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Novel severe oculocutaneous manifestations of human monkeypox virus infection and their historical analogues

Carrubba, Steven; Geevarghese, Alexi; Solli, Elena; Guttha, Samyuktha; Sims, Jeffrey; Sperber, Laurence; Meehan, Shane; Ostrovsky, Ann
WHO has declared human mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) a global public health emergency since July, 2022. When case numbers were increasing, so did clinicians' exposures to new elements of the disease. Additionally, the burden of mpox is particularly apparent in immunocompromised patients, who can have more variable and severe manifestations of disease across organ systems. In this Grand Round, we report novel and severe oculocutaneous manifestations of mpox in this population, which are both sight and life threatening. Specifically, we highlight two patients with mpox and AIDS who had refractory skin necrosis that progressed to either ocular compromise or panfacial gangrene, or both. Both patients ultimately died due to systemic complications of their infections. Through clinical analogies, we show how past experiences with related orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus (smallpox) and vaccinia virus, can add useful context for understanding and treating these new disease states. We suspect that in patients who are immunocompromised, monkeypox virus can clinically evolve not only via viraemia but also through direct intradermal spread. We propose that intradermal spread occurs by a process clinically and immunologically analogous to progressive vaccinia, a complication previously seen after conventional smallpox vaccination. We share evidence in support of this theory and implications regarding early management and post-exposure prophylaxis for at-risk populations. Content note: this Grand Round contains graphic images of mpox lesions of the eyes and face.
PMID: 36702137
ISSN: 1474-4457
CID: 5419692

Gender Compensation Gap for Ophthalmologists in the First Year of Clinical Practice

Jia, Jing Sasha; Lazzaro, Alexander; Lidder, Alcina K; Elgin, Ceyhun; Alcantara-Castillo, Jennifer; Gedde, Steven J; Khouri, Albert S; Shukla, Aakriti Garg; Sperber, Laurence T D; Law, Janice C; Modi, Yasha S; Kim, Eleanore T; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Winn, Bryan J; Chen, Royce W; Al-Aswad, Lama A
OBJECTIVE:To identify the role of gender and other factors in influencing ophthalmologists' compensation. DESIGN/METHODS:Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:U.S. practicing ophthalmologists. METHODS:Between January and March 2020, an anonymous survey was sent to U.S. residency program directors and practicing ophthalmologists who recently completed residency training. Respondents who completed residency ≤10 years ago and responded to questions about gender, fellowship training, state of practice, and salary were included. Propensity score match (PSM) analysis was performed with age, academic residency, top residency, fellowship, state median wage, practice type, ethnicity and number of work days. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis controlled for additional factors along with the aforementioned variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Base starting salary with bonus (SWB) received in the first year of clinical position was the main outcome measure. A multiplier of 1.2 (20%) was added to the base salary to account for bonus. RESULTS:Of 684 respondents, 384 (56% female, 44% male) from 68 programs were included. Female ophthalmologists received a mean initial SWB that was $33,139.80 less than their male colleagues (12.5%, p=0.00). PSM analysis showed a SWB difference of -$27,273.89 (10.3% gap, p=0.0015). Additionally, SWB differences were calculated with the number of work days substituted by OR days [-$19727.85 (8.60% gap, p=0.0092)] and clinic days [--$27793.67 (10.5% gap, p=0.0013)] in separate PSM analyses. The SWB differences between genders were significant using MLR analyses, which also controlled for work, clinic, and OR days separately (-$22261.49, $-18604.65, and $-16191.26, respectively; p=0.017, p=0.015, p=0.002). Gender independently predicted income in all 3 analyses (p<0.05). Although an association between gender and the attempt to negotiate was not detected, a greater portion of men subjectively reported success in negotiation (p=0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Female ophthalmologists earn significantly less than their male colleagues in the first year of clinical practice. Salary differences persist after controlling for demographic, educational, and practice type variables with MLR and PSM analyses. These income differences may lead to a substantial loss of accumulated earnings over an individual's career.
PMID: 33248156
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 4693662

Assessment of mentorship needs during ophthalmology residency [Meeting Abstract]

Tsui, E; Lo, C; Kim, E; Haberman, I; Sperber, L T; Madu, A; Lazzaro, D; Schuman, J
Purpose: Mentorship during various stages of medical training has been demonstrated to improve satisfaction in training and also to shape career goals. There are few studies evaluating formal mentorship programs within ophthalmology residency. We aim to evaluate the mentorship needs of ophthalmology residents, which may provide the framework to establish a formal mentorship program.
Method(s): An online cross-sectional survey was distributed in May 2017 to all residents (n=20) in the New York University School of Medicine ophthalmology residency program to evaluate their perspectives on mentorship. The questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and Likert-type questions.
Result(s): The response rate was 100% (20/20 of surveyed residents), of which 7 were PGY- 2, 6 were PGY-3, and 7 were PGY-4. Seventy-five percent (15/20) of residents reported that mentorship was "very important" during residency. Approximately two-thirds of residents (13/20) had participated in a formal mentorship program prior to residency. Eighty percent (16/20) of residents reported that two mentors were an ideal number, while 20% preferred three mentors. Sixty percent (12/20) of residents had already identified an informal mentor during residency. Respondents replied that "accessibility" was the most important quality in a mentor followed by "willingness to write a letter of recommendation". Gender, age, and academic ranking were the least frequently selected as important qualities in a mentor. The most common reason for pursuing a mentor was "seeking career guidance", followed by "obtaining a letter of recommendation" and "seeking someone as an advocate or confidant". The least commonly selected reason for seeking a mentor was "improvement of clinical skills".
Conclusion(s): Ophthalmology residents view mentorship as an important part of their training. Residents prioritize accessibility and career guidance as important aspects of mentorship and many are seeking a faculty member who may contribute a reference letter in the future. The results of this survey have contributed to the development of a formalized residency mentorship program, and help guide mentorship objectives and practice
ISSN: 1552-5783
CID: 4001372

Student perceptions of the ophthalmology curriculum in medical school [Meeting Abstract]

Cobbs, L; Tsui, E; Haberman, I; Kim, E; Sperber, L; Wu, M; Schuman, J
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate medical student perception of the current ophthalmology curriculum without mandatory rotation at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). Despite the lack of emphasis on ophthalmology in many medical school curricula, eye examination and management skills are important for physicians to master because they can reveal systemic pathology and require emergent treatment. In the context of rapidly evolving medical school curricula and lack of national ophthalmology education standards, it is important to assess ophthalmology training adequacy.
Method(s): A cross-sectional Internet survey was distributed to all currently enrolled NYUSOM students, including those pursuing dual degrees, in March to May 2017. The main parameters measured in the study were students' self-reported confidence with ophthalmology skills and satisfaction with curriculum.
Result(s): Response rate was 27.5% (166 of 604) of NYUSOM students. Many students reported they were not comfortable diagnosing eye emergencies (64%), using a direct ophthalmoscope (71%), or testing visual acuity (50%). The majority of students did not want ophthalmology to become a mandatory rotation, but reported additional in-person training would be most helpful, compared to videos, web-based didactics, lectures, or virtual training. Completion of an ophthalmology elective and more hours of ophthalmology training were associated with increased confidence with eye examination and greater satisfaction with the curriculum.
Conclusion(s): It is critical for all physicians-in-training to have adequate skills in eye examination. Identifying areas of improvement and determining the best teaching modality will be important in updating the ophthalmology curriculum for medical students. The majority of medical students are not at all or only slightly confident with eye examinations. Increasing the amount of in-person ophthalmology training in medical school improves confidence with eye examination. (Figure presented)
ISSN: 1552-5783
CID: 4001382

Student perceptions of the ophthalmology curriculum in medical school [Meeting Abstract]

Cobbs, Lucy; Tsui, Edmund; Haberman, Ilyse; Kim, Eleanore; Sperber, Laurence; Wu, Mengfei; Schuman, Joel
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 5524292

Topography-guided (TG) LASIK vs small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): Posterior and anterior corneal power outcomes [Meeting Abstract]

Boddu, S; Sperber, L T; Kanellopoulos, A J
Purpose: Evaluate safety, efficacy and changes of anterior and posterior corneal power of topo-guided LASIK vs. SMILE in contralateral eyes, in myopic laser refractive surgery. Methods: In 22 myopic patients: 22 eyes had TG LASIK, and the contralateral eye had SMILE. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of: spherical equivalent stability (SE). The eyes were divided in two groups of spherical equivalent (SE). The first group contains eyes with SE between -10 and -5.01 (High Zone) while the second group contains eyes with SE from -5 to 0. All data for corneal power were extracted from Optovue OCT device. Results: In the case of high zone, the anterior corneal power for SMILE technique was preoperatively 49.96+/-167 D and 43.23+/-1.99 D postoperatively. On the other hand, when EX500 method was used, preoperatively the corneal power was 50.20+/-1.58 D and 42.57+/-1.84 D postoperatively. The corresponding results for mild SE zone in the case of SMILE technique were 50.47+/-1.77 D preoperatively and 46.54+/-1.71 D. For the EX500 technique the corneal power pre-op and post-op was 49.35+/-2.43 D and 46.50+/-2.68 D respectively. Concerning posterior corneal power when SMILE method was used, in case of high SE zone the posterior corneal power changed from -6.16+/-0.23 D pre-op to 6.18+/-0.28 D postop. When EX500 method was used the corresponding results were 6.21+/-0.22 D and -6.24+/-0.22 D. Finally in the case of mild SE zone the posterior corneal power increased from -6.23+/-167 to -6.26+/-0.26 D when SMILE method was applied, while for the eyes that surged with EX500 technique the posterior corneal power was -6.15+/-0.37 D pre-op and -6.16+/-0.38 D post-op. Conclusions: Anterior and posterior corneal power was calculated after SMILE and EX500 refractive operations. The results presented, clearly showed that after EX500 operation, anterior corneal power is lower in comparison to SMILE operation in high SE zone. In mild SE zone the anterior corneal power is almost the same for the both methods. On the other hand the posterior corneal power remains unchanged, regardless the SE zone and the operation method
ISSN: 1552-5783
CID: 3027752

Repair of conjunctivochalasis

Chapter by: Sperber, Laurence
in: Operative Dictations in Ophthalmology by
[S.l.] : Springer International Publishing, 2017
pp. 21-23
ISBN: 9783319454948
CID: 2921302

Myopic LASIK Visual Rehabilitation: Multicenter Analysis of Longitudinal Outcomes up to 1 year [Meeting Abstract]

Thareja, Tarika; Asimellis, George; Sperber, Laurence T; Kanellopoulous, AJohn
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 2492212

Novel Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cyclorotation Compensation in Topography-guided Treatments [Meeting Abstract]

Khandji, Joyce; Asimellis, George; Sperber, Laurence; Kanellopoulos, A. John
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 3979162

Unusual case of iris metastases from breast carcinoma

Suhr, K S; Sperber, L T; Marr, B P; Kahn, J B
A 46-year-old white woman with a history of breast carcinoma presented at our clinic with new lesions of the left iris, anterior uveitis, and headache. Imaging of the head and orbits showed metastatic breast carcinoma of the brain. Iris lesions were diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma based on clinical presentation. The patient was treated at an outside facility with systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy while simultaneously being managed with steroid eyedrops for intraocular inflammation. Her condition and vision improved over a 3-month period.
ISSN: 2214-1677
CID: 4007422