Genetic Influence on Neurodevelopment in Nonsyndromic Craniosynostosis
BACKGROUND:Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is one of the most common anomalies treated by craniofacial surgeons. Despite optimal surgical management, nearly half of affected children have subtle neurocognitive deficits. Whereas timing and type of surgical intervention have been studied, the possibility of genetic influence on neurodevelopment in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis patients remains unexplored. METHODS:The authors performed whole-exome sequencing for 404 case-parent trios with sporadic nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the burden of de novo mutations in cases compared to both expectation and 1789 healthy control trios. Individuals with and without each mutation class were analyzed, and the presence or absence of various types of neurodevelopmental delay were recorded alongside demographic information. RESULTS:The authors identified a highly significant burden of damaging de novo mutations in mutation-intolerant [probability of loss of function intolerance (pLI) >0.9] genes in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis probands (p = 5.9 Ã— 10-6). Children with these mutations had a two-fold higher incidence of neurodevelopmental delay (p = 0.001) and a more than 20-fold greater incidence of intellectual disability (p = 7.2 Ã— 10-7), and were 3.6-fold more likely to have delays that persisted past 5 years of age (p = 4.4 Ã— 10-4) in comparison with children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis without these mutations. Transmitted loss of function mutations in high-pLI genes also conferred a 1.9-fold greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay (p = 4.5 Ã—10-4). CONCLUSIONS:These findings implicate genetic lesions concurrently impacting neurodevelopment and cranial morphogenesis in the pathoetiology of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and identify a strong genetic influence on neurodevelopmental outcomes in affected children. These findings may eventually prove useful in determining which children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are most likely to benefit from surgical intervention. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Risk, III.
Implementation of an Ambulatory Cleft Lip Repair Protocol: Surgical Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Cleft lip repair has traditionally been performed as an inpatient procedure. There has been an interest toward outpatient cleft lip repair to reduce healthcare costs and avoid unnecessary hospital stay. We report surgical outcomes following implementation of an ambulatory cleft lip repair protocol and hypothesize that an ambulatory repair results in comparable safety outcomes to inpatient repair. DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:This is a single-institution, retrospective study. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Patients undergoing primary unilateral (UCL) and bilateral (BCL) cleft lip repair from 2012 to 2021 with a minimum 30-day follow-up. A total of 226 patients with UCL and 58 patients with BCL were included. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Ambulatory surgery protocol in 2016. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Variables include demographics and surgical data including 30-day readmission, 30-day reoperation, and postoperative complications. RESULTS:There were no differences in rates of 30-day readmission, reoperation, wound complications, or postoperative complications between the pre- and post-protocol groups. Following ambulatory protocol implementation, 80% of the UCL group and 56% of the BCL group received ambulatory surgery. Average length of stay dropped from 24â€…h pre-protocol to 8â€…h post-protocol. The 20% of the UCL group and 44% of the BCL group chosen for overnight stay had a significantly higher proportion of congenital abnormalities and higher American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class. Reasons for overnight stay included cardiac/airway monitoring, prematurity, and monitoring of comorbidities. There were no differences in surgical outcomes between the ambulatory and overnight stay groups. CONCLUSIONS:An ambulatory cleft lip repair protocol can significantly reduce average length of stay without adversely affecting surgical outcomes.
Skeletal and Dental Stability Following Different Magnitude of Le Fort I Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to measure the association between the magnitude of advancement and dental and skeletal relapse in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). METHODS:A single-institution retrospective cohort study of skeletally matured patients with CLP who underwent isolated Le Fort I advancement surgery between 2013 and 2019 was studied. Patients were included if they had lateral cephalograms or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at preoperative (T1), immediately postoperative (T2), and 1-year follow-up (T3). Lateral cephalometric landmarks were digitized and measured. The sample was divided on the basis of the magnitude of skeletal advancement: minor (<5 mm), moderate (â‰¥5 but <10 mm), and major (â‰¥10 mm) advancement groups. The mean advancement and relapse were compared between groups using 1-way ANOVA. Correlation between the amount of surgical advancement and relapse was evaluated. RESULTS:Forty-nine patients with nonsyndromic CLP with hypoplastic maxilla met inclusion criteria and the sample consisted of 36 males and 13 females with the mean age of 19.5 years. In the minor, moderate, and major advancement groups, the mean advancement at point A was +4.1 Â± 0.4,â€¯+â€¯7.5 Â± 1.4, and +11.3 Â± 1.3 mm, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, the mean relapse at point A was -1.3 Â± 1.2, -1.1 Â± 1.2, and -1.7 Â± 1.5 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the relapse amount between all surgical groups. No correlation between the magnitude of advancement and relapse was found. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference in skeletal stability between a minor (<5 mm), moderate (â‰¥5 but <10 mm), and major (â‰¥10 mm) Le Fort I advancement groups in patients with clefts. Regardless of the degree of advancement, mild skeletal relapse was observed in all 3 groups.
Haploinsufficiency of SF3B2 causes craniofacial microsomia
Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly, yet its genetic etiology remains unknown. We perform whole-exome or genome sequencing of 146 kindreds with sporadic (nâ€‰=â€‰138) or familial (nâ€‰=â€‰8) CFM, identifying a highly significant burden of loss of function variants in SF3B2 (Pâ€‰=â€‰3.8 Ã— 10-10), a component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex, in probands. We describe twenty individuals from seven kindreds harboring de novo or transmitted haploinsufficient variants in SF3B2. Probands display mandibular hypoplasia, microtia, facial and preauricular tags, epibulbar dermoids, lateral oral clefts in addition to skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. Targeted morpholino knockdown of SF3B2 in Xenopus results in disruption of cranial neural crest precursor formation and subsequent craniofacial cartilage defects, supporting a link between spliceosome mutations and impaired neural crest development in congenital craniofacial disease. The results establish haploinsufficient variants in SF3B2 as the most prevalent genetic cause of CFM, explaining ~3% of sporadic and ~25% of familial cases.
Craniosynostosis: Le Fort III Distraction Osteogenesis
The Le Fort III advancement was first described in 1950 and has since become a key technique in the armamentarium of craniofacial surgeons. The application of distraction osteogenesis to the craniofacial skeleton has allowed for large movements to be performed safely in young patients. This technique is valuable for correcting exorbitism, airway obstruction owing to midface retrusion, and class III malocclusion. It can be performed with either an external distractor or internal distractors. Although serious complications have been reported, these occur rarely when performed by experienced providers.
Three-Dimensional Nasolabial Changes After Nasoalveolar Molding and Primary Lip/Nose Surgery in Infants With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Utilize 3-dimensional (3D) photography to evaluate the nasolabial changes in infants with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) who underwent nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and primary reconstructive surgery. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:coordinates to obtain the linear and angular measurements. Nasal form changes were measured and analyzed between T1 (0.5 months old), T2 (5 months old), and T3 (6 months old). Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed for intrarater reliability. Averaged data from the 3D images was statistically analyzed from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 with Wilcoxon tests. Unaffected infant norms from the Farkas publication were used as a control sample. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:After NAM therapy, statistically significant changes in the position of subnasale and labius superius improved nasolabial symmetry. Both retruded after NAM were displaced downward after NAM and surgical correction with respect to soft tissue nasion. The nasal tip's projection was maintained with NAM and surgical correction. The columella lengthened from 1.4 to 4.71 mm following NAM. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:There was a significant improvement in the nasolabial anatomy after NAM, and this was further enhanced after primary reconstructive surgery.
Ian Jackson's Sphincter Pharyngoplasty
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after cleft palate repair remains an intriguing problem for the cleft surgeon. While other options for the treatment of VPI, in many ways the sphincter pharyngoplasty has become a reliable and satisfying operation. When the applied to the properly selected patient, it rearranges the palatopharyngeus muscles to provide dynamic closure of the newly created central velopharngeal port. The dynamic action is particularly satisfying to the surgeon. The surgery evolved in part because of the dedication and creativity of Dr. Ian Jackson who's description is closest to the design used today. In his memory we felt it fitting to review Dr. Jackson's involvement with the surgery over the decades as well as include our own thoughts on the advantages of the procedure.
The Nasoalveolar Molding Cleft Protocol: Long-Term Treatment Outcomes from Birth to Facial Maturity
BACKGROUND:The authors present outcomes analysis of the nasoalveolar molding treatment protocol in patients with a cleft followed from birth to facial maturity. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of cleft patients who underwent nasoalveolar molding between 1990 and 2000. Collected data included surgical and orthodontic outcomes and incidence of gingivoperiosteoplasty, alveolar bone grafting, surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, palatal fistula repair, orthognathic surgery, nose and/or lip revision, and facial growth. RESULTS:One hundred seven patients met inclusion criteria (69 with unilateral and 38 with bilateral cleft lip and palate). Eighty-five percent (91 of 107) underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty (unilateral: 78 percent, 54 of 69; bilateral: 97 percent, 37 of 38). Of those patients, 57 percent (52 of 91) did not require alveolar bone grafting (unilateral: 59 percent, 32 of 54; bilateral: 54 percent, 20 of 37). Twelve percent (13 of 107) of all study patients underwent revision surgery to the lip and/or nose before facial maturity (unilateral: 9 percent, six of 69; bilateral: 18 percent, seven of 38). Nineteen percent (20 of 107) did not require a revision surgery, alveolar bone grafting, or orthognathic surgery (unilateral: 20 percent, 14 of 69; bilateral: 16 percent, six of 38). Cephalometric analysis was performed on all patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. No significant statistical difference was found in maxillary position or facial proportion. Average age at last follow-up was 20 years (range, 15 years 4 months to 26 years 10 months). CONCLUSIONS:Nasoalveolar molding demonstrates a low rate of soft-tissue revision and alveolar bone grafting, and a low number of total operations per patient from birth to facial maturity. Facial growth analysis at facial maturity in patients who underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty and nasoalveolar molding suggests that this proposal may not hinder midface growth. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, IV.
Skeletal and Dental Correction and Stability Following LeFort I Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate With Mild, Moderate, and Severe Maxillary Hypoplasia
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:This study evaluates skeletal and dental outcomes of LeFort I advancement surgery in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with varying degrees of maxillary skeletal hypoplasia. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective study. METHOD/UNASSIGNED:: â‰¤-10 mm. PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-one patients with nonsyndromic CLP with hypoplastic maxilla who met inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION/UNASSIGNED:LeFort I advancement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE/UNASSIGNED:Skeletal and dental stability post-LeFort I surgery at a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:At T2, LeFort I surgery produced an average correction of maxillary hypoplasia by 6.4 Â± 0.6, 8.1 Â± 0.4, and 10.7 Â± 0.8 mm in the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. There was a mean relapse of 1 to 1.5 mm observed in all groups. At T3, no statistically significant differences were observed between the surgical groups and controls at angle Sella, Nasion, A point (SNA), A point, Nasion, B point (ANB), and overjet outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:LeFort I advancement produces a stable correction in mild, moderate, and severe skeletal maxillary hypoplasia. Overcorrection is recommended in all patients with CLP to compensate for the expected postsurgical skeletal relapse.
Crouzon Syndrome and Acanthosis Nigricans With Fibrous Dysplasia of the Maxilla: An Unreported Suggested Triad
The aim of this report is to describe the combination of Crouzon syndrome and acanthosis nigricans with fibrous dysplasia of the maxilla. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was confirmed clinically and pathologically during Le Fort III osteotomy and midface advancement with distraction osteogenesis. Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is a known syndrome with an incidence of 1:1,000,000. This is the first report in the literature of Crouzon syndrome and acanthosis nigricans combined with fibrous dysplasia. As all 3 pathologies are related to fibroblasts, they may be different manifestations of malfunction of a single molecular pathway. The detection of fibrous dysplasia in a patient with Crouzon syndrome and acanthosis nigricans is important because it may complicate midface osteotomies and fixation of the hardware on the bones during craniofacial surgery.