Osseous Thoracic Foraminal Stenosis with Unilateral Congenital Absence of T1 Rib A Case Report [Case Report]
A 43-year-old male with a congenital absence of his left T1 rib developed a left-sided T1-T2 spinal facet joint arthrosis and stenosis and clinical signs and symptoms of T1 radiculopathy. The patient was treated with a decompressive laminotomy and partial medial facetectomy resulting in immediate resolution of symptoms. This report should alert clinicians to consider this potential etiology when evaluating patients with thoracic radiculopathy.
Biologics and Minimally Invasive Approach to TLIFs: What Is the Risk of Radiculitis?
BACKGROUND:â€ƒBone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and allograft containing mesenchymal stem cells (live cell) are popular biologic substitutes for iliac crest autograft used in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Use of these agents in the pathogenesis of postoperative radiculitis remains controversial. Recent studies have independently linked minimally invasive (MIS) TLIF with increased radiculitis risk compared to open TLIF. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of postoperative radiculitis in open and MIS TLIF patients along with its relationship to concurrent biologic adjuvant use. METHODS:â€ƒPatients â‰¥18 years undergoing single-level TLIF from June 2012 to December 2018 with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Outcome measures were rate of radiculitis, intra- and postoperative complications, revision surgery; length of stay (LOS), and estimated blood loss (EBL). RESULTS:= .038, N = 336) compared to other combinations of surgical approach and biologic use. CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒNeither the MIS approach nor BMP use is an independent risk factor for post-TLIF radiculitis. However, risk of radiculitis significantly increases when they are used in tandem. This should be considered when selecting biological adjuvants for MIS TLIF. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:â€ƒ3.
170. Radiculitis: assessing the risk of biologic use in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions [Meeting Abstract]
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) is increasingly utilized in minimally invasive (MIS) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (TLIF) in order to increase rate of fusion by promoting bone growth through the induction of osteoblast differentiation, awhile reducing morbidity related to iliac crest autograft. Despite these benefits, BMP use is still controversial due to its pro-inflammatory mechanism of action and potential to cause radiculitis. PURPOSE: To assess whether BMP is a risk factor for postoperative radiculitis in TLIF. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Single-center retrospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 397 TLIFs from June 2012 to December 2018. OUTCOME MEASURES: Perioperative clinical characteristics, post-operative risk of radiculitis and complication, and future reoperation rates.
METHOD(S): Patients >= 18 years-old undergoing elective single-level TLIFs from 2012 to 2018 were included. Outcome measures included perioperative clinical characteristics, postoperative risk of radiculitis and complication, and future reoperation rates. Radiculitis was defined the delayed onset of radicular symptoms postoperatively in patients whom had initial resolution of radicular symptoms immediately postoperatively, in the absence of persistent neurological compression on postoperative imaging. Statistical analyses included independent t-tests and chi-square analysis. Propensity score matching was utilized to control for demographic differences between the groups. Independent predictors for post-operative radiculitis were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Significance set at p<0.05.
RESULT(S): A total of 397 cases were included in the study (59.33 +/- 13.49 mean age, 28.98 +/- 6.29 mean BMI, 52.90% female, 2.29 +/- 1.92 average Charleston comorbidity Index). There were 223 open procedures and 174 MIS. For the entire cohort, 238 cases utilized BMP and 159 did not, with 102 MIS pairing with BMP use. The MIS TLIFs had a higher percentage of BMP use than open TLIFs (58.6% vs 25.7%, p<0.001), lower estimated blood loss (212.28 +/- 193.79 mL vs 410.91 +/- 337.98 mL, p<0.001) higher fluoroscopy dosage (52.43 +/- 48.61mGy vs 16.77 +/- 27.84mGy, p<0.001), and a lower length of stay (3.20 +/- 2.55 days vs 4.11 +/- 2.52 days, p<0.001). There were no other differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. There was a significantly higher rate of postoperative radiculitis in the MIS TLIFs compared to open (12.6% vs 6.8%, p=0.046) and use of BMP compared to no BMP (13.2% vs 6.7%, p=0.029). There was a 15.7% radiculitis rate when MIS was paired with BMP use. There were no other notable differences in complication rates or rates of reoperation. Individually, MIS had a 12.6% radiculitis rate (p=0.046) and BMP use had a 13.2% rate (p=0.029). Propensity score match controlled for the significant difference in CCI between the MIS and open groups (N=168 each). Multivariate regression indicated that MIS (p=0.314) and BMP (p=0.109) were not independent predictors individually when controlling for age, gender, and BMI. When technique was paired with biologic use the regression revealed MIS + BMP is a risk factor of post-operative radiculitis (2.265(4.753-1.079), p=0.031).
CONCLUSION(S): While BMP and MIS technique were not independent risk factors for postoperative radiculitis, there is an increased risk of radiculitis when using BMP in MIS TLIF. FDA DEVICE/DRUG STATUS: This abstract does not discuss or include any applicable devices or drugs.
Preoperative MRI Predictors of Health Related Quality of Life Improvement after Microscopic Lumbar Discectomy
BACKGROUND:Lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a common spinal pathology often treated by microscopic lumbar discectomy (MLD), though prior reports have not demonstrated which preoperative MRI factors may contribute to significant clinical improvement after MLD. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To analyze the MRI characteristics in patients with HNP that predict meaningful clinical improvement in Health Related Quality of Life scores (HRQoL) after MLD. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:Retrospective clinical and radiological study of patients undergoing MLD for HNP at a single institution over a two-year period. PATIENT SAMPLE/METHODS:88 patients receiving MLD treatment for HNP. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Cephalocaudal Canal Migration; Canal & HNP Anterior-Posterior (AP) Lengths and Ratio; Canal & HNP Axial Areas and Ratio; Hemi-Canal & Hemi-HNP Axial Areas and Ratio; Disc appearance (black, grey or mixed), Baseline (BL) and 3-Month (3M) postoperative Health Related Quality of Life Scores. METHODS:Patients > 18 years old who received MLD for HNP with BL and 3M HRQoL scores of PROMIS (Physical Function, Pain Interference, and Pain Intensity), ODI, VAS Back, and VAS Leg scores were included. HNP and spinal canal measurements of cephalocaudal migration, AP length, area, hemi-area, and disc appearance were performed using T2 axial and sagittal MRI. HNP measurements were divided by corresponding canal measurements to calculate AP, Area, and Hemi-Area ratios. Using known minimal clinically important differences (MCID) for each Î”HRQoL score, patients were separated into two groups based on whether they reached MCID (MCID+) or did not reach MCID (MCID-). The MCID for PROMIS Pain Intensity was calculated using a decision tree. A linear regression illustrated correlations between PROMIS vs ODI and VAS Back/Leg scores. Independent t-tests and chi  tests were utilized to investigate significant differences in HNP measurements between the MCID+ and MCID- groups. RESULTS:Â± 43.2, p<.04). MCID+ patients had a greater Hemi-Area Ratio than MCID- patients had in 4 out of 6 HRQoL score comparisons (51.8% Â± 14.7 vs 43.9% Â± 14.9, p<.05). CONCLUSIONS:Patients who met MCID after MLD had larger HNP areas and larger Hemi-HNP Areas than those who did not meet MCID. These patients were also 2.7x more likely to have a grey MRI signal than a mixed or black MRI signal. When accounting for HNP area relative to canal area, patients who met MCID had greater Hemi-HNP canal occupation than patients who did not meet MCID. The results of this study suggest that preoperative MRI parameters can be useful in predicting patient reported improvement after MLD.
MRI Radiological Predictors of Requiring Microscopic Lumbar Discectomy After Lumbar Disc Herniation
Study Design/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective cohort study. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To investigate radiological differences in lumbar disc herniations (herniated nucleus pulposus [HNP]) between patients receiving microscopic lumbar discectomy (MLD) and nonoperative patients. Methods/UNASSIGNED:test and chi-square analyses compared differences in the groups, binary logistic regression analysis determined odds ratios (ORs), and decision tree analysis compared the cutoff values for risk factors. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .01). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Patients who underwent MLD treatment had significantly different axial HNP area, frequency of caudal migration, magnitude of cephalad/caudal migration, and disc herniation MRI signal compared to patients with nonoperative treatment.
54. Preoperative MRI predictors of health related quality of life improvement after microscopic lumbar discectomy [Meeting Abstract]
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a common spinal pathology often treated by microscopic lumbar discectomy (MLD), though prior reports have not demonstrated which preoperative MRI factors may contribute to significant clinical improvement after MLD. PURPOSE: To analyze the MRI characteristics in patients with HNP that predict meaningful clinical improvement in Health Related Quality of Life scores (HRQL) after MLD. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective clinical and radiological study of patients undergoing MLD for HNP at a single institution over a two year period of time. PATIENT SAMPLE: Eighty-eight patients receiving MLD treatment for HNP. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cephalocaudal canal migration; canal & HNP anterior-posterior (AP) lengths and ratio; canal & HNP axial areas and ratio; hemi-canal & hemi-HNP axial areas and ratio; disc appearance (black, grey or mixed), baseline (BL) and 3-month (3M) postoperative HRQL scores.
METHOD(S): Patients >18 years old who received MLD for HNP with BL and 3M HRQL scores of PROMIS (Physical Function, Pain Interference, and Pain Intensity), ODI, VAS Back, and VAS Leg scores were included. HNP and spinal canal measurements of cephalocaudal migration, AP length, area, hemi-area, and disc appearance were performed using T2 axial and sagittal MRI. HNP measurements were divided by corresponding canal measurements to calculate AP, Area, and Hemi-Area ratios. Using known minimal clinically importance differences (MCID) for each DELTAHRQoL score, patients were separated into two groups based on whether they reached MCID (+) or did not reach MCID (-). The MCID for Pain Intensity was calculated using a decision tree. A linear regression illustrated correlations between PROMIS vs ODI and VAS Back/Leg scores. Independent t-tests and chi-square tests were utilized to investigate significant differences in HNP measurements between the (+) and (-) MCID groups.
RESULT(S): Eighty-eight MLD patients were included (age=44.6+/-14.9, 38.6% female). Pain Interference and pain intensity were strongly correlated with ODI and VAS Back/Leg (R>=.505), and physical function was significantly correlated with ODI and VAS Back/Leg (R=-.349) (all p<.01). The strongest MRI predictors of meeting HRQL MCID were grey disc appearance, HNP area (>116.6 mm2), hemi-HNP Area (>84.6 mm2), and Hemi-Area Ratio (>51.8%); (+) patients were 2.7 times more likely to have a grey HNP than (-) patients in 5 out of 6 HRQL score comparisons (p<.025). Also, (+) patients had larger HNP areas than (-) patients had in 5 out of 6 HRQoL score comparisons (116.6 mm2 +/- 46.4 vs 90.0 mm2 +/- 43.2, p<.04), and had larger hemi-HNP areas than (-) patients had in 4 out of 6 HRQL score comparisons (84.6 mm2 +/- 38.8 vs 66.3 mm2 +/- 29.7, p<.04). (+) patients had a greater hemi-area ratio than (-) patients had in 4 out of 6 HRQL score comparisons (51.8% +/- 14.7 vs 43.9% +/- 14.9, p<.05).
CONCLUSION(S): Patients who met MCID after MLD had larger HNP areas by 26.6 mm2 and larger hemi-HNP areas by 18.3 mm2 than those who did not meet MCID. These patients were also 2.7x more likely to have a grey HNP compared to patients who did not meet MCID. When accounting for HNP area relative to canal area, patients who met MCID had a 7.9% greater Hemi-HNP canal occupation than patients who did not meet MCID. The results of this study suggest that preoperative MRI parameters can be useful in predicting patient reported improvement after MLD. FDA DEVICE/DRUG STATUS: This abstract does not discuss or include any applicable devices or drugs.
Reoperations Following Lumbar Discectomy Are Associated With Worse Clinical Outcomes and Greater Socioeconomic Burden 3 Years After the Primary Procedure [Meeting Abstract]
Implantation of a bone-anchored annular closure device in conjunction with tubular minimally invasive discectomy for lumbar disc herniation: a retrospective study
BACKGROUND:Minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy have been recommended as superior to open techniques due to lower blood loss, lower rates of infection and shorter recovery. There are, however, concerns that this approach does not sufficiently remove the herniated nuclear material, thus leaving the patient susceptible to reherniation requiring reoperation. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and viability of an annular closure device in limiting reherniation and reoperation in a cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive lumbar discectomy with the assistance of an annular closure device. METHODS:We retrospectively analysed the results from patients treated by a single surgeon between March 2011 and December 2017. All patients had been diagnosed with a large (â‰¥â€‰5Â mm) defect and were treated via minimally invasive surgical techniques. Outcomes included demographic data, the procedural duration and the rates of symptomatic reherniation and reoperation. RESULTS:60 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 42Â years (range: 19-66); mean BMI was 24.1 (range: 16.7-36.3). Mean surgical duration was 29Â min (range: 16-50). Reoperation was required in 5% (3/60) of patients, although only 3% (2/60) experienced symptomatic reherniation at the index level. No other complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS:In our study, the use of an annular closure device during minimally invasive lumbar discectomy in a population of patients with large herniations was associated with low rates of reherniation and reoperation at the index level. While more research is required, the results of this study demonstrate the safety and viability of the annular closure device as an adjunct to minimally invasive discectomy.
Patients at the Highest Risk for Reherniation Following Lumbar Discectomy in a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Background/UNASSIGNED:The purposes of the present study were to (1) confirm the risk of recurrent lumbar disc herniation in patients with a large anular defect who had undergone limited discectomy and (2) assess potential risk factors within this population. Methods/UNASSIGNED:The patient population was extracted from the control cohort of a prospective, randomized, multicenter controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an anular closure device following standard limited discectomy. All control patients underwent limited discectomy for the treatment of a single-level symptomatic posterior or posterolateral lumbar disc herniation. Only patients presenting with a large anular defect (6 to 10 mm wide by 4 to 6 mm long) were included in the study (n = 278). Baseline demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were recorded. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Imaging modalities included magnetic resonance imaging, low-dose computed tomography, and radiographs. Symptomatic recurrent lumbar disc herniation was defined as any symptomatic postoperative herniation on either side of the index level. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of demographic and surgical variables associated with the incidence of recurrent lumbar disc herniation was performed. Results/UNASSIGNED:, and the mean excised nuclear tissue volume was 1.3 Â± 0.8 mL. At 2 years, the incidence of symptomatic recurrent lumbar disc herniation was 25.3% (64 of 253), with the herniation occurring at a mean of 264 days after the index procedure. Of the 64 patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation, 36 underwent a subsequent surgical procedure. Logistic regression analysis identified an increased risk for recurrent lumbar disc herniation in females (odds ratio, 2.2) and in patients with greater anular defect widths (odds ratio, 1.3). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between age and sex (p = 0.005). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The outcomes of the present study provide the most substantial evidence to date in confirming previous reports of a high risk of reherniation among patients with large anular defects. Among those with large anular defects (width, â‰¥6 mm), females â‰¤50 years of age had the highest risk (up to âˆ¼10 times higher) of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. It is recommended that an anular repair or closure should be performed after limited discectomies in patients with large anular defects. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Implantation of a bone-anchored anular closure device following tubular minimally invasive discectomy for lumbar disc herniation [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Despite refinements in the technique for lumbar discectomy, there continues to exist a persistent incidence of recurrent disc herniation and postoperative disc degeneration leading to back pain. A novel bone-anchored anular closure device (ACD) has been developed to address these complications by permitting a minimal discectomy, while closing a large anular defect in order to maintain a maximal amount of disc tissue while preventing recurrent disc herniation. The purpose of this report is to explore the feasibility and safety of a new tubular minimally invasive technique for implantation of this type of ACD as an adjunct to microscopic lumbar discectomy. Material and Methods: The Barricaid ACD (Intrinsic Therapeutics, Inc.; Woburn, MA USA) was implanted in 57 patients after standard lumbar discectomy with limited nucleus removal utilizing a tubular minimally invasive approach (15 in a randomized controlled trial, and 42 in an observational cohort). Results: The ACD was implanted with a low rate of perioperative complications in a case series of 57 patients. In two patients, the ACDs could not be implanted and conventional tubular discectomy with limited nucleus removal was performed; an ACD was successfully replaced during insertion in another patient; and a fourth patient experienced an incidental durotomy without further clinical sequelae. Comparing the 15 patients implanted with an ACD within an RCT to 16 patients from the concurrent control group treated by the same surgeon, within two years of surgery the ACD patients experienced fewer reoperations (2 vs 5), fewer symptomatic reherniations (1 vs 3), and greater average improvement in VAS-leg (91% vs 77%), VAS-back (79% vs 58%), ODI (87% vs 74%), SF36-MCS (31% vs 18%), and SF36-PCS (72% vs 56%). Conclusion: Implantation of this novel, bone-anchored ACD can be safely and effectively performed though a minimally invasive tubular approach as an adjunct to standard lumbar discectomy in patients with large anular defects, permitting less removal of nucleus while potentially decreasing the rate of recurrent disc herniation. Clinical outcomes including pain, function, reherniation and reoperation appear to be improved over discectomy without implantation of the ACD, though further study is needed