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Introduction to papers presented at the festschrift of Janice L. Pasieka

Carty, Sally; Lee, James; Sturgeon, Cord; Suh, Insoo; Wang, Tracy
ISSN: 0002-9610
CID: 5629932

Incidental 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in thyroid nodules: Is guideline-directed management still appropriate?

Wright, Kyla; Fisher, Jason C.; Rothberger, Gary D.; Prescott, Jason D.; Allendorf, John D.; Patel, Kepal; Suh, Insoo
Background: Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography imaging has been shown to be an independent risk factor for malignancy in thyroid nodules. More recently, a new positron emission tomography radiotracer"”Gallium-68 DOTATATE"”has gained popularity as a sensitive method to detect neuroendocrine tumors. With greater availability of this imaging, incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake in the thyroid gland has increased. It is unclear whether current guideline-directed management of thyroid nodules remains appropriate in those that are Gallium-68 DOTATATE avid. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Gallium-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography scans performed at our institution from 2012 to 2022. Patients with incidental focal Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake in the thyroid gland were included. Fine needle aspiration biopsies were characterized via the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Bethesda III/IV nodules underwent molecular testing (ThyroSeq v3), and malignancy risk ≥50% was considered positive. Results: In total, 1,176 Gallium-68 DOTATATE PET scans were reviewed across 837 unique patients. Fifty-three (6.3%) patients demonstrated focal Gallium-68 DOTATATE thyroid uptake. Nine patients were imaged for known medullary thyroid cancer. Forty-four patients had incidental radiotracer uptake in the thyroid and were included in our study. Patients included in the study were predominantly female sex (75%), with an average age of 62.9 ± 13.9 years and a maximum standardized uptake value in the thyroid of 7.3 ± 5.3. Frequent indications for imaging included neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel (n = 17), lung (n = 8), and pancreas (n = 7). Thirty-three patients underwent subsequent thyroid ultrasound. Sonographic findings warranted biopsy in 24 patients, of which 3 were lost to follow-up. Cytopathology and molecular testing results are as follows: 12 Bethesda II (57.1%), 6 Bethesda III/ThyroSeq-negative (28.6%), 1 Bethesda III/ThyroSeq-positive (4.8%), 2 Bethesda V/VI (9.5%). Four nodules were resected, revealing 2 papillary thyroid cancers, 1 neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, and 1 follicular adenoma. There was no difference in maximum standardized uptake value between benign and malignant nodules (7.0 ± 4.6 vs 13.1 ± 5.7, P = .106). Overall, the malignancy rate among patients with sonography and appropriate follow-up was 6.7% (2/30). Among patients with cyto- or histopathology, the malignancy rate was 9.5% (2/21). There were no incidental cases of medullary thyroid cancer. Conclusion: The malignancy rate among thyroid nodules with incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake is comparable to rates reported among thyroid nodules in the general population. Guideline-directed management of thyroid nodules remains appropriate in those with incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake.
ISSN: 0039-6060
CID: 5616582

Disparities in access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons in the United States: A call to action

Wright, Kyla; Squires, Sam; Cisco, Robin; Trickey, Amber; Kebebew, Electron; Suh, Insoo; Seib, Carolyn D
BACKGROUND:Parathyroidectomy by a high-volume surgeon is associated with a reduced risk of perioperative complications and of failure to cure primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. There are limited data on disparities in access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons in the United States. METHODS:We used publicly available 2019 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment data to identify all surgeons who performed >10 parathyroidectomies for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, anticipating that fee-for-service beneficiaries likely represent only a subset of their high-volume practices. High-volume parathyroid surgeon characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated. Inequality in the distribution of surgeons was measured by the Gini coefficient. The association between neighborhood disadvantage, based on the Area Deprivation Index, and proximity to high-volume parathyroid surgeons was evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting to high-volume parathyroid surgeons within each hospital referral region, evidence-based regional markets for tertiary medical care. RESULTS:We identified 445 high-volume parathyroid surgeons who met inclusion criteria with >10 parathyroidectomies for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. High-volume parathyroid surgeons were 71% male sex, and 59.8% were general surgeons. High-volume parathyroid surgeons were more likely to practice in a Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population >1 million than in less populous metropolitan or rural areas. The number of high-volume parathyroid surgeons per 100,000 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in the 53 most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas ranged from 0 to 4.94, with the highest density identified in Salt Lake City, Utah. In 2019, 50% of parathyroidectomies performed by high-volume parathyroid surgeons were performed by 20% of surgeons in this group, suggesting unequal distribution of surgical care (Gini coefficient 0.41). Patients in disadvantaged neighborhoods were farther from high-volume parathyroid surgeons than those in advantaged neighborhoods (median distance: disadvantaged 27.8 miles, partially disadvantaged 20.7 miles, partially advantaged 12.1 miles, advantaged 8.4 miles; P < .001). This association was also shown in the analysis of distance to high-volume parathyroid surgeons within the hospital referral region (P < .001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Older adults living in disadvantaged neighborhoods have less access to high-volume parathyroid surgeons, which may adversely affect treatment and outcomes for patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. This disparity highlights the need for actionable strategies to provide equitable access to care, including improved regionalization of high-volume parathyroid surgeon services and easing travel-related burdens for underserved patients.
PMID: 37940435
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5612822

Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes Among Older Adults with Primary Hyperparathyroidism Treated with Parathyroidectomy vs. non-operative Management

Seib, Carolyn D; Meng, Tong; Cisco, Robin M; Suh, Insoo; Lin, Dana T; Harris, Alex H S; Trickey, Amber W; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Kebebew, Electron
OBJECTIVE:We sought to compare the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in older adults with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treated with parathyroidectomy versus non-operative management. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:PHPT is a common endocrine disorder that is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, but it is not known whether parathyroidectomy reduces the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS:We conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with PHPT (2006-2017). Multivariable, inverse probability weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the associations of parathyroidectomy with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization, and cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality. RESULTS:We identified 210,206 beneficiaries diagnosed with PHPT from 2006-2017. Among 63,136 (30.0%) treated with parathyroidectomy and 147,070 (70.0%) managed non-operatively within one year of diagnosis, the unadjusted incidence of MACE was 10.0% (mean follow-up 59.1 [SD 35.6] months) and 11.5% (mean follow-up 54.1 [SD 34.0] months), respectively. In multivariable analysis, parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower incidence of MACE (HR 0.92 [95%CI 0.90-0.94]), cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization (HR 0.89 [95%CI 0.87-0.91]), and cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality (HR 0.76 [95%CI 0.71-0.81]) compared to non-operative management. At 10 years, parathyroidectomy was associated with adjusted absolute risk reduction for MACE of 1.7% (95%CI 1.3%-2.1%), for cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization of 2.5% (95%CI 2.1%-2.9%), and for cardiovascular hospitalization-associated mortality of 1.4% (95%CI 1.2%-1.6%). CONCLUSIONS:In this large, population-based cohort study, parathyroidectomy was associated with a lower long-term incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes when compared with non-operative management for older adults with PHPT, which is relevant to surgical decision-making for patients with a long life expectancy.
PMID: 36005546
ISSN: 1528-1140
CID: 5338382

Can we improve preoperative staging for thyroid cancer? [Editorial]

Kuo, Lindsay E; Suh, Insoo
PMID: 37246128
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 5543112

The Current Status of Minimally Invasive Adrenalectomy for Aldosterone Producing Adenoma: Controversial Issues, and Realistic Expectations of Clinical Cure

Pachter, Hersch Leon; Arthurs, Likolani; Sant, Vivek; Underwood, Hunter; Kulkarni, Kopel; Parikh, Manish; Agrawal, Nidhi; Suh, Insoo; DiMaggio, Charles
ISSN: 2508-8149
CID: 5523542

Invited Commentary: The Path Toward Broader Validation and Adoption of Transoral Thyroidectomy

Suh, Insoo; Patel, Kepal N
PMID: 36853348
ISSN: 1432-2323
CID: 5466962

Estimated Effect of Parathyroidectomy on Long-Term Kidney Function in Adults With Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Seib, Carolyn D; Ganesan, Calyani; Furst, Adam; Pao, Alan C; Chertow, Glenn M; Leppert, John T; Suh, Insoo; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Harris, Alex H S; Trickey, Amber W; Kebebew, Electron; Kurella Tamura, Manjula
BACKGROUND:. Limited data address the effect of parathyroidectomy on long-term kidney function. OBJECTIVE:To compare the incidence of a sustained decline in eGFR of at least 50% among patients with PHPT treated with parathyroidectomy versus nonoperative management. DESIGN:Target trial emulation was done using observational data from adults with PHPT, using an extended Cox model with time-varying inverse probability weighting. SETTING:Veterans Health Administration. PATIENTS:Patients with a new biochemical diagnosis of PHPT in 2000 to 2019. MEASUREMENTS:Sustained decline of at least 50% from pretreatment eGFR. RESULTS:Among 43 697 patients with PHPT (mean age, 66.8 years), 2928 (6.7%) had a decline of at least 50% in eGFR over a median follow-up of 4.9 years. The weighted cumulative incidence of eGFR decline was 5.1% at 5 years and 10.8% at 10 years in patients managed with parathyroidectomy, compared with 5.1% and 12.0%, respectively, in those managed nonoperatively. The adjusted hazard of eGFR decline did not differ between parathyroidectomy and nonoperative management (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98 [95% CI, 0.82 to 1.16]). Subgroup analyses found no heterogeneity of treatment effect based on pretreatment kidney function. Parathyroidectomy was associated with a reduced hazard of the primary outcome among patients younger than 60 years (HR, 0.75 [CI, 0.59 to 0.93]) that was not evident among those aged 60 years or older (HR, 1.08 [CI, 0.87 to 1.34]). LIMITATION:Analyses were done in a predominantly male cohort using observational data. CONCLUSION:Parathyroidectomy had no effect on long-term kidney function in older adults with PHPT. Potential benefits related to kidney function should not be the primary consideration for PHPT treatment decisions. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:National Institute on Aging.
PMID: 37037034
ISSN: 1539-3704
CID: 5502742

Outpatient endocrine surgery practice patterns are highly variable among US endocrine surgery fellowship programs

Hsu, Shawn; Melucci, Alexa D; Dave, Yatee A; Chennell, Todd; Fazendin, Jessica; Suh, Insoo; Moalem, Jacob
BACKGROUND:Current studies and guidelines have reported that outpatient endocrine surgery is safe. However, none recommend specific postoperative protocols. METHODS:An internet-based survey, developed using expert input, was distributed to current (2021-2022) endocrine surgery fellows in American Association of Endocrine Surgeons-accredited programs (n = 23). Programs with ≤2% same-day discharge rate were compared with those with ≥2% same-day discharge rate. RESULTS:The survey response rate was 91% (21/23), representing 20 United States institutions performing >15,000 cervical endocrine operations annually. The same-day discharge rate after total thyroidectomy was not normally distributed across institutions (P < .0001) but appeared bimodal, highlighting dogmatic differences in the pursuit of same-day discharge. Nine programs had ≤2% same-day discharge rate, whereas seven had ≥90% same-day discharge rate. Fourteen (70%) reported minimum observation periods before discharge, without consistency across procedures or institutions. Total thyroidectomy patients were observed longer. Fourteen (70%) reported no geographic restrictions for same-day discharge. In programs with >2% same-day discharge (n = 11), clinical and operative factors inconsistently influenced same-day discharge after thyroidectomy. Living alone precluded same-day discharge in 3 programs. Lateral neck dissection and chronic anticoagulation each greatly reduced same-day discharge in one program and precluded same-day discharge in another. Central neck dissection, Graves' disease, substernal goiter, continuous positive airway pressure use, difficult/bloody operation, and signal on nerve stimulation had no or minimal effect on same-day discharge. Postoperative medication recommendations varied among programs. Although anticoagulation/antiplatelet agents were similarly held preoperatively across programs, resumption varied. Narcotics were routinely prescribed in 35%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Same-day discharge is not uniform across endocrine surgery training programs and is likely primarily driven by surgeon preference. Factors influencing same-day discharge vary significantly among programs.
PMID: 36192212
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5361662

Implementation of a formal sleep center-based screening protocol for primary aldosteronism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Wright, Kyla; Mahmoudi, Mandana; Agrawal, Nidhi; Simpson, Hope; Lui, Michael S; Pachter, H Leon; Patel, Kepal; Prescott, Jason; Suh, Insoo
BACKGROUND:There is a bidirectional association between primary aldosteronism and obstructive sleep apnea, with evidence suggesting that the treatment of primary aldosteronism can reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity. Current guidelines recommend screening for primary aldosteronism in patients with comorbid hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea, identifying potential candidates for treatment. However, emerging data suggest current screening practices are unsatisfactory. Moreover, data regarding the true incidence of primary aldosteronism among this population are limited. This study aimed to assess the primary aldosteronism screening rate among patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension at our institution and estimate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among this population. METHODS:Sleep studies conducted at our institution between January and September 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Adult patients with a sleep study diagnostic of obstructive sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ≥5) and a diagnosis of hypertension were included. Patient medical records were reviewed and laboratory data of those with biochemical screening for primary aldosteronism were assessed by an experienced endocrinologist. Screening rates were compared before and after initiation of a screening protocol in accordance with the 2016 Endocrine Society guidelines. RESULTS:A total of 1,005 patients undergoing sleep studies were reviewed; 354 patients had comorbid obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Patients were predominantly male (67%), with a mean age of 58 years (standard deviation = 12.9) and mean body mass index of 34 (standard deviation = 8.1). The screening rate for primary aldosteronism among included patients was 19% (n = 67). The screening rate was significantly higher after initiation of a dedicated primary aldosteronism screening protocol (23% vs 12% prior; P = .01). Fourteen screens (21%) were positive for primary aldosteronism, whereas 45 (67%) were negative and 8 (12%) were indeterminate. Four had prior abdominal cross-sectional imaging, with 3 revealing an adrenal adenoma. Compared with patients without primary aldosteronism, patients with positive primary aldosteronism screens were more likely to have a history of hypokalemia (36% vs 4.4%; P = .002). The frequency of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular hypertrophy did not differ between patients with positive versus negative screens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Current screening practices for primary aldosteronism among patients with comorbid obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension are suboptimal. Patients evaluated at sleep centers may represent an optimal population for screening, as the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among this cohort appears high.
PMID: 36198493
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5361722