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Response to "Utility of electroencephalography in toxin-induced seizures" [Letter]

Gnirke, Marlis; Su, Mark K
PMID: 38594904
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 5668502

Guidelines for Reasonable and Appropriate Care in the Emergency Department (GRACE-4): Alcohol use disorder and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome management in the emergency department

Borgundvaag, Bjug; Bellolio, Fernanda; Miles, Isabelle; Schwarz, Evan S; Sharif, Sameer; Su, Mark K; Baumgartner, Kevin; Liss, David B; Sheikh, Hasan; Vogel, Jody; Austin, Emily B; Upadhye, Suneel; Klaiman, Michelle; Vellend, Robert; Munkley, Anna; Carpenter, Christopher R
The fourth Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Guidelines for Reasonable and Appropriate Care in the Emergency Department (GRACE-4) is on the topic of the emergency department (ED) management of nonopioid use disorders and focuses on alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). The SAEM GRACE-4 Writing Team, composed of emergency physicians and experts in addiction medicine and patients with lived experience, applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations regarding six priority questions for adult ED patients with AWS, AUD, and CHS. The SAEM GRACE-4 Writing Team reached the following recommendations: (1) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) with moderate to severe AWS who are being admitted to hospital, we suggest using phenobarbital in addition to benzodiazepines compared to using benzodiazepines alone [low to very low certainty of evidence]; (2) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) with AUD who desire alcohol cessation, we suggest a prescription for one anticraving medication [very low certainty of evidence]; (2a) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) with AUD, we suggest naltrexone (compared to no prescription) to prevent return to heavy drinking [low certainty of evidence]; (2b) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) with AUD and contraindications to naltrexone, we suggest acamprosate (compared to no prescription) to prevent return to heavy drinking and/or to reduce heavy drinking [low certainty of evidence]; (2c) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) with AUD, we suggest gabapentin (compared to no prescription) for the management of AUD to reduce heavy drinking days and improve alcohol withdrawal symptoms [very low certainty of evidence]; (3a) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) presenting to the ED with CHS we suggest the use of haloperidol or droperidol (in addition to usual care/serotonin antagonists, e.g., ondansetron) to help with symptom management [very low certainty of evidence]; and (3b) in adult ED patients (over the age of 18) presenting to the ED with CHS, we also suggest offering the use of topical capsaicin (in addition to usual care/serotonin antagonists, e.g., ondansetron) to help with symptom management [very low certainty of evidence].
PMID: 38747203
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 5656152

Challenges with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist initiation: a case series of semaglutide overdose administration errors [Case Report]

Wiener, Brian G; Gnirke, Marlis; Vassallo, Susi; Smith, Silas W; Su, Mark K
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Prescriptions of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administered weekly for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, are increasing. Adverse effects from semaglutide overdose are poorly described. We report adverse effects from three unintentional semaglutide overdoses upon initiation. CASE REPORTS/UNASSIGNED: DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:These unintentional semaglutide overdoses occurred due to deficits in patient and prescriber knowledge, and evasion of regulated access to pharmaceuticals. Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms predominated. The potential for hypoglycemia following glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist overdose is unclear, though it did not occur in our patients. It is thought that glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are unlikely to cause hypoglycemia because their effects are glucose-dependent and diminish as serum glucose concentrations approach euglycemia. There is, however, an increase in hypoglycemia when glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are combined with sulfonylureas. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:This case series highlights the critical role of patient education and training upon initiation of semaglutide therapy to minimize administration errors and adverse effects from injection of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
PMID: 38470137
ISSN: 1556-9519
CID: 5639812


Rice, Justin K; Pires, Kyle D; Su, Mark K
PMID: 38342508
ISSN: 0736-4679
CID: 5635262

Response to Comment on "Induction of Labor at Term for Severe Antenatal Lead Poisoning" [Letter]

Mohan, Sanjay; Koziatek, Christian; Su, Mark K
PMID: 37816940
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5605072

Urine Toxicology Test for Children With Altered Mental Status [Case Report]

Van Oyen, Alexandra; Barney, Nicole; Grabinski, Zoe; Chang, Juliana; Oliff, Zachary; Nogar, Josh; Su, Mark K
The rate of unintentional ingestion of edible cannabis products in young children is rising rapidly as laws decriminalizing both recreational and medical marijuana in the United States become more widespread.1 Cannabis poisoning in children can lead to a myriad of symptoms, most notably neurologic changes. The abrupt onset and severity of signs and symptoms after ingestion can cause diagnostic uncertainty for practitioners in the emergency department. Here, we present a case series of 5 children, 6 years of age and younger, who initially presented with altered mental status and were ultimately diagnosed with acute δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol toxicity after cannabis ingestion confirmed by urine toxicology testing. Although urine toxicology testing is not routinely used as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics, the increasing accessibility of edible cannabis products suggests that more widespread urine toxicology testing in children with undifferentiated altered mental status is warranted.
PMID: 37800195
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5614182

An international survey of the treatment of massive paracetamol overdose in 2023

Mohan, Sanjay; Bloom, Joshua; Kerester, Samantha; Hoffman, Robert S; Su, Mark K
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Changes in the commercialization of nonprescription drugs have made large quantities of paracetamol available to individuals, resulting in larger overdoses than previously observed. Although most patients with paracetamol overdose can be managed with acetylcysteine, patients with a massive overdose may become critically ill earlier and fail standard antidotal therapy. Several strategies are proposed for the management of these patients, including using increased doses of acetylcysteine, extracorporeal removal, and fomepizole. However, the benefits of these strategies remain largely theoretical, with sparse evidence for efficacy in humans. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This cross-sectional study surveys international practice patterns of medical toxicology providers regarding the management of a hypothetical patient with a massive paracetamol overdose. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A total of 342 responses from 31 different nations were obtained during the study period. Sixty-one percent of providers would have increased their acetylcysteine dosing when treating the hypothetical massive overdose. Thirty percent of respondents recommended an indefinite infusion of acetylcysteine at 12.5 mg/kg/hour after the bolus dose, whereas 20 percent recommended following the "Hendrickson" protocol, which advocates for a stepwise increase in acetylcysteine dosing to match high paracetamol concentrations at the 300 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 600 mg/L lines on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram. Ten percent of respondents stated they would have given "double dose acetylcysteine" but did not specify what that entailed. Forty-seven percent of respondents indicated that they would have given fomepizole, and 28 percent of respondents recommended extracorporeal removal. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Our survey study assessed the approach to a hypothetical patient with a massive paracetamol overdose and demonstrated that, at minimum, most respondents would increase the dose of acetylcysteine. Additionally, almost half would also include fomepizole, and nearly one-third would include extracorporeal removal. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:There is considerable international variation for the treatment of both non-massive and massive paracetamol overdoses. Future research is needed to identify and standardize the most effective treatment for both non-massive and massive paracetamol overdoses.
PMID: 38112311
ISSN: 1556-9519
CID: 5612312

Induction of Labor at Term for Severe Antenatal Lead Poisoning

Mohan, Sanjay; Mahonski, Sarah; Koziatek, Christian; Cohen, Emily T; Smith, Silas; Su, Mark K
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Antenatal lead exposure is associated with multiple adverse maternal and fetal consequences. Maternal blood lead concentrations as low as 10 µg/dL have been associated with gestational hypertension, spontaneous abortion, growth retardation, and impaired neurobehavioral development. Current treatment recommendations for pregnant women with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 45 µg/dL include chelation. We report a successful case of a mother with severe gestational lead poisoning treated with induction of labor in a term infant. CASE REPORT/METHODS:A 22-year-old G2P1001 female, at 38 weeks and 5 days gestation, was referred to the emergency department for an outpatient venous BLL of 53 µg/dL. The decision was made to limit ongoing prenatal lead exposure by emergent induction as opposed to chelation. Maternal BLL just prior to induction increased to 70 µg/dL. A 3510 g infant was delivered with APGAR scores of 9 and 9 at 1 and 5 min. Cord BLL at delivery returned at 41 µg/dL. The mother was instructed to avoid breastfeeding until her BLLs decreased to below 40 µg/dL, consistent with federal and local guidelines. The neonate was empirically chelated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. On postpartum day 2, maternal BLL decreased to 36 µg/dL, and the neonatal BLL was found to be 33 µg/mL. Both the mother and neonate were discharged to an alternative lead-free household on postpartum day 4.
PMID: 37365427
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5522332

Assessing the Role of Initial Serum Calcium Concentration in Patients with Ethylene Glycol Poisoning

Hodgman, Michael J; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Wiener, Brian G; Howland, Mary Ann; Stork, Christine; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Su, Mark
INTRODUCTION:Assays for ethylene glycol (EG) with a rapid turn-around time are not routinely available. Clinicians must rely on historical features and readily available clinical tests, combined with clinical acumen, to guide the initial management of suspected EG poisoning. Hypocalcemia has been suggested as a clue supporting the diagnosis of EG poisoning in patients presenting with an unexplained high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). A previous small study challenged this assumption. METHODS:This was a retrospective case series of one state's poison control system of confirmed EG-poisoned patients between September 2017 and April 2021. The definition of EG poisoning was based on suspected EG ingestion and a serum EG concentration > 5 mg/dL. Patients who were suspected to have EG toxicity but did not have a confirmed EG concentration or the EG concentration was less than 5 mg/dL were excluded. Routine laboratory studies were recorded for all patients. Comparisons between serum calcium on presentation to presenting blood pH, bicarbonate, anion gap, and creatinine were assessed for correlation. RESULTS:There was no correlation between the presenting calcium and either pH or creatinine. There was a weak positive correlation between the initial serum calcium and anion gap, a weak negative correlation between the initial serum calcium and bicarbonate. CONCLUSION:On hospital presentation, hypocalcemia was not associated with EG poisoning, even in patients with a HAGMA. A normal serum calcium on presentation does not exclude the diagnosis of EG poisoning.
PMID: 37495818
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5619902

Management of Acetaminophen Poisoning in the US and Canada: A Consensus Statement

Dart, Richard C; Mullins, Michael E; Matoushek, Theresa; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Burns, Michele M; Simone, Karen; Beuhler, Michael C; Heard, Kennon J; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Stork, Christine M; Varney, Shawn M; Funk, Alexandra R; Cantrell, Lee F; Cole, Jon B; Banner, William; Stolbach, Andrew I; Hendrickson, Robert G; Lucyk, Scott N; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Su, Mark K; Nelson, Lewis S; Rumack, Barry H
IMPORTANCE:The US and Canada currently have no formal published nationwide guidelines for specialists in poison information or emergency departments for the management of acetaminophen poisoning, resulting in significant variability in management. OBJECTIVE:To develop consensus guidelines for the management of acetaminophen poisoning in the US and Canada. EVIDENCE REVIEW:Four clinical toxicology societies (America's Poison Centers, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American College of Medical Toxicology, and Canadian Association of Poison Control Centers) selected participants (n = 21). Led by a nonvoting chairperson using a modified Delphi method, the panel created a decision framework and determined the appropriate clinical management of a patient with acetaminophen poisoning. Unique to this effort was the collection of guidelines from most poison centers in addition to systematic collection and review of the medical literature. Comments from review by external organizations were incorporated before the guideline was finalized. The project began in March 2021 and ended in March 2023. FINDINGS:The search retrieved 84 guidelines and 278 publications. The panel developed guidelines for emergency department management of single or repeated ingestion of acetaminophen. In addition, the panel addressed extended-release formulation, high-risk ingestion, coingestion of anticholinergics or opioids, age younger than 6 years, pregnancy, weight greater than 100 kg, and intravenous acetaminophen use. Differences from current US practice include defining acute ingestion as an ingestion presentation from 4 to 24 hours after overdose was initiated. A revised form of the Rumack-Matthew nomogram was developed. The term massive ingestion was replaced with the term high-risk ingestion and denoted by a specific nomogram line. Other recommendations include specific criteria for emergency department triage, laboratory evaluation and monitoring parameters, defining the role of gastrointestinal decontamination, detailed management of acetylcysteine treatment, associated adverse effects, and stopping criteria for acetylcysteine treatment, as well as criteria for consultation with a clinical toxicologist. Finally, specific treatment considerations, including acetylcysteine dosing, fomepizole administration, and considerations for extracorporeal elimination and transplant evaluation, were addressed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:This qualitative study provides a consensus statement on consistent evidence-based recommendations for medical, pharmacy, and nursing education and practice to optimize care of patients with acetaminophen poisoning.
PMID: 37552484
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5594852