Personal Care and Household Cleaning Product Use among Pregnant Women and New Mothers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
This study examined product use among pregnant women and new mothers in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic (July 2020-June 2021). Women reported use of personal care and household cleaning products within the previous month, changes in antibacterial product use, receipt of healthcare provider advice, and opinions on environmental chemicals (n = 320). On average, women used 15 personal care products and 7 household cleaning products. Non-Hispanic Black women used nearly two more personal care products; non-Hispanic Black women, those with a college degree, and essential workers used 1-3 more household cleaning products. Women who were Hispanic or reported their race and ethnicity as Other were two times more likely to use antibacterial personal care products. Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and women who reported their race and ethnicity as Other were 1.5 times more likely to increase antibacterial product use during the pandemic. Nearly all women agreed that environmental chemicals pose health risks and are impossible to avoid, while less than one quarter received advice regarding product use. Product use is a modifiable source of chemical exposures. Results from this study suggest that women may have increased their product use during the pandemic. Healthcare providers may use the current focus on health hygiene to promote discussion and assessment of environmental chemical exposures with patients.
Level of behavioral health integration and suicide risk screening results in pediatric ambulatory subspecialty care
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to characterize suicide risk screening results for youth in pediatric ambulatory subspecialty clinics. METHOD/METHODS:The Ask Suicide-Screening Questions was administered to patients ages 9-24Â years in 12 subspecialty clinics to assess suicide risk, determined by suicide ideation/behavior. The SAMSHA-HRSA standard framework for integrated health was used to categorize each clinic's level of behavioral health integration. RESULTS:6365 patients completed 7440 suicide risk screens; 6.2% of patients screened positive at their initial screen and 4.1% at subsequent annual screens. There was no dose-response pattern between increasing level of integration and decreasing likelihood of a positive suicide screen. Youth identifying as gender expansive were 3.1 times (95% CI [2.0, 4.9]) more likely to screen positive as compared to cisgender youth, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, screen type, year, and clinic integration level. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Results surrounding disparities in suicide risk based on gender identity underscore the importance of further investigating how to optimally identify and manage high-risk, often understudied youth at suicide risk.
Preconception Health and Disability Status Among Women of Reproductive Age Participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2018
Impact of mothers' IPV-PTSD on their capacity to predict their child's emotional comprehension and its relationship to their child's psychopathology
Background:Previous studies demonstrated that when the violence-exposed child becomes a mother and interacts with her own child during early sensitive periods for social-emotional development, she may have difficulties providing sensitive responsiveness to the child's emotional communication. Such difficulties place the child's development of emotional comprehension (EC) and related self-regulation at risk. The aim of this study was to examine how mothers' interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic disorder (IPV-PTSD) would affect their children's EC and their own ability to predict their children's EC. We also investigated how mothers' predictive ability would correlate with child psychopathology. Methods:Sixty-one mother-child dyads (36 with IPV-PTSD) participated in this study. Children's (mean ageÂ =Â 7.0Â years, SDÂ =Â 1.1) EC was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (child TEC) and their psychopathology as reported by the mother was assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and as evaluated by a clinician using selected modules of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS). Mothers were measured for IPV-PTSD with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and for their capacity to predict their child's emotional comprehension (mother-responding-as-child TEC; mTEC). Results:We found no significant between-group differences in children's level of EC. Maternal PTSD was associated with lower scores on the mTEC, however. Reduced maternal scores on the mTEC were significantly associated with maternal report of increased aggressive child behaviour and with depression symptoms on the K-SADS. Further, scores on the mTEC interacted with maternal report of child aggression on child oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on the K-SADS. Conclusion:These findings support that improving maternal emotional comprehension may help reduce child risk for psychiatric morbidity in this population.
Pregnancy-related outcomes among women with physical disabilities: A systematic review
BACKGROUND:Disability among women of reproductive age is common; many of these women desire children and do not have impaired fertility. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine the epidemiological literature on perinatal health outcomes among women with physical disabilities. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:We searched Medline and CINAHL for articles published January 2009-April 2020 following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION/METHODS:Eligible studies were observational, quantitative, and reported on physical disabilities in association with prenatal, perinatal, postpartum, and/or infant health outcomes. We included studies that grouped physical and non-physical disabilities, such as surveys that queried only about general daily life limitations. We excluded case reports, descriptive studies without comparison groups, and studies conducted in low- or middle-income countries. Data extraction was done using predefined data fields. SYNTHESIS/RESULTS:All authors were involved in screening activities, data extraction, and/or quality assessment (rating and areas for bias). RESULTS:A total of 2650 articles were evaluated, of which sixteen met inclusion criteria (8 cross-sectional studies and 8 retrospective cohort studies). Assessments of disability status and perinatal outcomes widely varied across studies. Studies were rated as poor (nÂ =Â 8) or fair quality (nÂ =Â 8). Findings suggested that women with physical disabilities were at risk of several adverse outcomes, including caesarean delivery, infections, preterm complications, and maternal post-delivery hospitalisations, while their infants may be at risk of low birthweight and small-for-gestational age. Women classified as having complex/severe disabilities were often observed to be at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared to women with less severe disabilities. CONCLUSIONS:Research assessing how physical, functional, and medical restrictions influence health outcomes among women with physical disabilities, from preconception through postpartum, is limited. Longitudinal studies with comprehensive data collection that accurately identify women with physical disabilities are critical to understanding their reproductive health risks and outcomes.
Prenatal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates and postpartum depression: The role of neurosteroid hormone disruption
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder. While causes remain poorly understood, perinatal sex hormone fluctuations are an important factor, and allopregnanolone in particular has emerged as a key determinant. While synthetic environmental chemicals such as bisphenols and phthalates are known to affect sex hormones, no studies have measured allopregnanolone and the consequences of these hormonal changes on PPD have not been interrogated. OBJECTIVE:To investigate associations of repeated measures of urinary bisphenols and phthalates in early- and mid-pregnancy with serum pregnenolone, progesterone, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone concentrations in mid-pregnancy and PPD symptoms at four months postpartum. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION/UNASSIGNED:Prospective cohort study of 139 pregnant women recruited between 2016-18. Bisphenols and phthalates were measured in early- and mid-pregnancy urine samples. Serum sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in mid-pregnancy. PPD was assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multiple informant models were fit using generalized estimating equations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Serum levels of allopregnanolone, progesterone, pregnanolone, and pregnenolone were examined as log-transformed continuous variables. PPD symptoms were examined as continuous EPDS scores and dichotomously with scores â‰¥10 defined as PPD. RESULTS:Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations. Log-unit increases in âˆ‘DnOP and âˆ‘DiNP predicted 8.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -15.2%, -0.4%) and 7.7% (95% CI: -13.3%, -1.7%) lower progesterone, respectively. âˆ‘DnOP was associated with increased odds of PPD (odds ratio=1.48 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.11)). CONCLUSIONS:Endocrine disrupting chemicals may influence hormonal shifts during pregnancy as well as contribute to PPD.
Mental health mediators of subjective cognitive concerns among World Trade Center responders
Decline in cognitive functioning among rescue and recovery workers who responded in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks is of emerging interest. Responders are vulnerable to cognitive decline from exposure to airborne toxins present at the WTC site, as well as from WTC-related mental and physical health conditions. To better understand the relationship between occupational WTC exposure, mental health, physical health and subjective cognitive functioning, we examined the mediating role of health status in the association between exposure and subjective cognitive concerns in a multi-site, longitudinal investigation of the WTC General Responder cohort (nÂ =Â 16,380 responders; nÂ =Â 58,575 visits) for the period 2002-2015. Through latent class analyses, we identified a four-level marker of cognitive concerns based on information from a Self-Administered Mental Health Questionnaire. Using generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts, we observed that a higher intensity WTC exposure composite was associated with greater cognitive concerns, and that this association was operating almost entirely through mental health comorbidities, not physical health comorbidities. In fully adjusted models, the inclusion of probable depression, anxiety, PTSD and use of psychotropic medications attenuated the association between highest WTC exposure and greatest cognitive concerns. Physical health did not appear to be on the pathway between WTC exposure and cognitive concerns. Understanding the underlying sources of cognitive concerns may help identify vulnerable members of the General Responder cohort and potentially aid clinical decision-making, such as treatment choice and enhanced screening options. Earlier diagnosis and symptom treatment may help preserve functional independence.
Parent perceptions of pediatric neuropsychological evaluations: a systematic review
To synthesize current knowledge of the impact of pediatric neuropsychological evaluations on child functioning, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on parents' overall satisfaction with their child's evaluation and perceptions of how helpful the evaluation was for understanding their child's abilities and how useful the evaluation was for providing actionable information to elicit change. Parent satisfaction is important in this context because studies on healthcare consumption indicate a substantial relationship between patient satisfaction with services and implementation of recommendations and follow-up care. We followed PRISMA guidelines to conduct a systematic review of the literature on parent perception of pediatric neuropsychological evaluations for children aged 3-21Â years. Using a set of predefined search terms, we identified 1,163 abstracts across PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science electronic databases and included 12 studies in our qualitative synthesis. In general, parents reported high levels of satisfaction with their child's evaluation. Feedback from the evaluation was helpful for understanding their child's pattern of strengths and weaknesses and included useful information for obtaining support. Although parents did report improvement in their child's functional participation in home, school, and community settings, they tended to rate the usefulness of the evaluation for eliciting change lower than their overall satisfaction with the evaluation or how helpful the evaluation was for understanding their child's abilities. Additional effort appears to be needed for pediatric neuropsychological evaluations recommendations to result in durable, meaningful change in child functioning.
Staff Perceptions and Implementation Fidelity of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Care Pathway on a Child/Adolescent General Psychiatric Inpatient Service
While youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are psychiatrically hospitalized at high rates, general psychiatric settings are not designed to meet their unique needs. Previous evaluations of an ASD-Care Pathway (ASD-CP) on a general psychiatric unit revealed sustained reductions in crisis interventions (intramuscular medication use, holds/restraints; Cervantes et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 49(8):3173-3180, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04029-6, 2019; Kuriakose et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 48(12):4082-4089, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3666-y, 2018). The current study investigated staff perceptions of the ASD-CP (Nâ€‰=â€‰30), and examined rates of ASD-CP implementation fidelity in relation to patient outcomes (Nâ€‰=â€‰28). Staff identified visual communication aids and reward strategies as most helpful. The number of days of reward identification early in the inpatient stay was associated with fewer crisis interventions later in a patient's stay.
Changes in Attitudes and Knowledge after Trainings in a Clinical Care Pathway for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Caring for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be complicated, especially when challenging behaviors are present. Providers may feel unprepared to work with these individuals because specialized training for medical and social service providers is limited. To increase access to specialized training, we modified an effective half-day ASD-Care Pathway training (Kuriakose et al. 2018) and disseminated it within five different settings. This short, focused training on strategies for preventing and reducing challenging behaviors of patients with ASD resulted in significant improvements in staff perceptions of challenging behaviors, increased comfort in working with the ASD population, and increased staff knowledge for evidence-informed practices. Implications, including the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on pre/post changes, and future directions are discussed.