Life Stressors and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Seriously Mentally Ill Jail Population
Inmates represent a vulnerable population with increased rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the rates of trauma and PTSD among male inmates with acute psychiatric illness. This prospective, randomized study was conducted to assess the current rates of trauma and PTSD in this population. The sample consisted of 48 patients admitted to a hospital jail psychiatry service in New York City. Subjects were administered the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Disorders, PTSD Module (SCID-I). The rate of PTSD diagnosis via SCID-I was 46.2% as compared to 2.1% diagnosis via clinical interview. All participants reported a history of at least one stressful and/or traumatic event, and many of these events occurred during incarceration. These results demonstrate that a great deal of trauma and PTSD goes unrecognized and untreated in this population, indicating the need for more effective treatment interventions.
Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance
One workweek of mild sleep restriction adversely impacts sleepiness, performance, and proinflammatory cytokines. Many individuals try to overcome these adverse effects by extending their sleep on weekends. To assess whether extended recovery sleep reverses the effects of mild sleep restriction on sleepiness/alertness, inflammation, and stress hormones, 30 healthy young men and women (mean age +/- SD, 24.7 +/- 3.5 yr; mean body mass index +/- SD, 23.6 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)) participated in a sleep laboratory experiment of 13 nights [4 baseline nights (8 h/night), followed by 6 sleep restriction nights (6 h/night) and 3 recovery nights (10 h/night)]. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating IL-6 and cortisol, objective and subjective daytime sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), and performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed on days 4 (baseline), 10 (after 1 wk of sleep restriction), and 13 (after 2 nights of recovery sleep). Serial 24-h IL-6 plasma levels increased significantly during sleep restriction and returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Serial 24-h cortisol levels during restriction did not change compared with baseline, but after recovery they were significantly lower. Subjective and objective sleepiness increased significantly after restriction and returned to baseline after recovery. In contrast, performance deteriorated significantly after restriction and did not improve after recovery. Extended recovery sleep over the weekend reverses the impact of one work week of mild sleep restriction on daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and IL-6 levels, reduces cortisol levels, but does not correct performance deficits. The long-term effects of a repeated sleep restriction/sleep recovery weekly cycle in humans remain unknown.