Improving MR Image Quality in Patients with Metallic Implants
The number of implanted devices such as orthopedic hardware and cardiac implantable devices continues to increase with an increase in the age of the patient population, as well as an increase in the number of indications for specific devices. Many patients with these devices have or will develop clinical conditions that are best depicted at MRI. However, implanted devices containing paramagnetic or ferromagnetic substances can cause significant artifact, which could limit the diagnostic capability of this modality. Performing imaging with MRI when an implant is present may be challenging, and there are numerous techniques the radiologist and technologist can use to help minimize artifacts related to implants. First, knowledge of the presence of an implant before patient arrival is critical to ensure safety of the patient when the device is subjected to a strong magnetic field. Once safety is ensured, the examination should be performed with the MRI system that is expected to provide the best image quality. The selection of the MRI system includes multiple considerations such as the effects of field strength and availability of specific sequences, which can reduce metal artifact. Appropriate patient positioning, attention to MRI parameters (including bandwidth, voxel size, and echo), and appropriate selection of sequences (those with less metal artifact and advanced metal reduction sequences) are critical to improve image quality. Patients with implants can be successfully imaged with MRI with appropriate planning and understanding of how to minimize artifacts. This improves image quality and the diagnostic confidence of the radiologist. Â©RSNA, 2021.
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Beyond the AJR: "Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices With Abandoned Leads"
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for Early Detection of Radiation Therapy-Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Small Animal Model
Background/UNASSIGNED:Over half of all cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT). However, radiation exposure to the heart can cause cardiotoxicity. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data on RT-induced cardiac damage, with limited understanding of safe regional RT doses, early detection, prevention and management. A common initial feature of cardiotoxicity is asymptomatic dysfunction, which if left untreated may progress to heart failure. The current paradigm for cardiotoxicity detection and management relies primarily upon assessment of ejection fraction (EF). However, cardiac injury can occur without a clear change in EF. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of early RT-induced cardiac dysfunction. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We investigated the effect of RT on global and regional cardiac function and myocardial T1/T2 values at two timepoints post-RT using cardiac MRI in a rat model of localized cardiac RT. Rats who received image-guided whole-heart radiation of 24Gy were compared to sham-treated rats. Results/UNASSIGNED:The rats maintained normal global cardiac function post-RT. However, a deterioration in strain was particularly notable at 10-weeks post RT, and changes in circumferential strain were larger than changes in radial or longitudinal strain. Compared to sham, circumferential strain changes occurred at the basal, mid-ventricular and apical levels (p<0.05 for all at both 8-weeks and 10-weeks post-RT), most of the radial strain changes occurred at the mid-ventricular (p=0.044 at 8-weeks post-RT) and basal (p=0.018 at 10-weeks post-RT) levels, and most of the longitudinal strain changes occurred at the apical (p=0.002 at 8-weeks post-RT) and basal (p=0.035 at 10-weeks post-RT) levels. Regionally, lateral myocardial segments showed the greatest worsening in strain measurements, and histologic changes supported these findings. Despite worsened myocardial strain post-RT, myocardial tissue displacement measures were maintained, or even increased. T1/T2 measurements showed small non-significant changes post-RT compared to values in non-irradiated rats. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our findings suggest MRI regional myocardial strain is a sensitive imaging biomarker for detecting RT-induced subclinical cardiac dysfunction prior to compromise of global cardiac function.
Value CMR: Towards a Comprehensive, Rapid, Cost-Effective Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is considered the gold standard for measuring cardiac function. Further, in a single CMR exam, information about cardiac structure, tissue composition, and blood flow could be obtained. Nevertheless, CMR is underutilized due to long scanning times, the need for multiple breath-holds, use of a contrast agent, and relatively high cost. In this work, we propose a rapid, comprehensive, contrast-free CMR exam that does not require repeated breath-holds, based on recent developments in imaging sequences. Time-consuming conventional sequences have been replaced by advanced sequences in the proposed CMR exam. Specifically, conventional 2D cine and phase-contrast (PC) sequences have been replaced by optimized 3D-cine and 4D-flow sequences, respectively. Furthermore, conventional myocardial tagging has been replaced by fast strain-encoding (SENC) imaging. Finally, T1 and T2 mapping sequences are included in the proposed exam, which allows for myocardial tissue characterization. The proposed rapid exam has been tested in vivo. The proposed exam reduced the scan time from >1â€‰hour with conventional sequences to <20 minutes. Corresponding cardiovascular measurements from the proposed rapid CMR exam showed good agreement with those from conventional sequences and showed that they can differentiate between healthy volunteers and patients. Compared to 2D cine imaging that requires 12-16 separate breath-holds, the implemented 3D-cine sequence allows for whole heart coverage in 1-2 breath-holds. The 4D-flow sequence allows for whole-chest coverage in less than 10 minutes. Finally, SENC imaging reduces scan time to only one slice per heartbeat. In conclusion, the proposed rapid, contrast-free, and comprehensive cardiovascular exam does not require repeated breath-holds or to be supervised by a cardiac imager. These improvements make it tolerable by patients and would help improve cost effectiveness of CMR and increase its adoption in clinical practice.
ACR Appropriateness CriteriaÂ® Blunt Chest Trauma-Suspected Cardiac Injury
Blunt cardiac injuries range from myocardial concussion (commotio cordis) leading to fatal ventricular arrhythmias to myocardial contusion, cardiac chamber rupture, septal rupture, pericardial rupture, and valvular injuries. Blunt injuries account for one-fourth of the traumatic deaths in the United States. Chest radiography, transthoracic echocardiography, CT chest with and without contrast, and CT angiography are usually appropriate as the initial examination in patients with suspected blunt cardiac injury who are both hemodynamically stable and unstable. Transesophageal echocardiography and CT heart may be appropriate as examination in patients with suspected blunt cardiac injuries. This publication of blunt chest trauma-suspected cardiac injuries summarizes the literature and makes recommendations for imaging based on the available data and expert opinion. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Evaluation With Cardiac MRI
OBJECTIVE:Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a frequent problem in clinical practice and can be caused by diverse conditions including hypertension, aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, athletic training, infiltrative heart muscle disease, storage and metabolic disorders. Identification of the precise etiology can be challenging and is a common cause of referral for cardiac MRI (CMR). In this article, CMR findings in various causes of LVH will be reviewed with an emphasis on determination of etiology and emerging role of CMR in risk stratification. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with LVH, CMR allows precise determination of the severity and distribution of hypertrophy, evaluation of ventricular function, and tissue characterization. The information obtained from CMR enables identification of the etiology of LVH and may aid in determining prognosis and therapy.
Cardiac functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7T: Image quality optimization and ultra-high field capabilities
BACKGROUND:7T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) introduces several advantages, as well as some limitations, compared to lower-field imaging. The capabilities of ultra-high field (UHF) MRI have not been fully exploited in cardiac functional imaging. AIM/OBJECTIVE:scans using a multi-channel transceiver modular coil. METHODS:We investigated the effects of adding a dielectric pad at different locations next to the imaged region of interest on improving image quality in subjects with different body habitus. We also investigated the effects of adjusting the imaging flip angle in cine and tagging sequences on improving image quality, B1 field homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), blood-myocardium contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and tagging persistence throughout the cardiac cycle. RESULTS:The results showed the capability of achieving improved image quality with high spatial resolution (0.75 mm Ã— 0.75 mm Ã— 2 mm), high temporal resolution (20 ms), and increased tagging persistence (for up to 1200 ms cardiac cycle duration) at 7T cardiac MRI after adjusting scan set-up and imaging parameters. Adjusting the imaging flip angle was essential for achieving optimal SNR and myocardium-to-blood CNR. Placing a dielectric pad at the anterior left position of the chest resulted in improved B1 homogeneity compared to other positions, especially in subjects with small chest size. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Improved regional and global cardiac functional imaging can be achieved at 7T MRI through simple scan set-up adjustment and imaging parameter optimization, which would allow for more streamlined and efficient UHF cardiac MRI.
Cardiac MRI for Patients With Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices [Case Report]
OBJECTIVE. Patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) require cardiac MRI (CMRI) for a variety of reasons. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the value and safety of CMRI for patients with in situ CIEDs. CONCLUSION. Late gadolinium enhancement CMRI is the reference standard for assessing myocardial viability in patients with ventricular tachycardia before ablation of arrhythmogenic substrates. The use of late gadolinium enhancement CMRI for patients with CIEDs is safe as long as an imaging protocol is in place and precaution measures are taken.
Practical Guide to Evaluating Myocardial Disease by Cardiac MRI
OBJECTIVE. A spectrum of pathophysiologic mechanisms can lead to the development of myocardial disorders including ischemia, genetic abnormalities, and systemic disorders. Cardiac MRI identifies different myocardial disorders, provides prognostic information, and directs therapy. In comparison with other imaging modalities, cardiac MRI has the advantage of allowing both functional assessment and tissues characterization in a single examination without the use of ionizing radiation. Newer cardiac MRI techniques including mapping can provide additional information about myocardial disease that may not be detected using conventional techniques. Emerging techniques including MR spectroscopy and finger printing will likely change the way we understand the pathophysiology mechanisms of the wide array of myocardial disorders. CONCLUSION. Imaging of myocardial disorders encompasses a large variety of conditions including both ischemic and nonischemic diseases. Cardiac MRI sequences, such as balanced steady-state free precession and late gadolinium enhancement, play a critical role in establishing diagnosis, determining prognosis, and guiding therapeutic management. Additional sequences-including perfusion imaging, T2*, real-time cine, and T2-weighted sequences-should be performed in specific clinical scenarios. There is emerging evidence for the use of mapping in imaging of myocardial disease. Multiple other new techniques are currently being studied. These novel techniques will likely change the way myocardial disorders are understood and diagnosed in the near future.