Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome
[S.l.] : Springer International Publishing, 2022
MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME WITH SUBRETINAL DEPOSITS
PURPOSE: To describe the multimodal imaging findings of transient subretinal deposits occurring in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). METHODS: The multimodal imaging characteristics of transient subretinal deposits occurring in MEWDS were investigated with ultra-widefield color and fundus autofluorescence, cross-sectional and en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT), en face OCT-angiography, and quantitative autofluorescence. RESULTS: A 28-year-old woman presented with photopsia and temporal visual field loss in her right eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/25 in her left eye. Funduscopic examination showed characteristic peripapillary hyperautofluorescent white dots of MEWDS corresponding to ellipsoid zone disruption on OCT. These lesions became confluent throughout the posterior fundus over the next 4 weeks. As the patient's symptoms were resolving, a second type of transient hyperautofluorescent lesion was noted which corresponded to hyperreflective subretinal deposits on cross-sectional and en face structural OCT. These subretinal deposits were most evident at 10-week follow-up and had nearly resolved at 14-week follow-up. Quantitative autofluorescence showed that, unlike the acute MEWDS lesions, the hyperautoflurescence of the subretinal deposits persisted after photobleaching. At multiple time points over 14 weeks of follow-up, OCT angiography showed no evidence of retinal or choroidal flow abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Transient subretinal deposits may develop during MEWDS in areas of previous diffuse outer retinal disruption. As these deposits remain hyperautoflurescent on quantitative autofluorescence after photobleaching, they may represent accumulations of debris originating from damaged photoreceptor outer segments.
OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF CHORIORETINAL LESIONS DUE TO IDIOPATHIC MULTIFOCAL CHOROIDITIS
PURPOSE: To evaluate the spectrum of macular chorioretinal lesions occurring in idiopathic multifocal choroiditis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to evaluate those showing neovascular flow. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective study of 18 eyes of 14 patients with multifocal choroiditis. Macular lesions were characterized as subretinal pigment epithelium, subretinal, or mixed and evaluated during active and presumed inactive states of multifocal choroiditis. Correlations between structural optical coherence tomography and OCTA were performed. In select cases, correlations between OCTA, fluorescein angiography, and fundus autofluorescence were evaluated. In 5 eyes, quantitative measurements of neovascular lesions were compared at baseline and following intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 48 years (SD: 13.8; 86% women). Optical coherence tomography angiography flow signatures consistent with neovascularization were identified in 83% of eyes, including in 0% of subretinal pigment epithelium, 91% of subretinal, and 100% of mixed lesions. Lesions that did not demonstrate definitive signs of fluorescein angiography leakage were frequently found to have neovascularization using OCTA. There was no change in quantitative measurements of neovascular lesions after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy (all tested variables P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Optical coherence tomography angiography may be a useful imaging modality for understanding the pathophysiology of multifocal choroiditis and monitoring its clinical course.
Risk Alleles Associated with Neovascularization in a Pachychoroid Phenotype
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN NEEDLE SIZE, POSTINJECTION REFLUX, AND INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE SPIKES AFTER INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS
PURPOSE:: To compare the effect of 30-gauge versus 32-gauge needle size on postinjection reflux and immediate postinjection intraocular pressure (IOPimmed_post) spikes in eyes injected with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. METHODS:: This was a prospective interventional case series of 65 eyes of 54 consecutive patients in a clinical practice setting who received intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. All eyes had preinjection IOP, IOPimmed_post, postinjection reflux, and axial lengths recorded. RESULTS:: There was a higher incidence of postinjection reflux in eyes injected with 30-gauge (53%) compared with those injected with 32-gauge (13%, P = 0.0007). Among 34 eyes injected with 30-gauge, 16 eyes without appreciable postinjection reflux had mean IOPimmed_post of 44.3 +/- 7.48 mmHg and mean IOPimmed_post elevation of 29.6 +/- 2.10 mmHg, which was significantly higher than the 18 eyes with reflux (mean IOPimmed_post of 18.8 +/- 7.15 mmHg and mean IOPimmed_post elevation of 4.5 +/- 1.74 mmHg, P < 0.0001). Among 31 eyes injected with 32-gauge, 27 eyes without appreciable postinjection reflux had mean IOPimmed_post of 44.4 +/- 10.82 mmHg and mean IOPimmed_post elevation of 29.5 +/- 1.99 mmHg, which was significantly higher than the 4 eyes with reflux (mean IOPimmed_post of 21.3 +/- 8.54 mmHg and mean IOPimmed_post elevation of 9.5 +/- 4.05 mmHg, P < 0.001). The differences in reflux and IOP between the two groups were unrelated to axial lengths (P = 0.451). CONCLUSION:: Eyes receiving injections with 32-gauge needles had a lower incidence of postinjection reflux and higher mean IOP immediately after injection.
Adaptive optics imaging of cone mosaic abnormalities in acute macular neuroretinopathy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic in acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) using adaptive optics (AO) imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients with AMN were evaluated retrospectively by near-infrared reflectance (IR) confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera. Microperimetry was performed in one patient. RESULTS: The cone photoreceptor density was decreased at the level of the AMN lesions. The cone mosaic disruption appeared heterogeneous and more widespread than the lesion detected in the IR-SLO and SD-OCT images. The areas of cone loss correlated with SD-OCT and microperimetry. After resolution of the AMN lesion on IR-SLO, there was incomplete recovery of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. CONCLUSION: Cone photoreceptor damage and reconstitution were documented in vivo at the cellular level in AMN using AO imaging. AO imaging appeared more sensitive than combined IR-SLO and SD-OCT to detect and follow photoreceptor damage in patients with AMN. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:562-569.].
Adaptive optics imaging of cone mosaic abnormalities in acute macular neuroretinopathy [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose To assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic in acute macular neuroretinopathy(AMN) using adaptive optics(AO) imaging. Methods Four consecutive patients with AMN were evaluated by dilated funduscopic examination, near-infrared reffectance(IR), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy(SLO), eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SDOCT) and a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera. Correlations were made between IRSLO, SDOCT and AO images at baseline and follow-up in 3 patients. Microperimetry was performed and correlated with SDOCT and AO images in 1 patient. Results At presentation, the cone photoreceptor density was decreased at the level of the AMN lesions in AO images in all patients. The cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption was more widespread than the lesion detected by IRSLO and SDOCT. At complete resolution of the AMN lesion in IRSLO, there was incomplete recovery of cone photoreceptor mosaic in AO. In 2 cases, there was persistent cone damage in AO despite restoration of the ellipsoid zone integrity on SDOCT at last follow-up. The area of disruption in cone mosaic revealed characteristic appearance of RPE cells in AO and correlated well with both SDOCT and microperimetry findings. Conclusions Cone photoreceptor damage and reconstitution were documented in vivo at the cellular level in AMN using AO imaging. AO appeared more sensitive than combined IRSLO and SDOCT to detect and follow photoreceptor damage in AMN patients. There was some irreversible cone photoreceptor damage in the 4 patients evaluated
Fundus autofluorescence and photoreceptor bleaching in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome
The authors present three cases of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with characteristic fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings, including one patient without any visible white dots on funduscopic examination and another with many more hyperautofluorescent lesions than seen ophthalmoscopically. Additionally, the findings support an alternative mechanism for the hyperautofluorescent lesions in MEWDS, whereby photoreceptor loss causes unmasking of normal underlying retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence. This hypothesis is demonstrated in two cases by optical coherence tomography showing clear ellipsoid zone attenuation with registration to hyperautofluorescent lesions. It is further supported in two cases by photoreceptor bleaching in successive FAF images captured in the same session leading to diminished autofluorescence intensity of the characteristic dots.
Paracentral acute middle maculopathy: a new variant of acute macular neuroretinopathy associated with retinal capillary ischemia [Case Report]
IMPORTANCE: With the advent of more sophisticated imaging systems, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) band, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) have been identified in association with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). OBJECTIVES: To characterize a new SD-OCT presentation of AMN as a paracentral acute middle maculopathy and to describe multimodal imaging findings that implicate an underlying pathogenesis related to retinal capillary ischemia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective observational case series (January 1, 2012, to January 1, 2013) reviewing clinical and imaging data from 9 patients (11 eyes) with AMN at 6 tertiary referral centers. Lesions were classified as type 1 or 2 in relation to the SD-OCT location of the lesion above (type 1) or below (type 2) the outer plexiform layer (OPL) at 6 tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Of the 9 patients, 5 were female and 4 were male (mean age, 47.6 years; range, 21-65 years). All patients presented with an acute paracentral scotoma and demonstrated a classic dark gray paracentral lesion with near-infrared imaging. Visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/30. Six eyes (5 patients) had type 1 SD-OCT lesions, also referred to as paracentral acute middle maculopathy, and 5 eyes (4 patients) had type 2 SD-OCT lesions. Although type 1 lesions lead to inner nuclear layer (INL) thinning, type 2 lesions resulted in ONL thinning. Type 2 lesions were always associated with significant outer macular defects, including disruption of the inner segment/outer segment and outer segment/retinal pigment epithelium bands, whereas type 1 lesions spared the outer macula. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy may represent a novel variant of AMN that affects the middle layers of the macula above the OPL as diagnosed with SD-OCT imaging. Two types of AMN lesions may be seen with SD-OCT occurring above and below the OPL. Type 1 refers to hyperreflective bands in the OPL/INL region with subsequent INL thinning. Type 2 is hyperreflective bands in the OPL/ONL region with subsequent ONL thinning. Type 2 lesions may be associated with concomitant defects of the inner segment/outer segment layer. We propose that each of these lesions may be explained by occlusion of either the superficial capillary plexus (type 1) or deep capillary plexus (type 2) located in the innermost and outermost portion of the INL, respectively, immediately adjacent to each corresponding lesion type.
Visual and anatomical outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept in eyes with persistent subfoveal fluid despite previous treatments with ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) in patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of eyes treated with aflibercept with persistent subretinal and/or intraretinal fluid despite previous treatments with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg). All patients were switched to intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) and analyzed after 3 consecutive injections and after 6 months of treatment. Main outcome measures included change in visual acuity, central foveal thickness, and the height and diameter of the pigment epithelial detachment on the subfoveal scan on optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Thirty-four eyes of 33 patients were analyzed. Mean duration of symptoms and average number of previous injections with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents was 44.7 +/- 29.8 months (interquartile range [IQR] 24-76 months) and 28.6 +/- 20.1 (IQR 10-47), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, mean visual acuity and central foveal thickness improved significantly from 20/75 (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution 0.57 +/- 0.36; IQR 0.30-1.0) and 416 +/- 217 mum (IQR 263-487 mum) at baseline to 20/60 (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution 0.47 +/- 0.32; IQR 0.30-0.60) (P = 0.004) and 248 +/- 171 mum (IQR 235-419 mum) (P < 0.001), respectively. Maximum pigment epithelial detachment height improved significantly from 260 +/- 162 mum (IQR 129-368 mum) to 214 +/- 142 mum (IQR 111-305 mum) (P < 0.001) and PED diameter decreased significantly from 3,265 +/- 1,622 mum (IQR 2,353-4,555 mum) to 2,949 +/- 1,653 mum (IQR 1,721-4,484 mum) (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injections of aflibercept resulted in a significant improvement in visual and anatomical outcomes in eyes with persistent subfoveal fluid despite previous treatment with ranibizumab.