Penumbral imaging and functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke treated with endovascular thrombectomy versus medical therapy: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data
BACKGROUND:CT perfusion (CTP) and diffusion or perfusion MRI might assist patient selection for endovascular thrombectomy. We aimed to establish whether imaging assessments of irreversibly injured ischaemic core and potentially salvageable penumbra volumes were associated with functional outcome and whether they interacted with the treatment effect of endovascular thrombectomy on functional outcome. METHODS:/s. Critically hypoperfused tissue was estimated as the volume of tissue with a CTP time to maximum longer than 6 s. Mismatch volume (ie, the estimated penumbral volume) was calculated as critically hypoperfused tissue volume minus ischaemic core volume. The association of ischaemic core and penumbral volumes with 90-day mRS score was analysed with multivariable logistic regression (functional independence, defined as mRS score 0-2) and ordinal logistic regression (functional improvement by at least one mRS category) in all patients and in a subset of those with more than 50% endovascular reperfusion, adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. The meta-analysis was prospectively designed by the HERMES executive committee, but not registered. FINDINGS:=0Ã‚Â·94). Mismatch volume, examined only in the CTP group because of the small numbers of patients who had perfusion MRI, was not associated with either functional independence or functional improvement. In patients with CTP with more than 50% endovascular reperfusion (n=186), age, ischaemic core volume, and imaging-to-reperfusion time were independently associated with functional improvement. Risk of bias between studies was generally low. INTERPRETATION:Estimated ischaemic core volume was independently associated with functional independence and functional improvement but did not modify the treatment benefit of endovascular thrombectomy over standard medical therapy for improved functional outcome. Combining ischaemic core volume with age and expected imaging-to-reperfusion time will improve assessment of prognosis and might inform endovascular thrombectomy treatment decisions. FUNDING:Medtronic.
Imaging features and safety and efficacy of endovascular stroke treatment: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data
BACKGROUND:Evidence regarding whether imaging can be used effectively to select patients for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between baseline imaging features and safety and efficacy of EVT in acute ischaemic stroke caused by anterior large-vessel occlusion. METHODS:In this meta-analysis of individual patient-level data, the HERMES collaboration identified in PubMed seven randomised trials in endovascular stroke that compared EVT with standard medical therapy, published between Jan 1, 2010, and Oct 31, 2017. Only trials that required vessel imaging to identify patients with proximal anterior circulation ischaemic stroke and that used predominantly stent retrievers or second-generation neurothrombectomy devices in the EVT group were included. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane handbook methodology. Central investigators, masked to clinical information other than stroke side, categorised baseline imaging features of ischaemic change with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) or according to involvement of more than 33% of middle cerebral artery territory, and by thrombus volume, hyperdensity, and collateral status. The primary endpoint was neurological functional disability scored on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days after randomisation. Safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, parenchymal haematoma type 2 within 5 days of randomisation, and mortality within 90 days. For the primary analysis, we used mixed-methods ordinal logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, intravenous alteplase, and time from onset to randomisation, and we used interaction terms to test whether imaging categorisation at baseline modifies the association between treatment and outcome. This meta-analysis was prospectively designed by the HERMES executive committee but has not been registered. FINDINGS:=0Ã‚Â·012). INTERPRETATION:EVT achieves better outcomes at 90 days than standard medical therapy across a broad range of baseline imaging categories, including infarcts affecting more than 33% of middle cerebral artery territory or ASPECTS less than 6, although in these patients the risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the EVT group than the control group. This analysis provides preliminary evidence for potential use of EVT in patients with large infarcts at baseline. FUNDING:Medtronic.
Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data
BACKGROUND:General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion undergoing endovascular thrombectomy under GA, versus thrombectomy not under GA (with or without sedation) versus standard care (ie, no thrombectomy), stratified by the use of GA versus standard care. METHODS:For this meta-analysis, patient-level data were pooled from all patients included in randomised trials in PuMed published between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2017, that compared endovascular thrombectomy predominantly done with stent retrievers with standard care in anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients (HERMES Collaboration). The primary outcome was functional outcome assessed by ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days in the GA and non-GA subgroups of patients treated with endovascular therapy versus those patients treated with standard care, adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. To account for between-trial variance we used mixed-effects modelling with a random effect for trials incorporated in all models. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane method. The meta-analysis was prospectively designed, but not registered. FINDINGS:Seven trials were identified by our search; of 1764 patients included in these trials, 871 were allocated to endovascular thrombectomy and 893 were assigned standard care. After exclusion of 74 patients (72 did not undergo the procedure and two had missing data on anaesthetic strategy), 236 (30%) of 797 patients who had endovascular procedures were treated under GA. At baseline, patients receiving GA were younger and had a shorter delay between stroke onset and randomisation but they had similar pre-treatment clinical severity compared with patients who did not have GA. Endovascular thrombectomy improved functional outcome at 3 months both in patients who had GA (adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) 1Ã‚Â·52, 95% CI 1Ã‚Â·09-2Ã‚Â·11, p=0Ã‚Â·014) and in those who did not have GA (adjusted cOR 2Ã‚Â·33, 95% CI 1Ã‚Â·75-3Ã‚Â·10, p<0Ã‚Â·0001) versus standard care. However, outcomes were significantly better for patients who did not receive GA versus those who received GA (covariate-adjusted cOR 1Ã‚Â·53, 95% CI 1Ã‚Â·14-2Ã‚Â·04, p=0Ã‚Â·0044). The risk of bias and variability between studies was assessed to be low. INTERPRETATION:Worse outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy were associated with GA, after adjustment for baseline prognostic variables. These data support avoidance of GA whenever possible. The procedure did, however, remain effective versus standard care in patients treated under GA, indicating that treatment should not be withheld in those who require anaesthesia for medical reasons. FUNDING:Medtronic.
Functional recovery of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome in an inpatient pain rehabilitation program : a case report
Clinically significant placebo analgesic response in a pilot trial of botulinum B in patients with hand pain and carpal tunnel syndrome
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pilot trial to assess the effect of botulinum toxin B on palmar pain and discomfort in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. Design. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled. PATIENTS: Twenty ambulatory CTS patients. Intervention. Botulinum toxin B or placebo injections into three hypothenar muscles anatomically linked or attached to the carpal tunnel and its tentorium, that is, the Opponens Digiti Minimi and Flexor Digiti Minimi, located with electromyography (EMG), and the Palmaris Brevis Muscle, anatomically located without EMG. SETTING: New York City hospital. OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were measured with numeric ratings, with higher scores indicating worse outcomes. Daily, subjects recorded their 0-10 numeric ratings of overall pain levels and pain-related sleep disturbances. During weekly telephone calls, they reported their 0-10 ratings for overall pain, pain-related sleep disturbance, and CTS-related tingling during the night and day as experienced over the preceding 24 hours. For each of four clinic visits, we averaged each subject's ratings of nine quality of life indicators from the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI), each measured on a 0-6 numeric scale. RESULTS: Over the 13-week trial, compared to baseline scores, the following outcomes predominantly showed decreases of statistical significance (P < or = 0.050) or borderline significance (0.050 < P < or = 0.10) for weeks 2 through 8: overall pain per daily diary entries and per weekly telephone reports, and pain-related sleep disturbance in the placebo group per phone report and in the botulinum toxin B group per diary report. CTS painful night tingling and day tingling, as well as the average scores of the WHYMPI quality of life indicators, showed improvements with statistical or borderline significance for almost each follow-up week. Between-group analyses, however, demonstrated that at each follow-up week, there was no statistically significant difference between the two study groups regarding changes from baseline in any study outcome. CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin B is not dramatically superior to placebo for the relief of CTS symptoms. Possible explanations of the improvements in each study group are explored
Non-pharmacologic techniques for acute pain management
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