Three-Dimensional Imaging and Dynamic Modeling of Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve
Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve caused by the interplay between increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and an abnormal mitral valve anatomy and geometry. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve has revolutionized the practice of cardiology, paving the way for new methods to see and treat valvular heart disease. Here we present the novel and incremental value of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) of SAM visualization. This review first provides step-by-step instructions on acquiring and optimizing 3D TEE imaging of SAM. It then describes the unique and novel findings using standard 3D TEE rendering as well as dynamic mitral valve modeling of SAM from 3D data sets, which can provide a more detailed visualization of SAM features. The findings include double-orifice LVOT caused by the residual leaflet, the dolphin smile phenomenon, and delineation of SAM width. Finally, the review discusses the essential role of 3D TEE imaging for preprocedural assessment and intraprocedural guidance of surgical and novel percutaneous treatments of SAM.
Distinctive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Anatomy and Obstructive Physiology in Patients Admitted With Takotsubo Syndrome
Clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) has been expanded to include patients with mild or no thickening of the left ventricle (LV), who nevertheless have outflow tract obstruction at rest or after exercise, due to systolic anterior motion (SAM) and ventricular septal contact, with mitral valve elongation and papillary muscles anomalies. Apical ballooning mimicking a takotsubo syndrome (TS) wall motion pattern can occur in HC with mild septal thickening when latent obstruction becomes unrelenting. To define the prevalence of anatomic abnormalities characteristic of HC in patients diagnosed with TS, we analyzed echocardiograms of 44 unselected TS patients, age 67Â±12 years, 95% women including studies performed before the event (nâ€¯=â€¯11, median 515 days) and after recovery of left ventricular function (nâ€¯=â€¯33, median 92 days, interquartile rangeâ€¯=â€¯29 to 327) and compared the findings to 60 age and sexed matched controls. Analysis of echocardiograms was blinded to event timing, and patient vs. control status. During the ballooning event, 13 patients (30%) had SAM including 9 with LV outflow obstruction, peak gradients 71Â±40 mmHg, as well as: ventricular septal thickening (16 Â± 4 mm), elongated anterior leaflets (30 Â± 3mm), and increased mitral coaptation to posterior wall distance (17 Â± 5 mm), consistent with diagnosis of the HC phenotype. Compared to 31 TS patients without SAM, study patients with SAM had longer anterior leaflets (30 Â± 3 vs 26 Â± 4 mm, pâ€¯=â€¯0.006), thicker septum (16 Â± 4 vs 12 Â± 3 mm), increased coaptation to posterior wall distance (17 Â± 5 vs 14 Â± 4 mm, p < 0.04) and reduced distance from coaptation to septum (19 Â± 5 vs 27 Â± 5, p < 0.001). In the 13 patients with SAM, morphologic characteristics of HC persisted after normalization of LV function. In conclusion, a subset of patients experiencing TS events demonstrates a constellation of morphologic abnormalities characteristic of HC that persist after recovery of LV wall motion. These findings suggest that dynamic outflow obstruction may cause apical ballooning in susceptible patients.
On-pump intracardiac echocardiography during septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
A NOVEL SUBSET OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY PATIENTS CHARACTERIZED BY ASSOCIATION WITH TAKOTSUBO-LIKE LV BALLOONING AND HOSPITAL ADMISSION [Meeting Abstract]
Background Recently the clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been expanded to include patients with mild or no thickening of the left ventricle (LV) yet who have outflow tract obstruction at rest or after exercise, principally due to characteristic HCM anterior mitral leaflet (AML) elongation and papillary muscle anomalies. Apical ballooning mimicking a takotsubo syndrome (TTS) wall motion pattern can occur in mild-septal-thickening HCM when latent obstruction becomes unrelenting. The objective of this study is to define the prevalence of anatomic abnormalities characteristic of HCM in an unselected population of patients diagnosed clinically with TTS. Methods We analyzed echocardiograms of 44 admitted TTS patients including studies performed during admission, before the event (n=11, median 515 days before) and after recovery of left ventricular function (n=33, median 92 days, IQR=29-327) and compared them to 60 controls, age-matched normal women. Analysis of 148 echocardiograms was blinded to timing, and patient vs. control status. Results Age was 67+/-12 years, 42 female (95%). During the ballooning event, 13 (30%) had SAM and 9 patients (20%) had LV outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), gradients 71+/-40 mmHg. Compared to TTS patients without SAM, those with SAM had longer AML (30 vs. 26mm), and thicker septum (16 vs. 12 mm) and less distance from septum to coaptation (19 vs. 27mm), all p <=0.006. Eleven of the SAM patients had >=2 anatomic abnormalities predisposing to obstruction (defined as > 2 SD above normal), and/or an anomalous papillary muscle/chordae. In the 44 TTS patients each parameter differed from controls before, during and after the TTS event. Eight (18%) had abnormal right ventricular wall motion, none of whom were obstructed. Conclusion Thirty percent of unselected TTS patients have SAM and 20% have significant LVOT gradients. This subset had AML abnormalities and septal thickening typical of obstructive HCM and known to predispose to LVOT obstruction. They are phenotypically identical to patients with documented HCM with mild septal thickening and LVOT obstruction, who have experienced episodes of ballooning.
Cardiac AA amyloidosis in a patient with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [Case Report]
Cardiac amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is rare. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis whose dyspnea and exercise intolerance had worsened over the previous year. Her AA amyloidosis was suspected to be secondary to chronic diverticulitis for which she had undergone hemicolectomy and sigmoidectomy 3 years prior. Echocardiographic findings were consistent with worsening left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at rest. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed patchy areas of midwall late gadolinium enhancement. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy did not reveal amyloid deposition, and cardiac technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy did not suggest transthyretin amyloidosis. The patient underwent septal myectomy with resection of an accessory papillary muscle. Pathological examination of the myectomy specimen was consistent with HCM. In addition, there was a thick layer of diffuse endocardial and vascular amyloid deposition that was identified as AA type by laser-microdissection with liquid chromatography-coupled tandem-mass spectrometry. This case report highlights the presence of 2 distinct disease processes occurring simultaneously and the importance of tissue diagnosis of AA amyloidosis, a condition that is not commonly associated with HCM.
On the Cardiac Loop and Its Failing: Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dynamic obstruction and high left ventricular outflow gradients associated with paradoxical apical ballooning
BACKGROUND:Acute left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning with normal coronary angiography occurs rarely in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM); it may be associated with severe hemodynamic instability. METHODS, RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:We searched for acute LV ballooning with apical hypokinesia/akinesia in databases of two HCM treatment programs. Diagnosis of OHCM was made by conventional criteria of LV hypertrophy in the absence of a clinical cause for hypertrophy and mitral-septal contact. Among 1519 patients, we observed acute LV ballooning in 13 (0.9%), associated with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction and high gradients, 92Â Â±Â 37Â mmÂ Hg, 10 female (77%), age 64Â Â±Â 7Â years, LVEF 31.6Â Â±Â 10%. Septal hypertrophy was mild compared to that of the rest of our HCM cohort, 15 vs 20Â mm (PÂ <Â 0.00001). An elongated anterior mitral leaflet or anteriorly displaced papillary muscles occurred in 77%. Course was complicated by cardiogenic shock and heart failure in 5, and refractory heart failure in 1. High-dose beta-blockade was the mainstay of therapy. Three patients required urgent surgical relief of LVOT obstruction, 2 for refractory cardiogenic shock, and one for refractory heart failure. In the three patients, surgery immediately normalized refractory severe LV dysfunction, and immediately reversed cardiogenic shock and heart failure. All have normal LV systolic function at 45-month follow-up, and all have survived. CONCLUSIONS:Acute LV apical ballooning, associated with high dynamic LVOT gradients, may punctuate the course of obstructive HCM. The syndrome is important to recognize on echocardiography because it may be associated with profound reversible LV decompensation.
Apical Ballooning and Cardiogenic Shock in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Latent myopathy is more pronounced in patients with low flow versus normal flow aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction who are undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement: Multicenter study with a brief review of the literature
BACKGROUND:Midwall fibrosis and low stroke volume are independent predictors of mortality in severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). The role of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to identify latent myopathy pre- and post- aortic valve replacement (AVR) in high risk AS patients with normal LVEF is limited. METHODS:. RESULTS:; PÂ =Â .01) improved post-AVR. Pre-AVR mid-segments showed a similar myopathy as the basal segments (-9.5Â Â±Â 4.3% vs -9.0Â Â±Â 4.2%;PÂ =Â .3). The 16 (43%) LF patients in this study had lower pre- and post-AVR strain compared to NF patients (GLS Pre-AVR:LF vs NF: -5.1Â Â±Â 4.1% vs -8.4Â Â±Â 4.9% (PÂ =Â .04) and GLS Post-AVR:LF vs NF: -9.2Â Â±Â 3.7% vs -12.5Â Â±Â 3.9% (PÂ =Â .01)). However, there was no difference in absolute and %change improvement in GLS post-AVR (LF vs NF:âˆ† -4.2Â Â±Â 3.5% vs âˆ†-4.1Â Â±Â 5.3% (PÂ =Â .90) and 193 Â± 214% vs 143 Â± 230% change (PÂ =Â .5)). The lowest GLS was seen in LF/HG AS followed by LF/LG, NF/LG and NF/HG AS; PÂ =Â .03. CONCLUSIONS:Latent myopathy is more pronounced in LF AS both pre- and post-AVR. Our study provides evidence of improvement in myopathy in LF AS despite a persistent worse myopathy compared to NF patients post-AVR.
Intraoperative Two- and Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in Combined Myectomy-Mitral Operations for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Transesophageal echocardiography is essential in guiding the surgical approach for patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Septal hypertrophy, elongated mitral valve leaflets, and abnormalities of the subvalvular apparatus are prominent features, all of which may contribute to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Surgery aims to alleviate the obstruction via an extended myectomy, often with an intervention on the mitral valve and subvalvular apparatus. The goal of intraoperative echocardiography is to assess the anatomic pathology and pathophysiology in order to achieve a safe intraoperative course and a successful repair. This guide summarizes the systematic evaluation of these patients to determine the best surgical plan.