The neuromotor behavior of preterm and full-term children by three years of age: quality of movement and variability
Thirty-six preterm and full-term children were seen during the first year of life and at 3 years old. The Neuromotor Behavioral Inventory (NBI)-Version for 3 Year Olds (a 5-category measure of Gross Motor and Fine Motor Development, Reaction to Movement, Neurological Reflexes and Reactions, and Neuromotor Outcome) was used with three groups: healthy preterm, sick preterm, and healthy full term. The groups differed in gross motor, fine motor, reaction to movement, and neuromotor outcome at 3 years of age with the greatest difference between the sick preterm group and the other groups. Quality of movement deteriorated between 12 months and 3 years. Increased frequency of "suspect" or "abnormal" outcomes during the first year was associated with an unfavorable outcome at 3 years of age. Variability, i.e., a change in outcome from one time to another, was not associated with an unfavorable outcome when frequency of unfavorable outcome during the first year was taken into account. Prematurity, perinatal illness, and frequency of unfavorable outcome during the first year were found to have an adverse impact on neuromotor behavior.
Neuromotor development of preterm and full-term infants
The Neuromotor Behavioral Inventory (NBI), a 16-category measure of muscle tone, developmental motor abilities, quality of movement, neurological reflexes and reactions, and neuromotor outcome was used with 38 infants divided into three groups: healthy preterm (HPT), sick preterm (SPT), and healthy full-term (HFT) infants. Infants were tested at five time points: 40 weeks postconception (newborn) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age post-term. The intent of the study was two-fold: to determine whether there are developmental differences among the groups of infants and whether the differences persist during the first year of life. Results indicate that HFT and HPT infants score higher than SPT infants in the neuromotor categories of: muscle tone, upper extremity development, head control, and neuromotor outcome rating. HFT infants scored higher than both preterm groups in: trunk rotation, reaction to movement, visual and auditory attention, and fixing. Differences persisted among the groups during the first year of life in the following: the developmental motor ability of trunk rotation, fixing, adaptability, and the neuromotor outcome rating. It appears that neonatal health status is a contributing factor to infant neuromotor development, particularly in the quality of movement reactions.
Physical and occupational therapy on a newborn intensive care unit
NEUROMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF PRETERM AND FULL-TERM INFANTS [Meeting Abstract]
Trends in neuromotor behavior of preterm and fullterm infants in the first year of life: a preliminary report
A follow-up study of 150 fullterm and preterm infants was conducted to determine the similarities and differences in neuromotor behavior during the first year of life. Three groups (healthy fullterm, healthy preterm, sick preterm) were compared at three, six, nine and 12 months of age. In general, fullterm infants were more similar in their responses to the Neuromotor Behavioral Inventory and more consistently advanced than some preterm infants at all four examinations. The greatest distinction between fullterm and both preterm groups occurred at three and six months. By nine and 12 months fullterm and healthy preterm infants had more similar development, but some sick preterm infants continued to develop differently. It appeared that the influence of prematurity on neuromotor behavior, regardless of whether the infant was healthy or sick, was greatest before nine months of age. After nine months, health appeared to be a contributing factor to the infants' development.
INTERDISCIPLINARY PROTOTYPE FOR SCREENING HIGH-RISK INFANTS [Meeting Abstract]
The reflex development of the infant