Acceptable clinical outcomes despite high reoperation rate at minimum 12-month follow-up after concomitant arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and medial meniscal allograft transplantation
Shankar, Dhruv S.; Vasavada, Kinjal D.; Avila, Amanda; DeClouette, Brittany; Aziz, Hadi; Strauss, Eric J.; Alaia, Michael J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Campbell, Kirk A.
Background: Single-stage medial meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a technically challenging procedure for management of knee pain and instability in younger patients, but clinical and functional outcomes data are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical and patient-reported outcomes following concomitant ACLR and medial MAT. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series of patients who underwent medial MAT with concomitant primary or revision ACLR at our institution from 2010 to 2021 and had minimum 12-month follow-up. Complications, reoperations, visual analog scale (VAS) pain, satisfaction, Lysholm score, return to sport, and return to work outcomes were assessed. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Interference, Pain Intensity, and Physical Function Scores were used to measure patients"™ functional status relative to the US population. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The cohort consisted of 17 knees of 16 individual patients. The cohort was majority male (82.4%) with mean age of 31.9 years (range 19"“49 years) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.9 kg/m2 (range 22.5"“53.3 kg/m2). Mean follow-up time was 56.8 months (range 13"“106 months). Most patients underwent revision ACLR (64.7%). The 1-year reoperation rate was high (23.5%), with two patients (11.8%) tearing their meniscus graft. Patient-reported outcomes indicated low VAS pain (mean 2.2), high satisfaction (mean 77.9%), and fair Lysholm score (mean 81.1). Return to work rate was high (92.9%), while return to sport rate was low (42.9%). Postoperative PROMIS scores were comparable or superior to the national average and correlated significantly with patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The concomitant ACLR and MAT procedure is associated with excellent knee pain and functional outcomes and high rate of return to work after surgery, though the 1-year reoperation rate is high and rate of return to sport is low. Level of evidence: IV.
Treatment Options for Acute Rockwood III - V Acromioclavicular Dislocations: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials
Bi, Andrew S; Robinson, Jake; Anil, Utkarsh; Hurley, Eoghan T; Klifto, Christopher S; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
BACKGROUND:Acute Rockwood type III-V acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations have been treated with numerous surgical techniques over the years. The purpose of this study was to perform a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to quantitatively define the optimal treatment for operative AC dislocations. METHODS:A literature search of three databases was performed on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RCTs comparing one of ten treatments for acute Rockwood type III-V AC dislocations (Nonoperative [NO]; Kirschner wire fixation [KW]; Coracoclavicular screw fixation [Scr]; Hook plate [HP]; Open coracoclavicular cortical button [CBO]; Arthroscopic coracoclavicular cortical button [CBA]; Two or more coracoclavicular cortical buttons [CB2]; Isolated graft reconstruction [GR]; cortical button with graft augmentation [CB+GR]; coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular fixation [AC]) were included. Clinical outcomes were compared using a frequentist approach to NMA, with statistical analysis performed using R. Treatment options were ranked using the P-score, which estimates the likelihood that the investigated treatment is the ideal method for an optimal result in each outcome measure on a scale from 0 - 1. RESULTS:From 5362 reviewed studies, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1581 patients included in the NMA. AC, CB+GR, GR, CB2, CBA, and CBO demonstrated superiority over HP, Scr, KW, and NO treatments at final follow up for Constant-Murley and DASH scores, with AC and CB+GR demonstrating the highest P-scores for Constant (P-score = 0.957 and 0.781, respectively) and GR and CBO with the highest P-scores for DASH (P-score = 0.896 and 0.750, respectively). GR had the highest P-score for VAS (P-score = 0.986). HP, CB2, CB+GR, AC, CBA, and CBO demonstrated superiority with final follow up coracoclavicular distance (CCD) and recurrence, with HP and CB2 having the highest P-score for CCD (P-score = 0.798 and 0.757, respectively) and GR and CB+GR having the highest P-score for recurrence (P-score = 0.880 and 0.855, respectively). KW and Scr had the shortest operative times (P-score = 0.917 and 0.810, respectively), with GR and CBA demonstrating longest operative times (P-score = 0.120 and 0.097, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:While there are multiple fixation options for acute surgical AC dislocations, adding AC fixation or graft augmentation likely improves functional outcomes and decreases CCD and recurrence at final follow up, at the expense of longer operative times.
Does the tidemark location matter in osteochondral allograft transplantation? A finite element analysis
Manjunath, Amit K.; Pendola, Martin; Hurley, Eoghan T.; Lin, Charles C.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.
Introduction: While OCA has been shown to result in good long-term outcomes, there is still a considerable failure rate present with room for improvement. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact that osteochondral allograft cartilage thickness has on contact pressures, and to simulate whether a mismatch of the subchondral bony interface relative to the host-recipient site results in altered biomechanics. Methods: Properties of articular cartilage and bone were incorporated into a finite element model to create a simulated osteochondral lesion (diameter: 10 mm, height: 10 mm, cartilage thickness: 2 mm, subchondral bone thickness: 8 mm). Five osteochondral plugs were constructed to fill the defect, with cartilage-to-bone ratios between 1:9 and 1:1. The plugs were inserted and given a static downward force of 5000 N. Resultant stresses and displacements were measured. Results: The 2:8 cartilage-to-bone ratio plug, matched with the recipient site, was deemed optimal based on its resultant stress and displacement. The 1:9 plug displaced less than the 2:8 match and endured greater stress per unit of cartilage volume, whereas the 3:7 plug also displayed similar displacement to the 1:9 plug but had greater cartilage volume and was able to distribute less stress per unit of cartilage volume. The 4:6 plug displaced to a similar extent as the 3:7 plug but displayed a unique pattern of strain. The 5:5 plug was considered nonfunctional, as the majority of displacement was seen in the cartilage of the recipient site rather than in the plug itself. Conclusions: The relationship between the cartilage-to-bone ratio in osteochondral allografts and that of their surroundings significantly impacts the distribution of stresses and predilection for micromotion at the repair site.
Despite Equivalent Clinical Outcomes, Patients Report Less Satisfaction With Telerehabilitation Versus Standard In-Office Rehabilitation After Arthroscopic Meniscectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mojica, Edward S.; Vasavada, Kinjal; Hurley, Eoghan T.; Lin, Charles C.; Buzin, Scott; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Campbell, Kirk A.
Purpose: To evaluate functional outcomes and satisfaction in patients who underwent telerehabilitation (telerehab) compared with in-person rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Methods: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted including patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic meniscectomy for meniscal injury by 1 of 5 fellowship-trained sports medicine surgeons between September 2020 and October 2021. Patients were randomized to receive telerehab, defined as exercises and stretches provided by trained physical therapists over a synchronous face-to-face video visit or in-person rehabilitation for their postoperative course. International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) score and satisfaction metrics were collected at baseline and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Analysis was conducted on 60 patients with 3-month follow-up outcomes. There were no significant differences in IKDC scores between groups at baseline (P =.211) and 3 months"™ postoperatively (P =.065). Patients were more likely to report being satisfied with their rehabilitation group 73% vs. 100% (P =.044) if there were in the in-person group. Satisfaction differed significantly between the 2 groups at the end of their rehabilitation course, and only 64% of those in the telerehab group would elect to undergo telerehab again for future indications. Furthermore, they believed that future rehabilitation would benefit from a hybrid model. Conclusions: Telerehab showed no difference versus traditional in-person rehabilitation in terms of functional outcomes up to 3 months after arthroscopic meniscectomy. However, patients were less satisfied with telerehab. Level of Evidence: I, randomized controlled trial.
The Fifty Most Cited Publications on Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate With Application in Orthopedic Surgery
Oeding, Jacob F; Hernandez, Hunter C; Bi, Andrew; Kennedy, John G; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J; Campbell, Kirk C
BACKGROUND:Concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA) has garnered widespread and increasing attention in recent years. We aimed to characterize the most influential articles in cBMA research while clarifying controversies surrounding its use and clinical efficacy and identifying important areas on which to focus future research efforts. METHODS:The Science Citation Index Expanded subsection of the Web of Science Core Collection was systematically searched to identify the top 50 most cited publications on orthopedic cBMA research. Publication and study characteristics were extracted, and Spearman correlations were calculated to assess the relationship between citation data and level of evidence. RESULTS:The top 50 articles were published between the years 1996 and 2018, with 58% published in the year 2010 or later. Of the 29 studies for which level of evidence was assessed, the majority were Level IV (24, 83%). Twenty-one articles (42%) were classified as basic science or translational (9 cell culture, 8 animal study, and 4 using human blood samples). Application to treat cartilage defects was the most common focus of studies (17 studies, 34%), followed by analysis of cBMA composition (14 studies, 28%). No correlation was found between rank, citation rate, or year of publication and level of evidence. CONCLUSIONS:The most influential articles on cBMA are recent and consist of a majority low-level of evidence studies. Cohort studies were the most common study type among the top 50 most cited articles, while basic science articles were relatively less common. These results suggest a rapidly evolving field with the potential to better explain inconsistent clinical results with improved understanding and documentation of basic science concepts in addition to large-scale, prospective clinical trials. Orthobiologics and especially cBMA holds great promise for the future, and higher-level clinical trials will help better define the best clinical uses for this treatment.
An eponymous history of the anterolateral ligament complex of the knee
Morgan, Allison M; Bi, Andrew S; Kaplan, Daniel J; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
BACKGROUND:Recent interest has surged in the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and complex (ALC) of the knee. Its existence and role in rotary stability of the knee, particularly in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, remains a contentious and controversial topic. UNDERSTANDING THE ALC/UNASSIGNED:We must review our history and recognize the pioneers who pushed our understanding of the ALL forward before it was popularly recognized as a discrete structure. Additionally, given that many eponyms remain in common use related to the ALC, we must standardize our nomenclature to prevent misuse or misunderstanding of terms in the literature. In this review, modern understanding of the anterolateral ligament complex (ALC) is traced to 1829 by exploring eponymous terms first in anatomy and then in surgical technique. Understanding our history and terminology will allow us to better understand the ALC itself. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This review aims to provide historical context, define terminology, and provide insight into the clinical relevance of the ALC.
Sex-Based Differences in Outcomes of Tibial Tubercle Anteromedialization
Bloom, David A; Gonzalez, Matthew; Hurley, Eoghan T; Kingery, Matthew T; Carter, Cordelia W; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
UNLABELLED:Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases 2022;80(4):252-6252 Bloom DA, Gonzalez M, Hurley ET, Kingery MT, Carter CW, Jazrawi LM, Strauss EJ. Sex-based differences in outcomes of tibial tubercle anteromedi- alization. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 2022;80(4):252-6. Abstract Background: Previous research has demonstrated sex- based differences in patient-reported outcomes of orthopedic surgical procedures. The hypothesis of the current study was that females would have inferior patient-reported outcomes to their male peers following a tibial tubercle anteromedial- ization (AMZ) procedure for both patellofemoral instability and cartilage defects. METHODS:Patients who had undergone AMZ for isolated osteochondral defect or patellofemoral instability with a minimum follow-up time of 1 year were identified. They were then asked to complete several patient-reported outcome questionnaires that were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS:Overall, 109 patients were included in this study. Seventy-nine patients (72.5%) were female with a mean follow-up duration of 3.4 ± 2.0 years. Forty-seven females had AMZ for patellar instability while 32 females had AMZ for osteochondral defects. There were no statistically signifi- cant differences between sexes with respect to concomitant procedures performed, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, or patient reported outcome (PRO) scores at follow-up (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference with respect to outcomes between the sexes for AMZ overall and when isolating the sexes based on indication. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that female patients undergoing AMZ have short-term clinical and functional outcomes that are not significantly different to those reported in males.
Return to Work and Sport Following Tibial Tubercle Anteromedialization
Kingery, Matthew T; Bloom, David A; Hoberman, Alexander; Fliegel, Brian; Alaia, Michael J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
BACKGROUND:Tibial tubercle anteromedialization (AMZ) is a commonly performed procedure for patients with patellofemoral instability or patellofemoral osteochondral disease. While prior studies have demonstrated that this form of osteotomy produces generally good outcomes, the time needed for return to work and return to sport remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the mean length of time before return to work and the rate of return to sport following AMZ. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients who had undergone AMZ for either patellofemoral instability or isolated osteochon- dral defect with a minimum follow-up time of 1 year were identified. Patients less than 18 years of age were excluded. Patients were asked to complete a series of patient reported outcomes surveys including specific queries regarding their return to work and return to athletic activity. RESULTS:A total of 109 patients were included in this study. The majority were female (79 patients, 72.3%). The mean age was 30.74 ± 9.90 years at the time of surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 3.40 ± 1.97 years. Of the 109 patients, 104 (95.4%) had returned to work at the time of follow-up. Mean time to return to work was 2.96 ± 3.33 months (range: 0.25 to 24 months). Of the 90 patients who were involved in a sport or physical activity prior to injury, 64 patients (71.1%) had returned to sport at some level at the time of most recent follow-up. Of those who had returned to sport, mean time to return to sport was 9.21 ± 5.46 months (range: 1 to 24 months). CONCLUSIONS:At a minimum follow-up time of 1 year, patients who underwent AMZ were found to have a return to sport rate of 71% with a mean time of 9.21 months to return to athletic activity. Over 95% of AMZ patients had returned to work by 1 year after the procedure. Patients required an average of 3 months to return to work, although those with physically demanding jobs required slightly more time. Data from the current study is useful in setting expectations for patients undergoing tibial tubercle anteromedialization for patellofemoral instability or patellofemoral osteochondral disease.
Primary Biceps Tenodesis Is Superior to Revision Following Failed SLAP Repair
Lorentz, Nathan A; Hurley, Eoghan T; Markus, Danielle H; Colasanti, Christopher A; Campbell, Kirk A; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To compare satisfaction and return to play (RTP) rates between patients undergoing primary biceps tenodesis for a symptomatic SLAP tear and patients undergoing secondary biceps tenodesis following a failed SLAP repair. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:value of <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .9529) between patient groups. Patients reported playing tennis, swimming, golf, rock climbing, and basketball. No patients required a further shoulder surgery after undergoing biceps tenodesis. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In this study, patients undergoing primary biceps tenodesis had significantly better functional outcomes compared with secondary biceps tenodesis following a failed SLAP repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:III, retrospective comparative study.
RANTES Concentration at the Time of Surgery Is Associated With Postoperative Stiffness in Patients Undergoing ACL Reconstruction
Avila, Amanda; Petrera, Massimo; Duenes, Matthew; Kingery, Matthew T; Song, Melissa; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been shown to be at risk for postoperative arthrofibrosis. Diagnostic biomarkers associated with the development of postoperative stiffness are unknown. HYPOTHESIS/UNASSIGNED:Biomarkers found in the synovial fluid at the time of surgery are associated with the development of postoperative arthrofibrosis in a cohort of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction were prospectively enrolled. Synovial fluid was collected before surgical incision. A cohort of patients with postoperative stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and/or lysis of adhesions (LOA) was retrospectively identified. Matching of cases to controls was performed using a 1:2 pair matching algorithm. Risk factor-adjusted single-biomarker and multivariable models were used to assess the association of synovial fluid biomarkers with postoperative stiffness requiring MUA/LOA. Stepwise logistic regression controlling for clinical risk factors was used to identify biomarkers that are possible predictors of postoperative stiffness. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .046). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Higher concentrations of synovial fluid biomarkers bFGF and RANTES were associated with increased risk for stiffness requiring intervention after ACL reconstruction. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1B (MIP-1B) were not associated with the development of postoperative arthrofibrosis.