Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Chemotherapy, Biologic Therapy, Endocrine Therapy, or Active Surveillance During the COVID-19 Pandemic
PURPOSE:Provide real-world data regarding the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients on active cancer treatment. METHODS:Clinical data were abstracted from the 3778 BC patients seen at a multisite cancer center in New York between February 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020, including patient demographics, tumor histology, cancer treatment, and SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by treatment type (chemotherapy [CT] vs endocrine and/or HER2 directed therapy [E/H]) was compared by Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting. In those diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, Mann-Whitney test was used to a assess risk factors for severe disease and mortality. RESULTS:Three thousand sixty-two patients met study inclusion criteria with 641 patients tested for SARS-COV-2 by RT-PCR or serology. Overall, 64 patients (2.1%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by either serology, RT-PCR, or documented clinical diagnosis. Comparing matched patients who received chemotherapy (n = 379) with those who received non-cytotoxic therapies (n = 2343) the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 did not differ between treatment groups (weighted risk; 3.5% CT vs 2.7% E/H, P = .523). Twenty-seven patients (0.9%) expired over follow-up, with 10 deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chemotherapy was not associated with increased risk for death following SARS-CoV-2 infection (weighted risk; 0.7% CT vs 0.1% E/H, P = .246). Advanced disease (stage IV), age, BMI, and Charlson's Comorbidity Index score were associated with increased mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection (P â‰¤ .05). CONCLUSION:BC treatment, including chemotherapy, can be safely administered in the context of enhanced infectious precautions, and should not be withheld particularly when given for curative intent.
"Bridge" Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients During COVID-19 at an Academic Hospital in NYC: Lessons Learned and Future Directions
Phase II trial of nivolumab with chemotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment in inflammatory breast cancer. [Meeting Abstract]
Serial immunological parameters in a phase II trial of exemestane and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance to endocrine therapies in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a significant challenge. Prior studies have shown that low-dose oral cyclophosphamide can transiently deplete regulatory T cells (Tregs) and improve anti-tumor immunity. We investigated the combination of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced HR-positive breast cancer and assessed changes in circulating immune cell subsets. METHODS: This was a single-arm phase II trial of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963481). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 months (RECIST 1.1). Secondary objectives included median PFS, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety. Circulating Tregs (FOXP3+Helios+) and other immune cell subsets were monitored during treatment and compared with healthy controls. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. Treatment was well tolerated, without grade 4/5 toxicities. Objective responses were seen in 6/23 patients (26.1%; 95% CI 10.2-48.4%) and were durable (median 11.6 months). Three-month PFS rate was 50.1% (95% CI 33.0-76.0%); median PFS was 4.23 months (95% CI 2.8-11.7). No treatment-related decrease in Tregs was observed. However, elevated baseline levels of Naive Tregs [greater than 2.5 (the median of the naive Tregs)] were associated with relative risk of disease progression or death [hazard ratio 11.46 (95% CI 2.32-56.5)]. In addition, the baseline levels of Naive Tregs (adj-p = 0.04), Memory Tregs (adj-p = 0.003), CD4 + Central Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.0004), PD-1 + CD4 + Central Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.008), and PD-1 + CD4 + Effector Memory T cells (adj-p = 0.009) were significantly greater in the patients than in the healthy controls; the baseline levels of %CD4 + Naive T cells (adj-p = 0.0004) were significantly lower in patients compared with healthy controls (n = 40). CONCLUSION: Treg depletion was not observed with low-dose cyclophosphamide when assessed by the specific marker FOXP3 + Helios +; however, baseline naive Tregs were associated with 3-month PFS. Exemestane/cyclophosphamide combination had favorable safety profile with evidence of clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients.
A phase I trial of ganetespib in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer significantly improve outcomes but efficacy is limited by therapeutic resistance. HER2 is an acutely sensitive Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) client and HSP90 inhibition can overcome trastuzumab resistance. Preclinical data suggest that HSP90 inhibition is synergistic with taxanes with the potential for significant clinical activity. We therefore tested ganetespib, a HSP90 inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: In this phase I dose-escalation study, patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received weekly trastuzumab (2 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 28-day cycle with escalating doses of ganetespib (100 mg/m2, 150 mg/m2, and a third cohort of 125 mg/m2 if needed) on days 1, 8, and 15. Therapy was continued until disease progression or toxicity. The primary objective was to establish the safety and maximum tolerated dose and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of this therapy. The secondary objectives included evaluation of the effects of ganetespib on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, and to make a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the combination therapy. RESULTS: Dose escalation was completed for the two main cohorts without any observed dose-limiting toxicities. Nine patients received treatment. The median prior lines of anti-HER2 therapy numbered three (range 2-4), including prior pertuzumab in 9/9 patients and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in 8/9 patients. The most common grade 1/2 adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, fatigue, anemia, and rash. There were no grade 4 AEs related to ganetespib. The overall response rate was 22% (2/9 patients had partial response) and stable disease was seen in 56% (5/9 patients). The clinical benefit rate was 44% (4/9 patients). The median progression-free survival was 20 weeks (range 8-55). CONCLUSION: The RP2D of ganetespib is 150 mg/m2 in combination with weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab. The combination was safe and well tolerated. Despite prior taxanes, pertuzumab, and T-DM1, clinical activity of this triplet regimen in this heavily pretreated cohort is promising and warrants further study in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02060253 . Registered 30 January 2014.
Phase II trial of pembrolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Phase II study of irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab in recurrent ovarian cancer
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of irinotecan and bevacizumab in recurrent ovarian cancer. The primary objective was to estimate the progression free survival (PFS) rate at 6months. Secondary objectives included estimation of overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), duration of response, and an evaluation of toxicity. METHODS: Recurrent ovarian cancer patients with no limit on prior treatments were eligible. Irinotecan 250mg/m2 (amended to 175mg/m2 after toxicity assessment in first 6 patients) and bevacizumab 15mg/kg were administered every 3weeks until progression or toxicity. Response was assessed by RECIST or CA-125 criteria every 2cycles. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients enrolled (10 were platinum-sensitive and 19 were platinum-resistant). The median number of prior regimens was 5 (range 1-12); 13 patients had prior bevacizumab and 11 prior topotecan. The PFS rate at 6months was 55.2% (95% CI: 40%-77%). The median number of study cycles given was 7 (range 1-34). Median PFS was 6.8months (95% CI: 5.1-12.1months); median OS was 15.4months (95% CI: 11.9-20.4months). In this study, no complete response (CR) was observed. The objective response rate (ORR; PR or CR) for all patients entered was 27.6% (95% CI: 12.7%-47.2%) and the clinical benefit rate (CR+PR+SD) was 72.4% (95% CI: 52.8%-87.3%); twelve patients experienced duration of response longer than 6months. In the 24 patients with measurable disease, a partial response (PR) was documented in 8 (30%) patients; 13 patients maintained stable disease (SD) at first assessment. The most common grade 3/4 toxicity was diarrhea. No treatment-related deaths were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Irinotecan and bevacizumab has activity in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, including those with prior bevacizumab and topoisomerase inhibitor use.
A phase I trial of ganetespib (heat shock protein 90 inhibitor) in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) [Meeting Abstract]
A phase I clinical trial of ganetespib (heat shock protein 90 inhibitor) in combination with paclitaxel and trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the male breast: Case report and review of the literature
Background: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a rare and aggressive variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. IMPC has been reported to account for 3-6% of all breast cancers, and these tumors have been associated with a strong tendency to invade lymphatics with early spread to regional lymph nodes. Patients and methods: We present a case of this rare type of breast cancer diagnosed in a male patient and summarize the current literature to date. Results: Review of the literature on invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma revealed 27 retrospective cohort studies and case series. Significant heterogeneity of inclusion criteria and follow up data prevented meta-analysis. Tumors with an IMPC component demonstrated an early and high rate of lymphatic metastasis compared to invasive ductal carcinoma, however, no significant association was found between IMPC and decreased overall survival. Conclusions: The IMPC data currently available indicates a strong trend towards a higher initial stage at diagnosis and possibly an increased risk of loco-regional recurrence, but remains underpowered to elucidate the prognostic effect of IMPC phenotype on survival. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential of this unique histologic phenotype to serve as a prognostic indicator and guide tumor-specific oncologic therapy