Perceptions of the Healthcare System Among Black Men with Previously Undiagnosed Diabetes and Prediabetes
OBJECTIVE:Given the significant disparities in diabetes burden and access to care, this study uses qualitative interviews of Black men having HbA1c levels consistent with previously undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes to understand their perceptions of the healthcare system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:We recruited Black men from Black-owned barbershops in Brooklyn, NY, who were screened using point-of-care HbA1c tests. Among those with HbA1c levels within prediabetes or diabetes thresholds, qualitative interviews were conducted to uncover prevalent themes related to their overall health status, health behaviors, utilization of healthcare services, and experiences with the healthcare system. We used a theoretical framework from the William and Mohammed medical mistrust model to guide our qualitative analysis. RESULTS:Fifty-two Black men without a prior history of diabetes and an HbA1c reading at or above 5.7% were interviewed. Many participants stated that their health was in good condition. Some participants expressed being surprised by their abnormal HbA1c reading because it was not previously mentioned by their healthcare providers. Furthermore, many of our participants shared recent examples of negative interactions with physicians when describing their experiences with the healthcare system. Finally, several participants cited a preference for incorporating non-pharmaceutical options in their diabetes management plans. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:To help alleviate the disparity in diabetes burden among Black men, healthcare providers should take a more active role in recognizing and addressing their own implicit biases, engage in understanding the specific healthcare needs and expectations of each patient, and consider emphasizing non-medication approaches to improve glycemic control.
Association of Transport Time, Proximity, and Emergency Department Pediatric Readiness With Pediatric Survival at US Trauma Centers [Comment]
IMPORTANCE:Emergency department (ED) pediatric readiness is associated with improved survival among children. However, the association between geographic access to high-readiness EDs in US trauma centers and mortality is unclear. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between the proximity of injury location to receiving trauma centers, including the level of ED pediatric readiness, and mortality among injured children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This retrospective cohort study used a standardized risk-adjustment model to evaluate the association between trauma center proximity, ED pediatric readiness, and in-hospital survival. There were 765 trauma centers (level I-V, adult and pediatric) that contributed data to the National Trauma Data Bank (January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2017) and completed the 2013 National Pediatric Readiness Assessment (conducted from January 1 through August 31, 2013). The study comprised children aged younger than 18 years who were transported by ground to the included trauma centers. Data analysis was performed between January 1 and March 31, 2022. EXPOSURES:Trauma center proximity within 30 minutes by ground transport and ED pediatric readiness, as measured by weighted pediatric readiness score (wPRS; range, 0-100; quartiles 1 [low readiness] to 4 [high readiness]). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:In-hospital mortality. We used a patient-level mixed-effects logistic regression model to evaluate the association of transport time, proximity, and ED pediatric readiness on mortality. RESULTS:This study included 212 689 injured children seen at 765 trauma centers. The median patient age was 10 (IQR, 4-15) years, 136 538 (64.2%) were male, and 127 885 (60.1%) were White. A total of 4156 children (2.0%) died during their hospital stay. The median wPRS at these hospitals was 79.1 (IQR, 62.9-92.7). A total of 105 871 children (49.8%) were transported to trauma centers with high-readiness EDs (wPRS quartile 4) and another 36 330 children (33.7%) were injured within 30 minutes of a quartile 4 ED. After adjustment for confounders, proximity, and transport time, high ED pediatric readiness was associated with lower mortality (highest-readiness vs lowest-readiness EDs by wPRS quartiles: adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.47-0.89]). The survival benefit of high-readiness EDs persisted for transport times up to 45 minutes. The findings suggest that matching children to trauma centers with high-readiness EDs within 30 minutes of the injury location may have potentially saved 468 lives (95% CI, 460-476 lives), but increasing all trauma centers to high ED pediatric readiness may have potentially saved 1655 lives (95% CI, 1647-1664 lives). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:These findings suggest that trauma centers with high ED pediatric readiness had lower mortality after considering transport time and proximity. Improving ED pediatric readiness among all trauma centers, rather than selective transport to trauma centers with high ED readiness, had the largest association with pediatric survival. Thus, increased pediatric readiness at all US trauma centers may substantially improve patient outcomes after trauma.
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation dissemination and integration with organ preservation in the USA: ethical and logistical considerations
Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, termed eCPR, offers the prospect of improving survival with good neurological function after cardiac arrest. After death, ECMO can also be used for enhanced preservation of abdominal and thoracic organs, designated normothermic regional perfusion (NRP), before organ recovery for transplantation. To optimize resuscitation and transplantation outcomes, healthcare networks in Portugal and Italy have developed cardiac arrest protocols that integrate use of eCPR with NRP. Similar dissemination of eCPR and its integration with NRP in the USA raise novel ethical issues due to a non-nationalized health system and an opt-in framework for organ donation, as well as other legal and cultural factors. Nonetheless, eCPR investigations are ongoing, and both eCPR and NRP are selectively employed in clinical practice. This paper delineates the most pressing relevant ethical considerations and proposes recommendations for implementation of protocols that aim to promote public trust and reduce conflicts of interest. Transparent policies should rely on protocols that separate lifesaving from organ preservation considerations; robust, centralized eCPR data to inform equitable and evidence-based allocations; uniform practices concerning clinical decision-making and resource utilization; and partnership with community stakeholders, allowing patients to make decisions about emergency care that align with their values. Proactively addressing these ethical and logistical challenges could enable eCPR dissemination and integration with NRP protocols in the USA, with the potential to maximize lives saved through both improved resuscitation with good neurological outcomes and increased organ donation opportunities when resuscitation is unsuccessful or not in accordance with individuals' wishes.
Replicability of proton MR spectroscopic imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury: Implications for clinical applications
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:H MRS) offers biomarkers of metabolic damage after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but a lack of replicability studies hampers clinical translation. In a conceptual replication study design, the results reported in four previous publications were used as the hypotheses (H1-H7), specifically: abnormalities in patients are diffuse (H1), confined to white matter (WM) (H2), comprise low N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels and normal choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and myo-inositol (mI) (H3), and correlate with clinical outcome (H4); additionally, a lack of findings in regional subcortical WM (H5) and deep gray matter (GM) structures (H6), except for higher mI in patients' putamen (H7). METHODS:26 mTBI patients (20 female, age 36.5 ± 12.5 [mean ± standard deviation] years), within two months from injury and 21 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were scanned at 3 Tesla with 3D echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. To test H1-H3, global analysis using linear regression was used to obtain metabolite levels of GM and WM in each brain lobe. For H4, patients were stratified into non-recovered and recovered subgroups using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended. To test H5-H7, regional analysis using spectral averaging estimated metabolite levels in four GM and six WM structures segmented from T1-weighted MRI. The Mann-Whitney U test and weighted least squares analysis of covariance were used to examine mean group differences in metabolite levels between all patients and all controls (H1-H3, H5-H7), and between recovered and non-recovered patients and their respectively matched controls (H4). Replicability was defined as the support or failure to support the null hypotheses in accordance with the content of H1-H7, and was further evaluated using percent differences, coefficients of variation, and effect size (Cohen's d). RESULTS:Patients' occipital lobe WM Cho and Cr levels were 6.0% and 4.6% higher than controls', respectively (Cho, d = 0.37, p = 0.04; Cr, d = 0.63, p = 0.03). The same findings, i.e., higher patients' occipital lobe WM Cho and Cr (both p = 0.01), but with larger percent differences (Cho, 8.6%; Cr, 6.3%) and effect sizes (Cho, d = 0.52; Cr, d = 0.88) were found in the comparison of non-recovered patients to their matched controls. For the lobar WM Cho and Cr comparisons without statistical significance (frontal, parietal, temporal), unidirectional effect sizes were observed (Cho, d = 0.07 - 0.37; Cr, d = 0.27 - 0.63). No differences were found in any metabolite in any lobe in the comparison between recovered patients and their matched controls. In the regional analyses, no differences in metabolite levels were found in any GM or WM region, but all WM regions (posterior, frontal, corona radiata, and the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum) exhibited unidirectional effect sizes for Cho and Cr (Cho, d = 0.03 - 0.34; Cr, d = 0.16 - 0.51). CONCLUSIONS:H MRS biomarkers for mTBI may best be achieved by using high signal-to-noise-ratio single-voxels placed anywhere within WM. The biochemical signature of the injury, however, may differ and therefore absolute levels, rather than ratios may be preferred. Future replication efforts should further test the generalizability of these findings.
ED-Home: Pilot feasibility study of a targeted homelessness prevention intervention for emergency department patients with drug or unhealthy alcohol use
BACKGROUND:Housing insecurity is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients. Despite a surge of interest in screening for patients' social needs including housing insecurity, little research has examined ED social needs interventions. We worked together with government and community partners to develop and pilot test a homelessness prevention intervention targeted to ED patients with drug or unhealthy alcohol use. METHODS:We approached randomly sampled patients at an urban public hospital ED, May to August 2019. Adult patients were eligible if they were medically stable, not incarcerated, spoke English, had unhealthy alcohol or any drug use, and were not currently homeless but screened positive for risk of future homelessness using a previously developed risk screening tool. Participants received a three-part intervention: (1) brief counseling and referral to treatment for substance use delivered through a preexisting ED program; (2) referral to Homebase, an evidence-based community homelessness prevention program; and (3) up to three troubleshooting phone calls by study staff. Participants completed surveys at baseline and 6â€‰months. RESULTS:Of 2183 patients screened, 51 were eligible and 40 (78.4%) participated; one later withdrew, leaving 39 participants. Participants were diverse in age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Of the 32 participants reached at 6â€‰months, most said it was very or extremely helpful to talk to someone about their housing situation (nÂ =Â 23, 71.9%) at the baseline ED visit. Thirteen (40.6%) said their housing situation had improved in the past 6â€‰months and 16 (50.0%) said it had not changed. Twenty participants (62.5%) had made contact with a Homebase office. Participants shared ideas of how to improve the intervention. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot intervention was feasible and well received by participants though it required a large amount of screening to identify potentially eligible patients. Our findings will inform a larger future trial and may be informative for others seeking to develop similar interventions.
Medical Standards are Aligned with Normothermic Regional Perfusion Practices and US Legal Standards for Determining Death [Letter]
Targeting versus Tailoring Educational Videos for Encouraging Deceased Organ Donor Registration in Black-Owned Barbershops
In the U.S., black men are at highest risk for requiring kidney transplants but are among those least likely to register for organ donation. Prior outreach used videos culturally targeted for Black communities, yet registration rates remain insufficient to meet demand. Therefore, we assessed whether generic versus videos culturally targeted or personally tailored based on prior organ donation beliefs differentially increase organ donor registration. In a randomized controlled trial, 1,353 participants in Black-owned barbershops viewed generic, targeted, or tailored videos about organ donation. Logistic regression models assessed the relative impact of videos on: 1) immediate organ donor registration, 2) taking brochures, and 3) change in organ donation willingness stage of change from baseline. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups related to demographics and baseline willingness and beliefs. Neither targeted nor tailored videos differentially affected registration compared with the generic video, but participants in targeted and tailored groups were more likely to take brochures. Targeted (ORÂ =Â 1.74) and tailored (ORÂ =Â 1.57) videos were associated with incremental increases in organ donation willingness stage of change compared to the generic video. Distributing culturally targeted and individually tailored videos increased organ donor willingness stage of change among Black men in Black-owned barbershops but was insufficient for encouraging registration.Abbreviations: CI - confidence interval; DMV - Department of Motor Vehicles; BOBs - Black-owned barbershops; ODBI - organ donation belief index; ODWS - organ donation willingness stage of change; OR - odds ratio.
T1 and T2 quantification using magnetic resonance fingerprinting in mild traumatic brain injury
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess whether MR fingerprinting (MRF)-based relaxation properties exhibit cross-sectional and prospective correlations with patient outcome and compare the results with those from DTI. METHODS:from MRF were compared in 12Â gray and white matter regions with Mann-Whitney tests. Bivariate associations between MR measures and outcome were assessed using the Spearman correlation and logistic regression. RESULTS:, accounted for five of the six MR measures with the highest utility for identification of non-recovered patients at timepoint 2 (AUCâ€‰>â€‰0.80). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:, FA, and ADC for predicting 3-month outcome after mTBI. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:, and FA.
Eye tracking for classification of concussion in adults and pediatrics
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:In order to obtain FDA Marketing Authorization for aid in the diagnosis of concussion, an eye tracking study in an intended use population was conducted. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Potentially concussed subjects recruited in emergency department and concussion clinic settings prospectively underwent eye tracking and a subset of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 at 6 sites. The results of an eye tracking-based classifier model were then validated against a pre-specified algorithm with a cutoff for concussed vs. non-concussed. The sensitivity and specificity of eye tracking were calculated after plotting of the receiver operating characteristic curve and calculation of the AUC (area under curve). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 282) was 31.6%. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:A pre-specified algorithm and cutoff for diagnosis of concussion vs. non-concussion has a sensitivity and specificity that is useful as a baseline-free aid in diagnosis of concussion. Eye tracking has potential to serve as an objective "gold-standard" for detection of neurophysiologic disruption due to brain injury.
Including Medical Footage and Emotional Content in Organ Donation Educational Videos for Latinx Viewers
We assessed whether videos with medical footage of organ preservation and transplantation plus sad, unresolved, or uplifting stories differentially affect deceased organ donor registration among clients in Latinx-owned barbershops and beauty salons. In a 2 Ã— 3 randomized controlled trial, participants (N = 1,696, mean age 33 years, 67% female) viewed one of six videos. The control portrayed a mother who received a kidney (uplifting), excluding medical footage. Experimental videos included medical footage and/or showed a mother waiting (unresolved) or sisters mourning their brother's death (sad). Regression models assessed relative impact of medical footage and storylines on: (1) registry enrollment, (2) donation willingness stage of change, and (3) emotions. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups relative to age, sex, education, religion, nativity, baseline organ donation willingness, beliefs, and emotions. Overall, 14.8% of participants registered. Neither medical footage, sad, nor unresolved stories differentially affected registration and changes in organ donation willingness. Sad and unresolved stories increased sadness and decreased positive affect by ~0.1 logits compared with the uplifting story. Educational videos about organ donation which excluded or included medical footage and varying emotional valence of stories induced emotions marginally but did not affect viewers' registration decisions differently. Heterogeneity of responses within video groups might explain the attenuated impact of including medical footage and varying emotional content. In future work, we will report qualitative reasons for participants' registration decisions by analyzing the free text responses from the randomized trial and data from semistructured interviews that were conducted with a subset of participants.