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Results of Two Cases of Pig-to-Human Kidney Xenotransplantation [Case Report]

Montgomery, Robert A; Stern, Jeffrey M; Lonze, Bonnie E; Tatapudi, Vasishta S; Mangiola, Massimo; Wu, Ming; Weldon, Elaina; Lawson, Nikki; Deterville, Cecilia; Dieter, Rebecca A; Sullivan, Brigitte; Boulton, Gabriella; Parent, Brendan; Piper, Greta; Sommer, Philip; Cawthon, Samantha; Duggan, Erin; Ayares, David; Dandro, Amy; Fazio-Kroll, Ana; Kokkinaki, Maria; Burdorf, Lars; Lorber, Marc; Boeke, Jef D; Pass, Harvey; Keating, Brendan; Griesemer, Adam; Ali, Nicole M; Mehta, Sapna A; Stewart, Zoe A
BACKGROUND:Xenografts from genetically modified pigs have become one of the most promising solutions to the dearth of human organs available for transplantation. The challenge in this model has been hyperacute rejection. To avoid this, pigs have been bred with a knockout of the alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene and with subcapsular autologous thymic tissue. METHODS:We transplanted kidneys from these genetically modified pigs into two brain-dead human recipients whose circulatory and respiratory activity was maintained on ventilators for the duration of the study. We performed serial biopsies and monitored the urine output and kinetic estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess renal function and xenograft rejection. RESULTS:in Recipient 2. In both recipients, the creatinine level, which had been at a steady state, decreased after implantation of the xenograft, from 1.97 to 0.82 mg per deciliter in Recipient 1 and from 1.10 to 0.57 mg per deciliter in Recipient 2. The transplanted kidneys remained pink and well-perfused, continuing to make urine throughout the study. Biopsies that were performed at 6, 24, 48, and 54 hours revealed no signs of hyperacute or antibody-mediated rejection. Hourly urine output with the xenograft was more than double the output with the native kidneys. CONCLUSIONS:Genetically modified kidney xenografts from pigs remained viable and functioning in brain-dead human recipients for 54 hours, without signs of hyperacute rejection. (Funded by Lung Biotechnology.).
PMID: 35584156
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 5230812

Immune response after pig-to-human kidney xenotransplantation: a multimodal phenotyping study

Loupy, Alexandre; Goutaudier, Valentin; Giarraputo, Alessia; Mezine, Fariza; Morgand, Erwan; Robin, Blaise; Khalil, Karen; Mehta, Sapna; Keating, Brendan; Dandro, Amy; Certain, Anaïs; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Narula, Navneet; Tissier, Renaud; Giraud, Sébastien; Hauet, Thierry; Pass, Harvey I; Sannier, Aurélie; Wu, Ming; Griesemer, Adam; Ayares, David; Tatapudi, Vasishta; Stern, Jeffrey; Lefaucheur, Carmen; Bruneval, Patrick; Mangiola, Massimo; Montgomery, Robert A
BACKGROUND:Cross-species immunological incompatibilities have hampered pig-to-human xenotransplantation, but porcine genome engineering recently enabled the first successful experiments. However, little is known about the immune response after the transplantation of pig kidneys to human recipients. We aimed to precisely characterise the early immune responses to the xenotransplantation using a multimodal deep phenotyping approach. METHODS:We did a complete phenotyping of two pig kidney xenografts transplanted to decedent humans. We used a multimodal strategy combining morphological evaluation, immunophenotyping (IgM, IgG, C4d, CD68, CD15, NKp46, CD3, CD20, and von Willebrand factor), gene expression profiling, and whole-transcriptome digital spatial profiling and cell deconvolution. Xenografts before implantation, wild-type pig kidney autografts, as well as wild-type, non-transplanted pig kidneys with and without ischaemia-reperfusion were used as controls. FINDINGS:cells. Both xenografts showed increased expression of genes biologically related to a humoral response, including monocyte and macrophage activation, natural killer cell burden, endothelial activation, complement activation, and T-cell development. Whole-transcriptome digital spatial profiling showed that antibody-mediated injury was mainly located in the glomeruli of the xenografts, with significant enrichment of transcripts associated with monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells. This phenotype was not observed in control pig kidney autografts or in ischaemia-reperfusion models. INTERPRETATION:Despite favourable short-term outcomes and absence of hyperacute injuries, our findings suggest that antibody-mediated rejection in pig-to-human kidney xenografts might be occurring. Our results suggest specific therapeutic targets towards the humoral arm of rejection to improve xenotransplantation results. FUNDING:OrganX and MSD Avenir.
PMID: 37598688
ISSN: 1474-547x
CID: 5598182

Immune response, phenotyping and molecular graft surveillance in kidney transplant recipients following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination

Ali, Nicole M; Herati, Ramin S; Mehta, Sapna A; Leonard, Jeanette; Miles, Jake; Lonze, Bonnie E; DiMaggio, Charles; Tatapudi, Vasishta S; Stewart, Zoe A; Alnazari, Nasser; Neumann, Henry J; Thomas, Jeffrey; Cartiera, Katarzyna; Weldon, Elaina; Michael, Jennifer; Hickson, Christopher; Whiteson, Harris; Khalil, Karen; Stern, Jeffrey M; Allen, Joseph R; Tuen, Michael; Gray-Gaillard, Sophie L; Solis, Sabrina M; Samanovic, Marie I; Mulligan, Mark J; Montgomery, Robert A
BACKGROUND:Understanding immunogenicity and alloimmune risk following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in kidney transplant recipients is imperative to understanding the correlates of protection and to inform clinical guidelines. METHODS:We studied 50 kidney transplant recipients following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and quantified their anti-spike protein antibody, donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), gene expression profiling (GEP), and alloantibody formation. RESULTS:Participants were stratified using nucleocapsid testing as either SARS-CoV-2-naïve or experienced prior to vaccination. One of 34 (3%) SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants developed anti-spike protein antibodies. In contrast, the odds ratio for the association of a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection with vaccine response was 18.3 (95% confidence interval 3.2, 105.0, p < 0.01). Pre- and post-vaccination levels did not change for median dd-cfDNA (0.23% vs. 0.21% respectively, p = 0.13), GEP scores (9.85 vs. 10.4 respectively, p = 0.45), calculated panel reactive antibody, de-novo donor specific antibody status, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS:SARS-CoV-2 vaccines do not appear to trigger alloimmunity in kidney transplant recipients. The degree of vaccine immunogenicity was associated most strongly with a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
PMID: 37707287
ISSN: 1399-3062
CID: 5593762

Pig-to-human heart xenotransplantation in two recently deceased human recipients

Moazami, Nader; Stern, Jeffrey M; Khalil, Karen; Kim, Jacqueline I; Narula, Navneet; Mangiola, Massimo; Weldon, Elaina P; Kagermazova, Larisa; James, Les; Lawson, Nikki; Piper, Greta L; Sommer, Philip M; Reyentovich, Alex; Bamira, Daniel; Saraon, Tajinderpal; Kadosh, Bernard S; DiVita, Michael; Goldberg, Randal I; Hussain, Syed T; Chan, Justin; Ngai, Jennie; Jan, Thomas; Ali, Nicole M; Tatapudi, Vasishta S; Segev, Dorry L; Bisen, Shivani; Jaffe, Ian S; Piegari, Benjamin; Kowalski, Haley; Kokkinaki, Maria; Monahan, Jeffrey; Sorrells, Lori; Burdorf, Lars; Boeke, Jef D; Pass, Harvey; Goparaju, Chandra; Keating, Brendan; Ayares, David; Lorber, Marc; Griesemer, Adam; Mehta, Sapna A; Smith, Deane E; Montgomery, Robert A
Genetically modified xenografts are one of the most promising solutions to the discrepancy between the numbers of available human organs for transplantation and potential recipients. To date, a porcine heart has been implanted into only one human recipient. Here, using 10-gene-edited pigs, we transplanted porcine hearts into two brain-dead human recipients and monitored xenograft function, hemodynamics and systemic responses over the course of 66 hours. Although both xenografts demonstrated excellent cardiac function immediately after transplantation and continued to function for the duration of the study, cardiac function declined postoperatively in one case, attributed to a size mismatch between the donor pig and the recipient. For both hearts, we confirmed transgene expression and found no evidence of cellular or antibody-mediated rejection, as assessed using histology, flow cytometry and a cytotoxic crossmatch assay. Moreover, we found no evidence of zoonotic transmission from the donor pigs to the human recipients. While substantial additional work will be needed to advance this technology to human trials, these results indicate that pig-to-human heart xenotransplantation can be performed successfully without hyperacute rejection or zoonosis.
PMID: 37488288
ISSN: 1546-170x
CID: 5595152

Staged Endovascular and Surgical Management of a Mycotic Pseudoaneurysm After Pancreas Transplant [Case Report]

Stern, Jeffrey; Negash, Bruck; Hickey, Ryan; Lugo, Joanelle; Cayne, Neal S; Lonze, Bonnie E; Ali, Nicole M; Stewart, Zoe A
Mycotic pseudoaneurysms are a rare, life-threatening complication after pancreas transplant. There have been limited reports of endovascular treatment of mycotic pseudoaneurysms in pancreas transplant recipients. Herein, we report on a case of a mycotic pseudoaneurysm from Pseudomonas aeruginosa after pancreas transplant. A 53-year-old male recipient underwent an uneventful simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant. He was readmitted 48 days posttransplant with fevers and rigors. Pan-cultures were performed and broad-spectrum antibiotics were initiated. Imaging studies demonstrated a large mycotic pseudoaneurysm arising from the right common iliac artery adjacent to the arterial Y-graft anastomosis of the transplant pancreas. Endovascular stent placement was used to exclude the pseudoaneurysm prior to transplant pancreatectomy. During pancreatectomy, the lateral wall of the common iliac artery was found to be necrotic with significant exposure of the endovascular stent. After ligation and excision of the common iliac artery, a femorofemoral bypass was performed to revascularize the lower extremity. This case report highlights the advantage of a staged endovascular and surgical management strategy for complex mycotic pseudoaneurysms after pancreas transplant.
PMID: 36919726
ISSN: 2146-8427
CID: 5448882

Intraoperative Verapamil Fails to Reduce Delayed Graft Function in Donation After Circulatory Death Renal Allografts

Lovett, Jessica T; Stern, Jeffrey; Weldon, Elaina P; Lonze, Bonnie E; Stewart, Zoe A
Background/UNASSIGNED:The shortage of transplantable organs has led to increased utilization of kidneys that may be particularly vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and delayed graft function (DGF). Kidneys from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors have additional IRI from donor procurement that results in increased risk of DGF. Verapamil may reduce IRI in kidney allografts when given at the time of organ reperfusion. This study sought to determine if intraoperative administration of verapamil (Ver) could reduce the risk of DGF in DCD kidney transplants. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A single-center retrospective matched cohort study was performed of 93 Ver (-) kidney transplant recipients compared with 93 Ver (+) kidney transplant recipients, matched by donor age, Kidney Donor Profile Index, and DCD status. Covariates that could impact DGF risk were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results/UNASSIGNED:The Ver (-) and Ver (+) matched cohorts did not have any significant differences in the demographic covariates. There was no difference in DGF rate between the Ver cohorts in either the overall study population or within the DCD subgroup. There was a trend toward reduced DGF in the Ver (+) cohort for cold ischemia time (CIT) ≤24 h, but this failed to achieve statistical significance. On multivariate analysis, only CIT was found to be independently associated with DGF. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Intraoperative verapamil failed to reduce DGF risk in DCD kidney allografts. Limitations to this study include nonrandomization for the intraoperative administration of verapamil and the mean CIT >24 h in the study population. Only CIT was an independent prognosticator for DGF on multivariate analysis in a cohort matched for DCD status, consistent with prior studies.
PMID: 35018301
ISSN: 2373-8731
CID: 5118672

First Report of Xenotransplantation from a Pig to Human Recipient [Meeting Abstract]

Stern, J; Tatapudi, V; Lonze, B; Stewart, Z; Mangiola, M; Wu, M; Mehta, S; Weldon, E; Dieter, R; Lawson, N; Griesemer, A; Parent, B; Piper, G; Sommer, P; Cawthon, S; Sullivan, B; Ali, N; Montgomery, R
ISSN: 1600-6143
CID: 5231032

Incidence of Opportunistic Infections in Elderly Kidney Transplant Recipients on Belatacept [Meeting Abstract]

Khalil, K; Jonchhe, S; Stern, J; Robalino, R; Stewart, ZA; Mehta, SA; Ali, NM; Neumann, H
ISSN: 1600-6143
CID: 5231072

Histocompatibility Findings in the First Xenotransplants from a Pig to a Deceased Human Recipient [Meeting Abstract]

Mangiola, M; Tatapudi, V; Stern, J; Stewart Lewis, Z; Lonze, B; Ali, N; Montgomery, R
ISSN: 1600-6143
CID: 5231052

Donor-Derived Mucormycosis: A Rare but Devastating Complication after Kidney Transplantation [Meeting Abstract]

Stern, Jeffrey; Ali, Nicole; Stewart, Zoe
ISSN: 1600-6135
CID: 5242572