T1 and T2 quantification using magnetic resonance fingerprinting in mild traumatic brain injury
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess whether MR fingerprinting (MRF)-based relaxation properties exhibit cross-sectional and prospective correlations with patient outcome and compare the results with those from DTI. METHODS:from MRF were compared in 12Â gray and white matter regions with Mann-Whitney tests. Bivariate associations between MR measures and outcome were assessed using the Spearman correlation and logistic regression. RESULTS:, accounted for five of the six MR measures with the highest utility for identification of non-recovered patients at timepoint 2 (AUCâ€‰>â€‰0.80). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:, FA, and ADC for predicting 3-month outcome after mTBI. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:, and FA.
Including Medical Footage and Emotional Content in Organ Donation Educational Videos for Latinx Viewers
We assessed whether videos with medical footage of organ preservation and transplantation plus sad, unresolved, or uplifting stories differentially affect deceased organ donor registration among clients in Latinx-owned barbershops and beauty salons. In a 2 Ã— 3 randomized controlled trial, participants (N = 1,696, mean age 33 years, 67% female) viewed one of six videos. The control portrayed a mother who received a kidney (uplifting), excluding medical footage. Experimental videos included medical footage and/or showed a mother waiting (unresolved) or sisters mourning their brother's death (sad). Regression models assessed relative impact of medical footage and storylines on: (1) registry enrollment, (2) donation willingness stage of change, and (3) emotions. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups relative to age, sex, education, religion, nativity, baseline organ donation willingness, beliefs, and emotions. Overall, 14.8% of participants registered. Neither medical footage, sad, nor unresolved stories differentially affected registration and changes in organ donation willingness. Sad and unresolved stories increased sadness and decreased positive affect by ~0.1 logits compared with the uplifting story. Educational videos about organ donation which excluded or included medical footage and varying emotional valence of stories induced emotions marginally but did not affect viewers' registration decisions differently. Heterogeneity of responses within video groups might explain the attenuated impact of including medical footage and varying emotional content. In future work, we will report qualitative reasons for participants' registration decisions by analyzing the free text responses from the randomized trial and data from semistructured interviews that were conducted with a subset of participants.
The real number of organs from uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death donors
Global decrease in brain sodium concentration after mild traumatic brain injury
The pathological cascade of tissue damage in mild traumatic brain injury is set forth by a perturbation in ionic homeostasis. However, whether this class of injury can be detected in vivo and serve as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome is unknown. We employ sodium MRI to test the hypotheses that regional and global total sodium concentrations: (i) are higher in patients than in controls and (ii) correlate with clinical presentation and neuropsychological function. Given the novelty of sodium imaging in traumatic brain injury, effect sizes from (i), and correlation types and strength from (ii), were compared to those obtained using standard diffusion imaging metrics. Twenty-seven patients (20 female, age 35.9â€‰Â±â€‰12.2â€‰years) within 2 months after injury and 19 controls were scanned with proton and sodium MRI at 3 Tesla. Total sodium concentration, fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient were obtained with voxel averaging across 12 grey and white matter regions. Linear regression was used to obtain global grey and white matter total sodium concentrations. Patient outcome was assessed with global functioning, symptom profiles and neuropsychological function assessments. In the regional analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between patients and controls in apparent diffusion coefficient, while differences in sodium concentration and fractional anisotropy were found only in single regions. However, for each of the 12 regions, sodium concentration effect sizes were uni-directional, due to lower mean sodium concentration in patients compared to controls. Consequently, linear regression analysis found statistically significant lower global grey and white matter sodium concentrations in patients compared to controls. The strongest correlation with outcome was between global grey matter sodium concentration and the composite z-score from the neuropsychological testing. In conclusion, both sodium concentration and diffusion showed poor utility in differentiating patients from controls, and weak correlations with clinical presentation, when using a region-based approach. In contrast, sodium linear regression, capitalizing on partial volume correction and high sensitivity to global changes, revealed high effect sizes and associations with patient outcome. This suggests that well-recognized sodium imbalances in traumatic brain injury are (i) detectable non-invasively; (ii) non-focal; (iii) occur even when the antecedent injury is clinically mild. Finally, in contrast to our principle hypothesis, patients' sodium concentrations were lower than controls, indicating that the biological effect of traumatic brain injury on the sodium homeostasis may differ from that in other neurological disorders. Note: This figure has been annotated.
Optimizing Healthcare Through Digital Health and Wellness Solutions to Meet the Needs of Patients With Chronic Disease During the COVID-19 Era
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed and exacerbated longstanding inefficiencies and deficiencies in chronic disease management and treatment in the United States, such as a fragmented healthcare experience and system, narrowly focused services, limited resources beyond office visits, expensive yet low quality care, and poor access to comprehensive prevention and non-pharmacological resources. It is feared that the addition of COVID-19 survivors to the pool of chronic disease patients will burden an already precarious healthcare system struggling to meet the needs of chronic disease patients. Digital health and telemedicine solutions, which exploded during the pandemic, may address many inefficiencies and deficiencies in chronic disease management, such as increasing access to care. However, these solutions are not panaceas as they are replete with several limitations, such as low uptake, poor engagement, and low long-term use. To fully optimize digital health and telemedicine solutions, we argue for the gamification of digital health and telemedicine solutions through a pantheoretical framework-one that uses personalized, contextualized, and behavioral science algorithms, data, evidence, and theories to ground treatments.
Emergency Medicine's Role in the Crossroads of Social Revolution and the COVID-19 Pandemic
Injuries associated with electric-powered bikes and scooters: analysis of US consumer product data
BACKGROUND:Powered, two-wheeled transportation devices like electric bicycles (E-bikes) and scooters are increasingly popular, but little is known about their relative injury risk compared to pedal operated bicycles. METHODS:Descriptive and comparative analysis of injury patterns and trends associated with E-bikes, powered scooters and pedal bicycles from 2000 to 2017 using the US National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. RESULTS:While persons injured using E-bikes were more likely to suffer internal injuries (17.1%; 95%â€‰CI 5.6 to 28.6) and require hospital admission (OR=2.8, 95%â€‰CI 1.3 to 6.1), powered scooter injuries were nearly three times more likely to result in a diagnosis of concussion (3% of scooter injuries vs 0.5% of E-bike injuries). E-bike-related injuries were also more than three times more likely to involve a collision with a pedestrian than either pedal bicycles (OR=3.3, 95% CI 0.5 to 23.6) or powered scooters (OR=3.3, 95% CI 0.3 to 32.9), but there was no evidence that powered scooters were more likely than bicycles to be involved in a collision with a pedestrian (OR=1.0, 95%â€‰CI 0.3 to 3.1). While population-based rates of pedal bicycle-related injuries have been decreasing, particularly among children, reported E-bike injuries have been increasing dramatically particularly among older persons. CONCLUSIONS:E-bike and powered scooter use and injury patterns differ from more traditional pedal operated bicycles. Efforts to address injury prevention and control are warranted, and further studies examining demographics and hospital resource utilisation are necessary.
Ethical and Logistical Concerns for Establishing NRP-cDCD Heart Transplantation in the United States
Controlled heart donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCD) is well-established internationally with good outcomes and could be adopted in the United States to increase heart supply if ethical and logistical challenges are comprehensively addressed. The most effective and resource-efficient method for mitigating warm ischemia after circulatory arrest is normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) in situ. This strategy requires restarting circulation after declaration of death according to circulatory criteria, which appears to challenge the legal circulatory death definition requiring irreversible cessation. Permanent cessation for life-saving efforts must be achieved to assuage this concern and ligating principal vessels maintains no blood flow to the brain, which ensures natural progression to cessation of brain function. This practice - standard in some countries - raises unique concerns about prioritizing life-saving efforts, informed authorization from decision-makers, and the clinician's role in the patient's death. To preserve public trust, medical integrity, and respect for the donor, the donation conversation must not take place until after an un-coerced decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment made in accordance with the patient's treatment goals. The decision maker(s) must understand cDCD procedure well enough to provide genuine authorization and the preservation/procurement teams must be kept separate from the clinical care team.
Extended-release naltrexonewas feasible, acceptable, and reduced drinking in patients with alcohol use disorders who frequent the emergency department [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: Almost uniformly, patients with frequent Emergency Department (ED) use and severe alcohol use disorders (AUDs) do not receive alcohol pharmacotherapy and are excluded from research as they are difficult to engage and retain and suffer from myriad bio-psychosocial comorbidities. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of initiating and continuing treatment with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) as well as studying its effects in this challenging population and clinical setting.
Method(s): In this randomized, open-label study, ED patient-participants with > 4 ED visits and moderate- severe AUD were randomized (1:1) to XR-NTX and research assistant-delivered care management or treatment as usual enhanced by a one-time warm referral and motivation enhancement. XR-NTX was first administered during the index ED visit. Thereafter, participants could receive up to 11 additional doses at clinic visits with arrangements to allow unscheduled visits. Non-clinical research visits (both arms) were scheduled at 3, 6, and 12 months with a considerable date variation permitted and expected. Drinking was assessed via 30-day timeline followback with heavy drinking day (HDD) thresholds of 5 for males and 4 for females. Resuts: The 48 participants were aged 55.0 +/- 8.2, 88% male, 51% white, 79% homeless, and reported an average of 23.4 HDDs in the priormonth and 24.4 standard drinks/drinking day. Approximately 70%lacked reliable contact information. Research visit attendance was 70.8%, 77.1%, and 70.8%with a median time to first visit of 126 days [Interquartile Range: 89-242]. In the XR-NTX arm (N = 24), a total of 173 injections were administered with amean of 7.2 per participant; 20 (83%) participants received 2 or more injections, 14 (56%) received 6 or more injections, and 6 (24%) received 12 injections. There was a significantly greater decrease in HDDs per month among those receiving XR-NTX compared to those who did not: 15.3 (95%CI 9.7-21.0) and 9.6 (95%CI 1.5-17.6), respectively. Baseline rates were imputed for two missing participants in each arm.
Conclusion(s): Among this population whose complicated AUDs pose considerable challenges from clinical and research perspectives, initiating and continuing treatment with XR-NTX was feasible, acceptable, and demonstrated promising preliminary drinking outcomes. Additional sensitivity analyses and evaluation of other outcomes of interest are underway. Further study on a larger scale is warranted
Not all protected bike lanes are the same: Infrastructure and risk of cyclist collisions and falls leading to emergency department visits in three U.S. cities
OBJECTIVE:Protected bike lanes separated from the roadway by physical barriers are relatively new in the United States. This study examined the risk of collisions or falls leading to emergency department visits associated with bicycle facilities (e.g., protected bike lanes, conventional bike lanes demarcated by painted lines, sharrows) and other roadway characteristics in three U.S. cities. METHODS:We prospectively recruited 604 patients from emergency departments in Washington, DC; New York City; and Portland, Oregon during 2015-2017 who fell or crashed while cycling. We used a case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression to compare each fall or crash site with a randomly selected control location along the route leading to the incident. We validated the presence of site characteristics described by participants using Google Street View and city GIS inventories of bicycle facilities and other roadway features. RESULTS:Compared with cycling on lanes of major roads without bicycle facilities, the risk of crashing or falling was lower on conventional bike lanes (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯0.53; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯0.33, 0.86) and local roads with (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯0.31; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯0.13, 0.75) or without bicycle facilities or traffic calming (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯0.39; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯0.23, 0.65). Protected bike lanes with heavy separation (tall, continuous barriers or grade and horizontal separation) were associated with lower risk (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯0.10; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯0.01, 0.95), but those with lighter separation (e.g., parked cars, posts, low curb) had similar risk to major roads when one way (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯1.19; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯0.46, 3.10) and higher risk when they were two way (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯11.38; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯1.40, 92.57); this risk increase was primarily driven by one lane in Washington. Risk increased in the presence of streetcar or train tracks relative to their absence (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯26.65; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯3.23, 220.17), on downhill relative to flat grades (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯1.92; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯1.38, 2.66), and when temporary features like construction or parked cars blocked the cyclist's path relative to when they did not (adjusted ORâ€¯=â€¯2.23; 95 % CIâ€¯=â€¯1.46, 3.39). CONCLUSIONS:Certain bicycle facilities are safer for cyclists than riding on major roads. Protected bike lanes vary in how well they shield riders from crashes and falls. Heavier separation, less frequent intersections with roads and driveways, and less complexity appear to contribute to reduced risk in protected bike lanes. Future research should systematically examine the characteristics that reduce risk in protected lanes to guide design. Planners should minimize conflict points when choosing where to place protected bike lanes and should implement countermeasures to increase visibility at these locations when they are unavoidable.