Beyond rising rates: personalized medicine and public health approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [Editorial]
Walkup, John T; Stossel, Lauren; Rendleman, Rebecca
Implementation of culturally targeted patient navigation system for screening colonoscopy in a direct referral system
Jandorf, Lina; Cooperman, Julia L; Stossel, Lauren M; Itzkowitz, Steven; Thompson, Hayley S; Villagra, Cristina; Thelemaque, Linda D; McGinn, Thomas; Winkel, Gary; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Shelton, Rachel C; Redd, William
Low-income minorities often face system-based and personal barriers to screening colonoscopy (SC). Culturally targeted patient navigation (CTPN) programs employing professional navigators (Pro-PNs) or community-based peer navigators (Peer-PNs) can help overcome barriers but are not widely implemented. In East Harlem, NY, USA, where approximately half the residents participate in SC, 315 African American patients referred for SC at a primary care clinic with a Direct Endoscopic Referral System were recruited between May 2008 and May 2010. After medical clearance, 240 were randomized to receive CTPN delivered by a Pro-PN (n = 106) or Peer-PN (n = 134). Successful navigation was measured by SC adherence rate, patient satisfaction and navigator trust. Study enrollment was 91.4% with no significant differences in SC adherence rates between Pro-PN (80.0%) and Peer-PN (71.3%) (P = 0.178). Participants in both groups reported high levels of satisfaction and trust. These findings suggest that CTPN Pro-PN and Peer-PN programs are effective in this urban primary care setting. We detail how we recruited and trained navigators, how CTPN was implemented and provide a preliminary answer to our questions of the study aims: can peer navigators be as effective as professionals and what is the potential impact of patient navigation on screening adherence?
Cost analysis of a patient navigation system to increase screening colonoscopy adherence among urban minorities
Jandorf, Lina; Stossel, Lauren M; Cooperman, Julia L; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Ladabaum, Uri; Hall, Diana; Thelemaque, Linda D; Redd, William; Itzkowitz, Steven H
BACKGROUND: Patient navigation (PN) is being used increasingly to help patients complete screening colonoscopy (SC) to prevent colorectal cancer. At their large, urban academic medical center with an open-access endoscopy system, the authors previously demonstrated that PN programs produced a colonoscopy completion rate of 78.5% in a cohort of 503 patients (predominantly African Americans and Latinos with public health insurance). Very little is known about the direct costs of implementing PN programs. The objective of the current study was to perform a detailed cost analysis of PN programs at the authors' institution from an institutional perspective. METHODS: In 2 randomized controlled trials, average-risk patients who were referred for SC by primary care providers were recruited for PN between May 2008 and May 2010. Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 PN groups. The cost of PN and net income to the institution were determined in a cost analysis. RESULTS: Among 395 patients who completed colonoscopy, 53.4% underwent SC alone, 30.1% underwent colonoscopy with biopsy, and 16.5% underwent snare polypectomy. Accounting for the average contribution margins of each procedure type, the total revenue was $95,266.00. The total cost of PN was $14,027.30. Net income was $81,238.70. In a model sample of 1000 patients, net incomes for the institutional completion rate (approximately 80%), the historic PN program (approximately 65%), and the national average (approximately 50%) were compared. The current PN program generated additional net incomes of $35,035.50 and $44,956.00, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PN among minority patients with mostly public health insurance generated additional income to the institution, mainly because of increased colonoscopy completion rates.
Readability of patient education materials available at the point of care
Stossel, Lauren M; Segar, Nora; Gliatto, Peter; Fallar, Robert; Karani, Reena
BACKGROUND:Many patient education materials (PEMs) available on the internet are written at high school or college reading levels, rendering them inaccessible to the average US resident, who reads at or below an 8(th) grade level. Currently, electronic health record (EHR) providers partner with companies that produce PEMs, allowing clinicians to access PEMs at the point of care. OBJECTIVE:To assess the readability of PEMs provided by a popular EHR vendor as well as the National Library of Medicine (NLM). DESIGN/METHODS:We included PEMs from Micromedex, EBSCO, and MedlinePlus. Micromedex and EBSCO supply PEMs to Meditech, a popular EHR supplier in the US. MedlinePlus supplies the NLM. These PEM databases have high market penetration and accessibility. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Grade reading level of the PEMs was calculated using three validated indices: Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), Gunning Fog (GFI), and Flesch-Kincaid (FKI). The percentage of documents above target readability and average readability scores from each database were calculated. RESULTS:We randomly sampled 100 disease-matched PEMs from three databases (nâ€‰=â€‰300 PEMs). Depending on the readability index used, 30-100% of PEMs were written above the 8(th) grade level. The average reading level for MedlinePlus, EBSCO, and Micromedex PEMs was 10.2 (1.9), 9.7 (1.3), and 8.6 (0.9), respectively (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.000) as estimated by the GFI. Estimates of readability using SMOG and FKI were similar. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of PEMS available through the NLM and a popular EHR were written at reading levels considerably higher than that of the average US adult.
Intentions to use hypnosis to control the side effects of cancer and its treatment
Sohl, Stephanie J; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H
Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n = 115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of participants (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination.