellular and organismal fitness. The processes of chromosome replication and segregation require continual surveillance to insure fidelity. Accurate and efficient repair of DNA damage preserves genome integrity, which if lost can lead to multiple diseases, including cancer. Poly(ADP-ribose) a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification and the enzymes that catalyze it (PARP1, PARP2, tankyrase 1, and tankyrase 2) function to maintain genome stability through diverse mechanisms. Here we review the role of these enzymes and the modification in genome repair, replication, and resolution in human cells.
PMID: 32029453
ISSN: 1549-5477
CID: 4301522

Nopp140-mediated concentration of telomerase in Cajal bodies regulates telomere length

Bizarro, Jonathan; Bhardwaj, Amit; Smith, Susan; Meier, U Thomas
Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles concentrating two kinds of RNA-protein complexes (RNPs), spliceosomal small nuclear (sn) and small CB-specific (sca)RNPs. Whereas the CB marker protein coilin is responsible for retaining snRNPs, the tether for scaRNPs is not known. Here we show that Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered CB phosphoprotein, is required to recruit and retain all scaRNPs in CBs. Knockdown of Nopp140 releases all scaRNPs leading to an unprecedented reduction in size of CB granules, hallmarks of CB ultrastructure. The CB-localizing protein WDR79 (aka TCAB1), which is mutated in the inherited bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita, is a specific component of all scaRNPs, including telomerase. Whereas mislocalization of telomerase by mutation of WDR79 leads to critically shortened telomeres, mislocalization of telomerase by Nopp140 knockdown leads to gradual extension of telomeres. Our studies suggest that the dynamic distribution of telomerase between CBs and nucleoplasm uniquely impacts telomere length maintenance and identify Nopp140 as a novel player in telomere biology.
PMID: 31664887
ISSN: 1939-4586
CID: 4163342

Resolution of human ribosomal DNA occurs in anaphase, dependent on tankyrase 1, condensin II, and topoisomerase IIα

Daniloski, Zharko; Bisht, Kamlesh K; McStay, Brian; Smith, Susan
Formation of individualized sister chromatids is essential for their accurate segregation. In budding yeast, while most of the genome segregates at the metaphase to anaphase transition, resolution of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats is delayed. The timing and mechanism in human cells is unknown. Here we show that resolution of human rDNA occurs in anaphase after the bulk of the genome, dependent on tankyrase 1, condensin II, and topoisomerase IIα. Defective resolution leads to rDNA bridges, rDNA damage, and aneuploidy of an rDNA-containing acrocentric chromosome. Thus, temporal regulation of rDNA segregation is conserved between yeast and man and is essential for genome integrity.
PMID: 30804226
ISSN: 1549-5477
CID: 3698292

Telomerase can't handle the stress

Smith, Susan
Telomerase counteracts the telomere shortening that occurs with each round of cell division. In normal human cells, telomerase is repressed, leading to telomere shortening that triggers replicative senescence. However, in most tumors, telomerase is up-regulated and is essential for telomere maintenance and tumor cell growth. Although long considered a viable target for tumor therapy, successful inhibition of telomerase in cancer therapy remains to be described. In this issue of Genes & Development, Ahmed and Lingner (pp. 658-669) uncover a vulnerability in telomerase upon exposure of cancer cells to oxidative stress. It has long been known that telomeres are sensitive to damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the impact of oxidation on telomerase function in living cells was not known. Using gene knockouts in colon cancer cells, the investigators demonstrate that the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) and the nudix phosphohydrolase superfamily enzyme (MTH1) cooperate to retain, upon oxidative stress, telomeres in a telomerase-extendible state. Considering that cancer cells are more vulnerable to ROS than noncancer cells, this work may open new avenues targeting telomeres and telomerase in tumor cells.
PMID: 29802121
ISSN: 1549-5477
CID: 3136242

Snail1 transcription factor controls telomere transcription and integrity

Mazzolini, Rocco; Gonzalez, Nuria; Garcia-Garijo, Andrea; Millanes-Romero, Alba; Peiro, Sandra; Smith, Susan; Garcia de Herreros, Antonio; Canudas, Silvia
Besides controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell invasion, the Snail1 transcriptional factor also provides cells with cancer stem cell features. Since telomere maintenance is essential for stemness, we have examined the control of telomere integrity by Snail1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicates that Snail1-depleted mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have both a dramatic increase of telomere alterations and shorter telomeres. Remarkably, Snail1-deficient MSC present higher levels of both telomerase activity and the long non-coding RNA called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), an RNA that controls telomere integrity. Accordingly, Snail1 expression downregulates expression of the telomerase gene (TERT) as well as of TERRA 2q, 11q and 18q. TERRA and TERT are transiently downregulated during TGFbeta-induced EMT in NMuMG cells, correlating with Snail1 expression. Global transcriptome analysis indicates that ectopic expression of TERRA affects the transcription of some genes induced during EMT, such as fibronectin, whereas that of TERT does not modify those genes. We propose that Snail1 repression of TERRA is required not only for telomere maintenance but also for the expression of a subset of mesenchymal genes.
PMID: 29059385
ISSN: 1362-4962
CID: 2757462

Whole proteome analysis of human tankyrase knockout cells reveals targets of tankyrase-mediated degradation

Bhardwaj, Amit; Yang, Yanling; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Smith, Susan
Tankyrase 1 and 2 are poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases that function in pathways critical to cancer cell growth. Tankyrase-mediated PARylation marks protein targets for proteasomal degradation. Here, we generate human knockout cell lines to examine cell function and interrogate the proteome. We show that either tankyrase 1 or 2 is sufficient to maintain telomere length, but both are required to resolve telomere cohesion and maintain mitotic spindle integrity. Quantitative analysis of the proteome of tankyrase double knockout cells using isobaric tandem mass tags reveals targets of degradation, including antagonists of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (NKD1, NKD2, and HectD1) and three (Notch 1, 2, and 3) of the four Notch receptors. We show that tankyrases are required for Notch2 to exit the plasma membrane and enter the nucleus to activate transcription. Considering that Notch signaling is commonly activated in cancer, tankyrase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in targeting this pathway.
PMID: 29263426
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 2892172