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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following blunt trauma: Early recognition and diagnosis

Cimaroli, S; Maniar, Y; Ciancarelli, J; Stright, A; Joseph, D A
Background: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease. While TTC is usually preceded by an emotionally stressful event, physical trauma has been documented as a precipitating incident as well. Case summary: An 82-year-old female with no past medical history, presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle collision. Trauma workup was significant for an ulnar fracture, elevated cardiac enzymes, and ST-segment changes. Bedside echocardiogram revealed apical ballooning. She underwent cardiac catheterization, which failed to demonstrate significant coronary artery disease. The patient developed cardiogenic shock and required temporary vasopressor support after failing a trial of intra-aortic balloon pump.
Conclusion(s): Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy is a rare complication of trauma, which presents with signs and symptoms similar to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but without evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Following trauma, signs of ACS in elderly women should raise provider's suspicion for TTC and prompting bedside echocardiography, which can assist with early diagnosis.
ISSN: 2352-6440
CID: 5514202

Revised Intensity Battle Score (RIBS): Development of a Clinical Score for Predicting Poor Outcomes After Rib Fractures

Buchholz, Carl J; Jia, Leon; Manea, Calin; Petersen, Taylor; Wang, Haowei; Stright, Adam; Young, Jeffrey; Calland, James Forrest
BACKGROUND:Patients with rib fractures have variable clinical courses and it is difficult to predict which patients will do poorly. Ideally this prediction would happen at the time of admission to facilitate effective triage. One scoring system devised to this end, is the Battle score. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the Battle score as triage tool, and to re-tool it for performance in an inpatient trauma setting. METHODS:A multivariate logistic regression model was trained on patients admitted to a level one trauma center with at least one rib fracture. A composite outcome was used to classify those who had poor outcomes. Eighteen candidate predictors were analyzed in univariate analysis, then the most promising fed into the logistic model until a triage score was built and internally validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS:Of the 838 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 145 (17.3%) patients had a defined poor outcome. The relevant predictors included in the final scoring system were number of ribs fractured, chest tube, pulmonary contusions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Glasgow coma score. Age was not found to be predictive. This score was found to have higher fidelity in predicting poor outcomes than the original Battle score (AUROC .858 vs .649.). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:An easy to calculate clinical scoring system was created to triage patients with rib fractures at the time of admission. Age may be of less importance than previously thought, while injury burden and history of lung disease may play a larger role.
PMID: 36120831
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5335272

Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Injured Patient: A Multicenter Review

Hakmi, Hazim; Islam, Shahidul; Petrone, Patrizio; Sajan, Abin; Baltazar, Gerard; Sohail, Amir H; Goulet, Nicole; Jacquez, Ricardo; Stright, Adam; Velcu, Laura; Divers, Jasmin; Joseph, D'Andrea K
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to affect outcomes among surgical patients. We hypothesized that COVID-19 would be linked to higher mortality and longer length of stay of trauma patients regardless of the injury severity score (ISS). METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of trauma registries from two level 1 trauma centers (suburban and urban) from March 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019, and March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020, comparing baseline characteristics and cumulative adverse events. Data collected included ISS, demographics, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time from hospitalization to in-hospital death. Outcomes during the height of the first New York COVID-19 wave were also compared with the same time frame in the prior year. Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare outcomes. RESULTS:There were 1180 trauma patients admitted during the study period from March 2020 to June 2020. Of these, 596 were never tested for COVID-19 and were excluded from the analysis. A total of 148 COVID+ patients and 436 COVID- patients composed the 2020 cohort for analysis. Compared with the 2019 cohort, the 2020 cohort was older with more associated comorbidities, more adverse events, but lower ISS. Higher rates of historical hypertension, diabetes, neurologic events, and coagulopathy were found among COVID+ patients compared with COVID- patients. D-dimer and ferritin were unreliable indicators of COVID-19 severity; however, C-reactive protein levels were higher in COVID+ relative to COVID- patients. Patients who were COVID+ had a lower median ISS compared with COVID- patients, and COVID+ patients had higher rates of mortality and longer length of stay. CONCLUSIONS:COVID+ trauma patients admitted to our two level 1 trauma centers had increased morbidity and mortality compared with admitted COVID- trauma patients despite age and lower ISS. C-reactive protein may play a role in monitoring COVID-19 activity in trauma patients. A better understanding of the physiological impact of COVID-19 on injured patients warrants further investigation.
PMID: 36084394
ISSN: 1095-8673
CID: 5337332

Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to suspension trauma syndrome: A systematic review of definition, pathophysiology, and management controversies

Petrone, Patrizio; Espinoza-Villalobos, Sofía; Baltazar, Gerard A; Søreide, Kjetil; Stright, Adam; Brathwaite, Collin E M; Joseph, D'Andrea K
BACKGROUND:Suspension trauma syndrome is a life-threatening event that occurs when a person is "trapped" in a prolonged passive suspension. It is most commonly seen in people who engage in occupational or sport activities that require harness suspension. The aim of this study is to identify the predisposing factors, pathophysiology, and management of suspension trauma. METHODS:A review and analysis of the literature published in English and Spanish from 1972 to 2020 on suspension trauma were performed. Search sources were PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, MeSH, UpToDate, and Google Scholar. Articles referring to suspension trauma associated with other injury mechanisms (traumatic impact injuries, drowning, asphyxiation, or bleeding), case reports, and pediatric population were excluded. RESULTS:Forty-one articles were identified. Of these, 29 articles related to mechanism, pathophysiology, and management of individuals who suffered prolonged suspension trauma without associated traumatic injuries were included in the study. We encountered several controversies describing the putative pathophysiology, ranging from blood sequestration in the lower extremities versus accumulation of metabolic waste and hyperkalemia to dorsal hook-type harness as a trigger cause of positional asphyxia; to vascular compression of femoral vessels exerted by the harness causing decreased venous return. Pstients suspended in a full-body harness with dorsal hook showed more hemodynamic alterations in response to the compressive effect on the rib cage, causing a reduction in perfusion by presenting a decrease in pulse pressure. Management strategies varied across studies. CONCLUSIONS:Progress has been made in individualizing the population at risk and in the management of suspension trauma. We recommend the formation of consensus definitions, larger cohort or registry studies to be conducted, and experimental animal models to better understand the mechanisms in order to develop management and life support guidelines from a trauma and emergency medicine perspective.
PMID: 34512820
ISSN: 1920-8642
CID: 5082812

Bullet embolization to the heart: A rare and confounding penetrating cardiac injury case report [Case Report]

Daskalaki, Despoina; Hakmi, Hazim; Stright, Adam; Mitzman, Brian; Mair, Evan R; Joseph, D'Andrea K; Baltazar, Gerard A
Gunshot wounds to the cardiac region usually result in devastating injuries. However, if bullets embolize into the myocardium without significant damage to the organ, optimal evaluation and management remains unclear. We present the case of a hemodynamically stable gunshot wound patient who presented with a bullet to the heart. Sternotomy revealed that the bullet had embolized through the superior vena cava and embedded into the apex of the right ventricle. The patient was managed without retrieval of the bullet and continues to be well despite a retained intracardiac bullet. We discuss cases of bullet embolization to the heart and the emergence of minimally-invasive approaches for management.
PMID: 32629219
ISSN: 2210-2612
CID: 4518582

Sinking skin flap syndrome in the multi-trauma patient: a paradoxical management to TBI post craniectomy [Case Report]

Hakmi, Hazim; Joseph, D'Andrea K; Sohail, Amir; Tessler, Lee; Baltazar, Gerard; Stright, Adam
Sinking skin flap syndrome is a rare syndrome leading to increased intracranial pressure, known to neurosurgeons, yet uncommon and hardly ever reported in trauma patients. In a hospitalized trauma patient with declining neurological status, rarely do we encounter further deterioration by elevating the patients' head, diuresis and hyperventilation. However, after craniectomy for trauma, a partially boneless cranium may be compressed by the higher atmospheric pressure, that intracranial pressure rises to dangerous levels. For such cases, paradoxical supportive management with intravenous fluid infusion, and reverse Trendelenburg positioning, is used to counteract the higher atmospheric pressure, as a bridge to definitive treatment with cranioplasty. These steps constitute an urgent and easily applied intervention to reduce further neurological deterioration, of which every trauma healthcare provider should be aware.
PMID: 32595925
ISSN: 2042-8812
CID: 4807052

Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Relieves Post-concussion Symptoms in a Case of Polytrauma [Case Report]

Baltazar, Gerard A; Kolwitz, Christine; Petrone, Patrizio; Stright, Adam; Joseph, D'Andrea
Optimal management of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) remains ill-defined but includes multimodal, symptom-guided plans of care. Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) may be used as an adjunct treatment for PCS. We present a case of a motor vehicle collision victim whose PCS improved directly and progressively after OMT. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OMT utilized for PCS management after polytrauma and as part of an organized trauma system. Previous studies discuss potential benefits of OMT for patients with PCS after sports-related injuries, and none account for management of multiply injured patients as part of an organized trauma system. Further study of OMT for PCS is warranted and would benefit by recruiting patients from trauma centers in order to observe a range of mechanisms of injury that result in concussion.
PMID: 32313758
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 4402132

An iliac-appendiceal fistula causing gastrointestinal bleeding [Case Report]

Gurien, Steven D; Stright, Adam; Garuthara, Melissa; Klein, Jonathan D S; Rosca, Mihai
Aortoenteric fistulas are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, and iliac-appendiceal fistulas are an even rarer cause. We describe a case of an iliac-appendiceal fistula in a patient who presented several months after aortic reconstruction with gastrointestinal bleeding. An extensive workup revealed that the source of bleeding was localized to the appendiceal orifice. The patient underwent an appendectomy with a two-stage procedure involving the iliac graft for definitive repair and ultimately recovered well. Despite the rarity of aortoenteric and iliac-appendiceal fistulas causing gastrointestinal bleeding, keeping a high index of suspicion in patients with a prior vascular repair can prevent death.
PMID: 31193446
ISSN: 2468-4287
CID: 3985972