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Characterizing blood pressure trajectories in people living with HIV following antiretroviral therapy: A systematic review

Drago, Fabrizio; Soshnik-Schierling, Luke; Cabling, Mark L; Pattarabanjird, Tanyaporn; Desderius, Bernard; Nyanza, Elias; Raymond, Henry; McNamara, Coleen A; Peck, Robert N; Shiau, Stephanie
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). Due to increased survival, PLWH have now been found to be at risk of chronic conditions related to ageing, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hypertension is common in PLWH and is a major risk factor for the development of CVD. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the research evidence on longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories following ART initiation in PLWH. METHODS:We searched the following databases: PubMed, CINHAL, Scopus, and Web of Science (up to 15 March 2021) for peer-reviewed published studies that reported BP trajectories following ART initiation in PLWH. Three reviewers independently screened all studies by title and abstract. We included articles in English, published up to March 2021, that report office BP trajectories in PLWH initiating ART. A total of 10 publications met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies were prospective cohorts and two were retrospective. RESULTS:Nine out of 10 studies in the literature reported an increase in systolic BP (4.7-10.0 mmHg in studies with a follow-up range of 6 months to 8 years, and 3.0-4.7 mmHg/year in time-averaged studies). In addition, four out of 10 studies reported increases in diastolic BP (2.3-8.0 mmHg for a 6 month to 6.8-year follow-up range and 2.3 mmHg/year). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Systolic BP consistently increases while diastolic BP changes are more heterogeneous following ART initiation in PLWH. However, the studies were highly variable with respect to population demographics, ART regimen and duration, and follow-up time. Nevertheless, given the risks of CVD complications, such as stroke, heart failure and myocardial infarction, associated with elevated BP, results highlight the importance of future research in this area. It will be important to better characterize BP trajectories over time, identify the most critical times for interventions to reduce BP, determine the long-term CVD consequences in PLWH with elevated BP, and understand how different ART regimens may or may not influence BP and CVD disease.
PMID: 37474730
ISSN: 1468-1293
CID: 5536062

Relative Mortality Analysis of Trauma Patients Requiring Emergency Surgery at a Level I Trauma Center

Cramer, Christopher L; Cabezas, Melanie N; Soshnik-Schierling, Luke; Luu, Michael H; Barnhardt, William F; Young, Jeffrey S
PMID: 28822374
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5459252

The Evolution of Trauma Care: Relative Mortality Analysis at a Level 1 Trauma Center over Two Decades

Luu, Michael H; Cramer, Christopher L; Cabezas, Melanie N; Soshnik-Schierling, Luke; Barnhardt, William F; Young, Jeffrey S
PMID: 28822358
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5459242

Intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes following selective blockade or stimulation of the PGE2 EP1 receptor

Leclerc, Jenna L; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Singh, Nilendra; Soshnik-Schierling, Luke; Greene, Ellis; Dang, Alex; Doré, Sylvain
BACKGROUND:Inflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) significantly contributes to secondary brain damage and poor outcomes. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to modulate neuroinflammatory responses and is upregulated in response to brain injury as a result of changes in inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the membrane-bound type of PGE synthase. Inhibition of COX-2 activity has been reported to attenuate ICH-induced brain injury; however, the clinical utility of such drugs is limited due to the potential for severe side effects. Therefore, it is now important to search for downstream targets capable of preferentially modulating PGE2 signaling, and the four E prostanoid receptors, EP1-4, which are the main targets of PGE2, remain a viable therapeutic option. We have previously shown that EP1 receptor deletion aggravates ICH-induced brain injury and impairs functional recovery, thus the current study aimed to elaborate on these results by including a pharmacologic approach targeting the EP1 receptor. RESULTS:Chronic post-treatment with the selective EP1 receptor antagonist, SC-51089, increased lesion volume by 30.1 ± 14.5% (p < 0.05) and treatment with the EP1 agonist, 17-pt-PGE2, improved neuromuscular functional recovery on grip strength (p < 0.01) and hanging wire (p < 0.05) behavioral testing. To begin identifying the mechanisms involved in EP1-mediated neuroprotection after ICH, histology was performed to assess ferric iron content, neuroinflammation, leukocyte transendothelial migratory potential, and peripheral neutrophil and immunoglobulin infiltration. Following ICH, mice treated with the antagonist displayed increased ferric iron (p < 0.05) and cortical microgliosis (p < 0.05), whereas treatment with the agonist decreased cortical (p < 0.01) and striatal (p < 0.001) astrogliosis, leukocyte transendothelial migratory potential (p < 0.01), neutrophil infiltration (p < 0.05), and blood brain barrier breakdown (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In agreement with our previous results, selective antagonism of the EP1 receptor aggravated ICH-induced brain injury. Furthermore, EP1 receptor agonism improved anatomical outcomes and functional recovery. Thus, the present data continues to reinforce a putative role for EP1 as a new and more selective therapeutic target for the treatment of ICH that could reduce the side effects associated with COX-2 inhibition while still exploiting the beneficial effects.
PMID: 26232001
ISSN: 1471-2202
CID: 5459232