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Bradykinin promotes murine melanoma cell migration and invasion through endogenous production of superoxide and nitric oxide

Eller-Borges, Roberta; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Teodoro, Ana Caroline S; Moraes, Miriam S; Arruda, Denise C; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Curcio, Marli F; da Costa, Paulo E; Do Nascimento, Igor R; Calixto, Leandro A; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Batista, Wagner L
Spatial confinement and temporal regulation of signaling by nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs in cancer cells. Signaling mediated by NO and ROS was investigated in two sub clones of the murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cell line, Nex10C and Nex8H treated or not with bradykinin (BK). The sub clone Nex10C, similar to primary site cells, has a low capacity for colonizing the lungs, whereas the sub clone Nex8H, similar to metastatic cells, corresponds to a highly invasive melanoma. BK-treated Nex10C cells exhibited a transient increase in NO and an inhibition in basal O2
PMID: 36736618
ISSN: 1089-8611
CID: 5426802

Impaired immune response and barrier function in GSPD-1-deficient C. elegans infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae

Yang, Wan Hua; Chen, Po Hsiang; Chang, Hung Hsin; Kwok, Hong Luen; Stern, Arnold; Soo, Po Chi; Chen, Jiun Han; Yang, Hung Chi
gspd-1-RNAi knockdown Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an immune-compromised model to investigate the role of G6PD in host-pathogen interactions. A shorted lifespan, increased bacterial burden and bacterial translocation were observed in gspd-1-knockdown C. elegans infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP). RNAseq revealed that the innate immune pathway, including clc-1 and tsp-1, was affected by gspd-1 knockdown. qPCR confirmed that tight junction (zoo-1, clc-1) and immune-associated genes (tsp-1) were down-regulated in gspd-1-knockdown C. elegans and following infection with KP. The down-regulation of antimicrobial effector lysozymes, including lys-1, lys-2, lys-7, lys-8, ilys-2 and ilys-3, was found in gspd-1-knockdown C. elegans infected with KP. Deletion of clc-1, tsp-1, lys-7, and daf-2 in gspd-1-knockdown C. elegans infected with KP abolished the shorten lifespan seen in the Mock control. GSPD-1 deficiency in C. elegans resulted in bacterial accumulation and lethality, possibly due to a defective immune response. These findings indicate that GSPD-1 has a protective role in microbial defense in C. elegans by preventing bacterial colonization through bacterial clearance.
ISSN: 2666-5174
CID: 5424272

Epidemiological profiles and pathogenicity of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates in Taiwan

Lin, Pei-Yun; Chan, Shang-Yih; Stern, Arnold; Chen, Po-Hsiang; Yang, Hung-Chi
The emerging Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE-fm) is an opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections. The identification of VRE-fm is important for successful prevention and control in healthcare settings. VRE-fm clinical isolates obtained from regional hospitals in northern Taiwan were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and biofilm production. Most isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance and carried the virulence genes, esp and hyl. While all isolates produce biofilms, those isolates that carried esp exhibited greater biofilm production. Isolates with different virulence gene carriages were examined for pathogenicity by using a nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans, for determining microbial-host interactions. The survival assay showed that C. elegans was susceptible to Linezolid-resistant VRE-fm isolates with hyl. Combining the molecular epidemiological profiles regarding pathogenesis in C. elegans can serve as a guide for physicians in limiting opportunistic infections caused by VRE-fm.
PMID: 36855433
ISSN: 2167-8359
CID: 5467642

Redox and Metabolic Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function and Associated Disorders

Lin, Pei-Yun; Stern, Arnold; Peng, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Jiun-Han; Yang, Hung-Chi
The intestinal epithelium forms a physical barrier assembled by intercellular junctions, preventing luminal pathogens and toxins from crossing it. The integrity of tight junctions is critical for maintaining intestinal health as the breakdown of tight junction proteins leads to various disorders. Redox reactions are closely associated with energy metabolism. Understanding the regulation of tight junctions by cellular metabolism and redox status in cells may lead to the identification of potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In vitro and in vivo models have been utilized in investigating intestinal barrier dysfunction and in particular the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, may be an important alternative to mammalian models because of its convenience of culture, transparent body for microscopy, short generation time, invariant cell lineage and tractable genetics.
PMID: 36430939
ISSN: 1422-0067
CID: 5382892

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Redox Homeostasis and Embryogenesis

Chen, Po-Hsiang; Tjong, Wen-Ye; Yang, Hung-Chi; Liu, Hui-Ya; Stern, Arnold; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee
Normal embryogenesis requires complex regulation and precision, which depends on multiple mechanistic details. Defective embryogenesis can occur by various mechanisms. Maintaining redox homeostasis is of importance during embryogenesis. NADPH, as produced from the action of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), has an important role in redox homeostasis, serving as a cofactor for glutathione reductase in the recycling of glutathione from oxidized glutathione and for NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide synthases in the generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). Oxidative stress differentially influences cell fate and embryogenesis. While low levels of stress (eustress) by ROS and RNS promote cell growth and differentiation, supra-physiological concentrations of ROS and RNS can lead to cell demise and embryonic lethality. G6PD-deficient cells and organisms have been used as models in embryogenesis for determining the role of redox signaling in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Embryogenesis is also modulated by anti-oxidant enzymes, transcription factors, microRNAs, growth factors and signaling pathways, which are dependent on redox regulation. Crosstalk among transcription factors, microRNAs and redox signaling is essential for embryogenesis.
PMID: 35216131
ISSN: 1422-0067
CID: 5167872

Knockdown of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) splicing variant S3 promotes autophagic cell death from nitrosative stress in SW480 human colon cancer cells

Castro, Eloisa D; Mathias, Pedro Paulo M; Batista, Wagner L; Sato, Alex Yuri S; Toledo, Maytê S; de Almeida, Victor T; Curcio, Marli F; da Costa, Paulo E; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P
Low levels of nitric oxide (NO) produced by constitutively expressed inducible NO synthase (NOS2) in tumor cells may be an important factor in their development. NOS2 expression is associated with high mortality rates for various cancers. Alternative splicing of NOS2 down regulates its enzymatic activity, resulting in decreased intracellular NO concentrations. Specific probes to detect alternative splicing of NOS2 were used in two isogenic human colon cancer cell lines derived either from the primary tumor (SW480) or from a lymph node metastasis (SW620). Splicing variant of NOS2 S3, lacking exons 9, 10, and 11, was overexpressed in SW480 cells. NOS2 S3 was silenced in SW480 cells. Flow-cytometry analysis was used to estimate the intracellular NO levels and to analyze the cell cycle of the studied cell lines. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to determine apoptosis and autophagy markers. SW480 and SW620 cells expressed NOS2 S3. Over-expression of the NOS2 S3 in SW480 cells down regulated intracellular NO levels. SW480 cells with knocked down NOS2 S3 (referred to as S3C9 cells) had higher intracellular levels of NO compared to the wild type SW480 cells under serum restriction. Higher NO levels resulted in loss of viability of S3C9 cells, which was associated with autophagy. Induction of autophagy by elevated intracellular NO levels in S3C9 cells under serum restriction, suggests that autophagy operates as a cytotoxic response to nitrosative stress. The expression of NOS2 S3 plays an important role in regulating intracellular NO production and maintaining viability in SW480 cells under serum restriction. These findings may prove significant in the design of NOS2/NO-based therapies for colon cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 34719858
ISSN: 1095-8355
CID: 5037752

G6PD: A hub for metabolic reprogramming and redox signaling in cancer

Yang, Hung-Chi; Stern, Arnold; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee
Metabolic hubs play a major role in the initiation and development of cancer. Oncogenic signaling pathways drive metabolic reprogramming and alter redox homeostasis. G6PD has potential oncogenic activity and it plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, survival and stress responses. Aberrant activation of G6PD via metabolic reprogramming alters NADPH levels, leading to an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant environment which can either enhance DNA oxidative damage and genomic instability or initiate oncogenic signaling. Nutrient deprivation can rewire metabolism, which leads to mutations that determine a cancer cell's fate. Deregulated G6PD status and oxidative stress form a vicious cycle, which paves the way for cancer progression. This review aims to update and focus the potential role of G6PD in metabolic reprogramming and redox signaling in cancer.
PMID: 33097441
ISSN: 2320-2890
CID: 4652072

G6PD deficiency, redox homeostasis, and viral infections: implications for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

Yang, Hung-Chi; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Tjong, Wen-Ye; Stern, Arnold; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee
The COVID-19 pandemic has so far affected more than 45 million people and has caused over 1 million deaths worldwide. Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenic agent, which is associated with an imbalanced redox status, causes hyperinflammation and a cytokine storm, leading to cell death. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals may experience a hemolytic crisis after being exposed to oxidants or infection. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are more susceptible to coronavirus infection than individuals with normally functioning G6PD. An altered immune response to viral infections is found in individuals with G6PD deficiency. Evidence indicates that G6PD deficiency is a predisposing factor of COVID-19.
PMID: 33401987
ISSN: 1029-2470
CID: 5043512

tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (tBHP)-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Embryonic Defects Resemble Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency in C. elegans

Yang, Hung-Chi; Yu, Hsiang; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Tjong, Wen-Ye; Stern, Arnold; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee
G6PD is required for embryonic development in animals, as severe G6PD deficiency is lethal to mice, zebrafish and nematode. Lipid peroxidation is linked to membrane-associated embryonic defects in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). However, the direct link between lipid peroxidation and embryonic lethality has not been established. The aim of this study was to delineate the role of lipid peroxidation in gspd-1-knockdown (ortholog of g6pd) C. elegans during reproduction. tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used as an exogenous inducer. Short-term tBHP administration reduced brood size and enhanced germ cell death in C. elegans. The altered phenotypes caused by tBHP resembled GSPD-1 deficiency in C. elegans. Mechanistically, tBHP-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production and stimulated calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA) activity, leading to disturbed oogenesis and embryogenesis. The current study provides strong evidence to support the notion that enhanced lipid peroxidation in G6PD deficiency promotes death of germ cells and impairs embryogenesis in C. elegans.
PMID: 33217954
ISSN: 1422-0067
CID: 4684662

Impaired inflammasome activation and bacterial clearance in G6PD deficiency due to defective NOX/p38 MAPK/AP-1 redox signaling

Yen, Wei-Chen; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-Ching; Lin, Hsin-Ru; Stern, Arnold; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Shu, Jwu-Ching; Tsun-Yee Chiu, Daniel
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway that modulates cellular redox homeostasis via the regeneration of NADPH. G6PD-deficient cells have a reduced ability to induce the innate immune response, thus increasing host susceptibility to pathogen infections. An important part of the immune response is the activation of the inflammasome. G6PD-deficient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and human monocytic (THP-1) cells were used as models to investigate whether G6PD modulates inflammasome activation. A decreased expression of IL-1β was observed in both G6PD-deficient PBMCs and PMA-primed G6PD-knockdown (G6PD-kd) THP-1 cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or LPS/nigericin stimulation. The pro-IL-1β expression of THP-1 cells was decreased by G6PD knockdown at the transcriptional and translational levels in an investigation of the expression of the inflammasome subunits. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream c-Fos expression were decreased upon G6PD knockdown, accompanied by decreased AP-1 translocation into the nucleus. Impaired inflammasome activation in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells was mediated by a decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NOX signaling, while treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) enhanced inflammasome activation in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells. G6PD knockdown decreased Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli clearance in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells and G6PD-deficient PBMCs following inflammasome activation. These findings support the notion that enhanced pathogen susceptibility in G6PD deficiency is, in part, due to an altered redox signaling, which adversely affects inflammasome activation and the bactericidal response.
PMID: 31707353
ISSN: 2213-2317
CID: 4186672