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Guidance for prevention and management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents: A consensus statement from the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Pediatric COVID-19 Therapies Taskforce

Willis, Zachary I; Oliveira, Carlos R; Abzug, Mark J; Anosike, Brenda I; Ardura, Monica I; Bio, Laura L; Boguniewicz, Juri; Chiotos, Kathleen; Downes, Kevin; Grapentine, Steven P; Hersh, Adam L; Heston, Sarah M; Hijano, Diego R; Huskins, W Charles; James, Scott H; Jones, Sarah; Lockowitz, Christine R; Lloyd, Elizabeth C; MacBrayne, Christine; Maron, Gabriela M; Hayes McDonough, Molly; Miller, Christine M; Morton, Theodore H; Olivero, Rosemary M; Orscheln, Rachel C; Schwenk, Hayden T; Singh, Prachi; Soma, Vijaya L; Sue, Paul K; Vora, Surabhi B; Nakamura, Mari M; Wolf, Joshua
BACKGROUND:Since November 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created challenges for preventing and managing COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Most research to develop new therapeutic interventions or to repurpose existing ones has been undertaken in adults, and although most cases of infection in pediatric populations are mild, there have been many cases of critical and fatal infection. Understanding the risk factors for severe illness and the evidence for safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of therapies for COVID-19 in children is necessary to optimize therapy. METHODS:A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacology, and pediatric intensive care medicine from 21 geographically diverse North American institutions was re-convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys and a systematic review with meta-analysis of data for risk factors, a guidance statement comprising a series of recommendations for risk stratification, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19 was developed and refined based on expert consensus. RESULTS:There are identifiable clinical characteristics that enable risk stratification for patients at risk for severe COVID-19. These risk factors can be used to guide the treatment of hospitalized and non-hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19 and to guide preventative therapy where options remain available.
PMID: 38339996
ISSN: 2048-7207
CID: 5632162

Mpox in Children: 3 Cases

Frantzis, Irene; Ungar, Stephanie P; Soma, Vijaya L; Knutsen, Dorothy; Mazo, Dana; Zucker, Jason
Although the 2022 mpox outbreak mostly affected adults, its effect on children and adolescents was also substantial. In this report, we describe the clinical course and treatment of the first 3 known cases of mpox in children in New York City. These cases are instructive because they illustrate various routes of transmission, clinical presentations, and diagnostic challenges that differ from previous reports of mpox in endemic countries and previous mpox outbreaks. Of note is that each of the 3 patients received treatment with tecovirimat under an US Food and Drug Administration expanded access investigational new drug application and improved without exhibiting adverse reactions.
PMID: 38239109
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5627642

Community-Onset Bacterial Coinfection in Children Critically Ill With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection

Moffitt, Kristin L.; Nakamura, Mari M.; Young, Cameron C.; Newhams, Margaret M.; Halasa, Natasha B.; Reed, J. Nelson; Fitzgerald, Julie C.; Spinella, Philip C.; Soma, Vijaya L.; Walker, Tracie C.; Loftis, Laura L.; Maddux, Aline B.; Kong, Michele; Rowan, Courtney M.; Hobbs, Charlotte V.; Schuster, Jennifer E.; Riggs, Becky J.; McLaughlin, Gwenn E.; Michelson, Kelly N.; Hall, Mark W.; Babbitt, Christopher J.; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z.; Zinter, Matt S.; Maamari, Mia; Schwarz, Adam J.; Singh, Aalok R.; Flori, Heidi R.; Gertz, Shira J.; Staat, Mary A.; Giuliano, John S.; Hymes, Saul R.; Clouser, Katharine N.; McGuire, John; Carroll, Christopher L.; Thomas, Neal J.; Levy, Emily R.; Randolph, Adrienne G.
Background. Community-onset bacterial coinfection in adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reportedly uncommon, though empiric antibiotic use has been high. However, data regarding empiric antibiotic use and bacterial coinfection in children with critical illness from COVID-19 are scarce. Methods. We evaluated children and adolescents aged <19 years admitted to a pediatric intensive care or high-acuity unit for COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Based on qualifying microbiology results from the first 3 days of admission, we adjudicated whether patients had community-onset bacterial coinfection. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who did and did not (1) receive antibiotics and (2) have bacterial coinfection early in admission. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Of the 532 patients, 63.3% received empiric antibiotics, but only 7.1% had bacterial coinfection, and only 3.0% had respiratory bacterial coinfection. In multivariable analyses, empiric antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed for immunocompromised patients (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.79]), those requiring any respiratory support except mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05-1.90]), or those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.36-2.47]) (compared with no respiratory support). The presence of a pulmonary comorbidity other than asthma (aRR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.15-4.62]) was associated with bacterial coinfection. Conclusions. Community-onset bacterial coinfection in children with critical COVID-19 is infrequent, but empiric antibiotics are commonly prescribed. These findings inform antimicrobial use and support rapid de-escalation when evaluation shows coinfection is unlikely.
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5499562

Life-Threatening Complications of Influenza versus COVID-19 in U.S. Children

Halasa, Natasha B; Spieker, Andrew J; Young, Cameron C; Olson, Samantha M; Newhams, Margaret M; Amarin, Justin Z; Moffitt, Kristin L; Nakamura, Mari M; Levy, Emily R; Soma, Vijaya L; Talj, Rana; Weiss, Scott L; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Mack, Elizabeth H; Maddux, Aline B; Schuster, Jennifer E; Coates, Bria M; Hall, Mark W; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Schwarz, Adam J; Kong, Michele; Spinella, Philip C; Loftis, Laura L; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Rowan, Courtney M; Bembea, Melania M; Nofziger, Ryan A; Babbitt, Christopher J; Bowens, Cindy; Flori, Heidi R; Gertz, Shira J; Zinter, Matt S; Giuliano, John S; Hume, Janet R; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Singh, Aalok R; Crandall, Hillary A; Thomas, Neal J; Cullimore, Melissa L; Patel, Manish M; Randolph, Adrienne G
BACKGROUND:Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS:We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS:Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS:Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.
PMID: 35717646
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 5281722

Changes in Distribution of Severe Neurologic Involvement in US Pediatric Inpatients With COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children in 2021 vs 2020

LaRovere, Kerri L; Poussaint, Tina Y; Young, Cameron C; Newhams, Margaret M; Kucukak, Suden; Irby, Katherine; Kong, Michele; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Walker, Tracie C; Bembea, Melania M; Wellnitz, Kari; Havlin, Kevin M; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Hall, Mark W; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Schuster, Jennifer E; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Halasa, Natasha B; Singh, Aalok R; Mack, Elizabeth H; Bradford, Tamara T; Gertz, Shira J; Schwarz, Adam J; Typpo, Katri V; Loftis, Laura L; Giuliano, John S; Horwitz, Steven M; Biagas, Katherine V; Clouser, Katharine N; Rowan, Courtney M; Maddux, Aline B; Soma, Vijaya L; Babbitt, Christopher J; Aguiar, Cassyanne L; Kolmar, Amanda R; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Harvey, Helen; Zambrano, Laura D; Campbell, Angela P; Randolph, Adrienne G
Importance/UNASSIGNED:In 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, neurologic involvement was common in children and adolescents hospitalized in the United States for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complications. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To provide an update on the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement among children and adolescents in 2021. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:Case series investigation of patients reported to public health surveillance hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related illness between December 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021, in 55 US hospitals in 31 states with follow-up at hospital discharge. A total of 2253 patients were enrolled during the investigation period. Patients suspected of having multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who did not meet criteria (n = 85) were excluded. Patients (<21 years) with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) meeting criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Exposure/UNASSIGNED:SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening neurologic involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiological features. Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, vaccination status, and hospital discharge outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits). Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 2168 patients included (58% male; median age, 10.3 years), 1435 (66%) met criteria for MIS-C, and 476 (22%) had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement vs without were older (median age, 12 vs 10 years) and more frequently had underlying neurologic disorders (107 of 476 [22%] vs 240 of 1692 [14%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 42 (9%) developed acute SARS-CoV-2-related life-threatening conditions, including central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 23; 15 with possible/confirmed encephalitis, 6 meningitis, 1 transverse myelitis, 1 nonhemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy), stroke (n = 11), severe encephalopathy (n = 5), acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 2), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1). Ten of 42 (24%) survived with new neurologic deficits at discharge and 8 (19%) died. Among patients with life-threatening neurologic conditions, 15 of 16 vaccine-eligible patients (94%) were unvaccinated. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement persisted in US children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or MIS-C in 2021 and was again mostly transient. Central nervous system infection/demyelination accounted for a higher proportion of life-threatening conditions, and most vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. COVID-19 vaccination may prevent some SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic complications and merits further study.
PMID: 36342679
ISSN: 2168-6157
CID: 5357062

Tachyarrhythmias During Hospitalization for COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

Dionne, Audrey; Friedman, Kevin G; Young, Cameron C; Newhams, Margaret M; Kucukak, Suden; Jackson, Ashley M; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Smallcomb, Laura S; Heidemann, Sabrina; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Irby, Katherine; Bradford, Tamara T; Horwitz, Steven M; Loftis, Laura L; Soma, Vijaya L; Rowan, Courtney M; Kong, Michele; Halasa, Natasha B; Tarquinio, Keiko M; Schwarz, Adam J; Hume, Janet R; Gertz, Shira J; Clouser, Katharine N; Carroll, Christopher L; Wellnitz, Kari; Cullimore, Melissa L; Doymaz, Sule; Levy, Emily R; Typpo, Katri V; Lansell, Amanda N; Butler, Andrew D; Kuebler, Joseph D; Zambrano, Laura D; Campbell, Angela P; Patel, Manish M; Randolph, Adrienne G; Newburger, Jane W
Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.
PMID: 36250670
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5352342

Updated Guidance on Use and Prioritization of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Adolescents

Wolf, Joshua; Abzug, Mark J; Anosike, Brenda I; Vora, Surabhi B; Waghmare, Alpana; Sue, Paul K; Olivero, Rosemary M; Oliveira, Carlos R; James, Scott H; Morton, Theodore H; Maron, Gabriela M; Young, Jennifer L; Orscheln, Rachel C; Schwenk, Hayden T; Bio, Laura L; Willis, Zachary I; Lloyd, Elizabeth C; Hersh, Adam L; Huskins, Charles W; Soma, Vijaya L; Ratner, Adam J; Hayes, Molly; Downes, Kevin; Chiotos, Kathleen; Grapentine, Steven P; Wattier, Rachel L; Lamb, Gabriella S; Zachariah, Philip; Nakamura, Mari M
BACKGROUND:Starting in November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for multiple novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, including bamlanivimab monotherapy (now revoked), bamlanivimab and etesivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV), and sotrovimab, for treatment or postexposure prophylaxis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents (≥12 years of age) and adults with certain high-risk conditions. Previous guidance is now updated based on new evidence and clinical experience. METHODS:A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacotherapy, and pediatric critical care medicine from 18 geographically diverse US institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on a review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS:The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild, though more severe disease is occasionally observed. Evidence supporting risk stratification is incomplete. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific monoclonal antibody therapies in adults, but data on safety and efficacy in children or adolescents are limited. Potential harms associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis are reportedly low in adults. CONCLUSIONS:Based on evidence available as of August 31, 2021, the panel suggests a risk-based approach to administration of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Therapy is suggested for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents (≥12 years of age) at the highest risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Therapeutic decision-making about those at moderate risk of severe disease should be individualized. Use as postexposure prophylaxis could be considered for those at the highest risk who have a high-risk exposure but are not yet diagnosed with COVID-19. Clinicians and health systems should ensure safe and timely implementation of these therapeutics that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.
PMID: 35107571
ISSN: 2048-7207
CID: 5153602

Data-driven clustering identifies features distinguishing multisystem inflammatory syndrome from acute COVID-19 in children and adolescents

Geva, Alon; Patel, Manish M; Newhams, Margaret M; Young, Cameron C; Son, Mary Beth F; Kong, Michele; Maddux, Aline B; Hall, Mark W; Riggs, Becky J; Singh, Aalok R; Giuliano, John S; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Loftis, Laura L; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Schuster, Jennifer E; Babbitt, Christopher J; Halasa, Natasha B; Gertz, Shira J; Doymaz, Sule; Hume, Janet R; Bradford, Tamara T; Irby, Katherine; Carroll, Christopher L; McGuire, John K; Tarquinio, Keiko M; Rowan, Courtney M; Mack, Elizabeth H; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Spinella, Philip C; Staat, Mary A; Clouser, Katharine N; Soma, Vijaya L; Dapul, Heda; Maamari, Mia; Bowens, Cindy; Havlin, Kevin M; Mourani, Peter M; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Horwitz, Steven M; Feldstein, Leora R; Tenforde, Mark W; Newburger, Jane W; Mandl, Kenneth D; Randolph, Adrienne G
Background/UNASSIGNED:Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) consensus criteria were designed for maximal sensitivity and therefore capture patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We performed unsupervised clustering on data from 1,526 patients (684 labeled MIS-C by clinicians) <21 years old hospitalized with COVID-19-related illness admitted between 15 March 2020 and 31 December 2020. We compared prevalence of assigned MIS-C labels and clinical features among clusters, followed by recursive feature elimination to identify characteristics of potentially misclassified MIS-C-labeled patients. Findings/UNASSIGNED: = 583; 19% labeled MIS-C) were younger (2·8 ± 2·0 y), PCR positive (86%), with less inflammation. Radiographic findings of pulmonary infiltrates and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR accurately distinguished cluster 2 MIS-C labeled patients from cluster 1 patients. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:Using a data driven, unsupervised approach, we identified features that cluster patients into a group with high likelihood of having MIS-C. Other features identified a cluster of patients more likely to have acute severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease, and patients in this cluster labeled by clinicians as MIS-C may be misclassified. These data driven phenotypes may help refine the diagnosis of MIS-C.
PMID: 34485878
ISSN: 2589-5370
CID: 5067082

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children - Initial Therapy and Outcomes

Son, Mary Beth F; Murray, Nancy; Friedman, Kevin; Young, Cameron C; Newhams, Margaret M; Feldstein, Leora R; Loftis, Laura L; Tarquinio, Keiko M; Singh, Aalok R; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Soma, Vijaya L; Riggs, Becky J; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Kong, Michele; Doymaz, Sule; Giuliano, John S; Keenaghan, Michael A; Hume, Janet R; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Schuster, Jennifer E; Clouser, Katharine N; Hall, Mark W; Smith, Lincoln S; Horwitz, Steven M; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Irby, Katherine; Bradford, Tamara T; Maddux, Aline B; Babbitt, Christopher J; Rowan, Courtney M; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Yager, Phoebe H; Maamari, Mia; Mack, Elizabeth H; Carroll, Christopher L; Montgomery, Vicki L; Halasa, Natasha B; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Coates, Bria M; Rose, Charles E; Newburger, Jane W; Patel, Manish M; Randolph, Adrienne G
BACKGROUND:The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS:We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS:A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
PMID: 34133855
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 4925592

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children [Editorial]

Shust, Gail F; Soma, Vijaya L; Kahn, Philip; Ratner, Adam J
PMID: 34210761
ISSN: 1526-3347
CID: 4927192