Simultaneous 3D acquisition of 1 H MRF and 23 Na MRI
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:, and proton density) and sodium density weighted images over the whole brain. METHODS:were evaluated in phantoms. Finally, in vivo application of the method was demonstrated in five healthy subjects. RESULTS:values measured using our method were lower than the results measured by other conventional techniques. CONCLUSIONS:
Twenty-four-channel high-impedance glove array for hand and wrist MRI at 3T
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To present a novel 3T 24-channel glove array that enables hand and wrist imaging in varying postures. METHODS:The glove array consists of an inner glove holding the electronics and an outer glove protecting the components. The inner glove consists of four main structures: palm, fingers, wrist, and a flap that rolls over on top. Each structure was constructed out of three layers: a layer of electrostatic discharge flame-resistant fabric, a layer of scuba neoprene, and a layer of mesh fabric. Lightweight and flexible high impedance coil (HIC) elements were inserted into dedicated tubes sewn into the fabric. Coil elements were deliberately shortened to minimize the matching interface. Siemens Tim 4G technology was used to connect all 24 HIC elements to the scanner with only one plug. RESULTS:The 24-channel glove array allows large motion of both wrist and hand while maintaining the SNR needed for high-resolution imaging. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this work, a purpose-built 3T glove array that embeds 24 HIC elements is demonstrated for both hand and wrist imaging. The 24-channel glove array allows a great range of motion of both the wrist and hand while maintaining a high SNR and providing good theoretical acceleration performance, thus enabling hand and wrist imaging at different postures to extract kinematic information.
Differences between human and machine perception in medical diagnosis
Deep neural networks (DNNs) show promise in image-based medical diagnosis, but cannot be fully trusted since they can fail for reasons unrelated to underlying pathology. Humans are less likely to make such superficial mistakes, since they use features that are grounded on medical science. It is therefore important to know whether DNNs use different features than humans. Towards this end, we propose a framework for comparing human and machine perception in medical diagnosis. We frame the comparison in terms of perturbation robustness, and mitigate Simpson's paradox by performing a subgroup analysis. The framework is demonstrated with a case study in breast cancer screening, where we separately analyze microcalcifications and soft tissue lesions. While it is inconclusive whether humans and DNNs use different features to detect microcalcifications, we find that for soft tissue lesions, DNNs rely on high frequency components ignored by radiologists. Moreover, these features are located outside of the region of the images found most suspicious by radiologists. This difference between humans and machines was only visible through subgroup analysis, which highlights the importance of incorporating medical domain knowledge into the comparison.
Generalized Bloch model: A theory for pulsed magnetization transfer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The paper introduces a classical model to describe the dynamics of large spin-1/2 ensembles associated with nuclei bound in large molecule structures, commonly referred to as the semi-solid spin pool, and their magnetization transfer (MT) to spins of nuclei in water. THEORY AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Like quantum-mechanical descriptions of spin dynamics and like the original Bloch equations, but unlike existing MT models, the proposed model is based on the algebra of angular momentum in the sense that it explicitly models the rotations induced by radiofrequency (RF) pulses. It generalizes the original Bloch model to non-exponential decays, which are, for example, observed for semi-solid spin pools. The combination of rotations with non-exponential decays is facilitated by describing the latter as Green's functions, comprised in an integro-differential equation. RESULTS:Our model describes the data of an inversion-recovery magnetization-transfer experiment with varying durations of the inversion pulse substantially better than established models. We made this observation for all measured data, but in particular for pulse durations smaller than 300Â Î¼s. Furthermore, we provide a linear approximation of the generalized Bloch model that reduces the simulation time by approximately a factor 15,000, enabling simulation of the spin dynamics caused by a rectangular RF-pulse in roughly 2Â Î¼s. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The proposed theory unifies the original Bloch model, Henkelman's steady-state theory for MT, and the commonly assumed rotation induced by hard pulses (i.e., strong and infinitesimally short applications of RF-fields) and describes experimental data better than previous models.
Diagnostic abdominal MR imaging on a prototype low-field 0.55Â T scanner operating at two different gradient strengths
PURPOSE:To develop a protocol for abdominal imaging on a prototype 0.55Â T scanner and to benchmark the image quality against conventional 1.5Â T exam. METHODS:In this prospective IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant study, 10 healthy volunteers were recruited and imaged. A commercial MRI system was modified to operate at 0.55Â T (LF) with two different gradient performance levels. Each subject underwent non-contrast abdominal examinations on the 0.55Â T scanner utilizing higher gradients (LF-High), lower adjusted gradients (LF-Adjusted), and a conventional 1.5Â T scanner. The following pulse sequences were optimized: fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and Dixon T1-weighted imaging (T1WI). Three readers independently evaluated image quality in a blinded fashion on a 5-point Likert scale, with a score of 1 being non-diagnostic and 5 being excellent. An exact paired sample Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the image quality. RESULTS:Diagnostic image quality (overall image quality score â‰¥â€‰3) was achieved at LF in all subjects for T2WI, DWI, and T1WI with no more than one unit lower score than 1.5Â T. The mean difference in overall image quality score was not significantly different between LF-High and LF-Adjusted for T2WI (95% CI -Â 0.44 to 0.44; pâ€‰=â€‰0.98), DWI (95% CI -Â 0.43 to 0.36; pâ€‰=â€‰0.92), and for T1 in- and out-of-phase imaging (95%C I -Â 0.36 to 0.27; pâ€‰=â€‰0.91) or T1 fat-sat (water only) images (95% CI -Â 0.24 to 0.18; pâ€‰=â€‰1.0). CONCLUSION:Diagnostic abdominal MRI can be performed on a prototype 0.55Â T scanner, either with conventional or with reduced gradient performance, within an acquisition time of 10Â min or less.
A workflow to generate patient-specific three-dimensional augmented reality models from medical imaging data and example applications in urologic oncology
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are burgeoning technologies that have the potential to greatly enhance patient care. Visualizing patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) imaging data in these enhanced virtual environments may improve surgeons' understanding of anatomy and surgical pathology, thereby allowing for improved surgical planning, superior intra-operative guidance, and ultimately improved patient care. It is important that radiologists are familiar with these technologies, especially since the number of institutions utilizing VR and AR is increasing. This article gives an overview of AR and VR and describes the workflow required to create anatomical 3D models for use in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens device. Case examples in urologic oncology (prostate cancer and renal cancer) are provided which depict how AR has been used to guide surgery at our institution.
Free-breathing radial imaging using a pilot-tone radiofrequency transmitter for detection of respiratory motion
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe an approach for detection of respiratory signals using a transmitted radiofrequency (RF) reference signal called Pilot-Tone (PT) and to use the PT signal for creation of motion-resolved images based on 3D stack-of-stars imaging under free-breathing conditions. METHODS:This work explores the use of a reference RF signal generated by a small RF transmitter, placed outside the MR bore. The reference signal is received in parallel to the MR signal during each readout. Because the received PT amplitude is modulated by the subject's breathing pattern, a respiratory signal can be obtained by detecting the strength of the received PT signal over time. The breathing-induced PT signal modulation can then be used for reconstructing motion-resolved images from free-breathing scans. The PT approach was tested in volunteers using a radial stack-of-stars 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequence with golden-angle acquisition. RESULTS:Respiratory signals derived from the proposed PT method were compared to signals from a respiratory cushion sensor and k-space-center-based self-navigation under different breathing conditions. Moreover, the accuracy was assessed using a modified acquisition scheme replacing the golden-angle scheme by a zero-angle acquisition. Incorporating the PT signal into eXtra-Dimensional (XD) motion-resolved reconstruction led to improved image quality and clearer anatomical depiction of the lung and liver compared to k-space-center signal and motion-averaged reconstruction, when binned into 6, 8, and 10 motion states. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PT is a novel concept for tracking respiratory motion. Its small dimension (8 cm), high sampling rate, and minimal interaction with the imaging scan offers great potential for resolving respiratory motion.
Magnetic-resonance-based electrical property mapping using Global Maxwell Tomography with an 8-channel head coil at 7 Tesla: a simulation study
OBJECTIVE:Global Maxwell Tomography (GMT) is a recently introduced volumetric technique for noninvasive estimation of electrical properties (EP) from magnetic resonance measurements. Previous work evaluated GMT using ideal radiofrequency (RF) excitations. The aim of this simulation study was to assess GMT performance with a realistic RF coil. METHODS:) inside heterogeneous head models for different RF shimming approaches, and used them as input for GMT to reconstruct EP for all voxels. RESULTS:) and absorbed power could be predicted with less than 0.5% error over the entire head. GMT could accurately detect a numerically inserted tumor. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This work demonstrates that GMT can reliably reconstruct EP in realistic simulated scenarios using a tailored 8-channel RF coil design at 7T. Future work will focus on construction of the coil and optimization of GMT's robustness to noise, to enable in vivo GMT experiments. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:GMT could provide accurate estimations of tissue EP, which could be used as biomarkers and could enable patient-specific estimation of RF power deposition, which is an unsolved problem for ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging.
Training a neural network for Gibbs and noise removal in diffusion MRI
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To develop and evaluate a neural network-based method for Gibbs artifact and noise removal. METHODS:A convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed for artifact removal in diffusion-weighted imaging data. Two implementations were considered: one for magnitude images and one for complex images. Both models were based on the same encoder-decoder structure and were trained by simulating MRI acquisitions on synthetic non-MRI images. RESULTS:Both machine learning methods were able to mitigate artifacts in diffusion-weighted images and diffusion parameter maps. The CNN for complex images was also able to reduce artifacts in partial Fourier acquisitions. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed CNNs extend the ability of artifact correction in diffusion MRI. The machine learning method described here can be applied on each imaging slice independently, allowing it to be used flexibly in clinical applications.
The brain after COVID-19: Compensatory neurogenesis or persistent neuroinflammation?