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A narrative analysis of clerkship reflections: Medical student identity development in a changing world

Talib, Mahino A; Greene, Richard E; Winkel, Abigail Ford
BACKGROUND:Medical students' written reflections on their clinical experiences can be a useful tool for processing complex aspects of development as physicians. To create educational programs that scaffold adaptive professional identity development, it is essential to understand how medical students develop as professionals and process the dynamic sociocultural experiences of the current moment. OBJECTIVE:To explore the developing professional consciousness of medical students through clerkship reflections. DESIGN/METHODS:Narrative analysis of written reflections are produced by clerkship students, who were asked to tell a story that resonated with the physician's relationship with patient, self and colleagues. Two independent readers applied inductive labels to generate a homogenous codebook, which was used to generate themes that were then used to construct a conceptual model. KEY RESULTS/RESULTS:Four themes were identified in the data that describe relationships between medical students' developing professional identities and the norms of their future professional and personal communities. These included: medical students as outsiders, conflict between the student identifying with the patient versus the healthcare team, medical students' own value judgements and, finally, the changing societal mores as they relate to social and racial injustice. The conceptual model for this experience depicts the medical student as pulled between patients and the social context on one side and the professional context of the medical centre on the other. Students long to move towards identification with the healthcare team, but reject the extremes of medical culture that they view on conflict with social and racial justice. CONCLUSIONS:Medical students in clinical training identify strongly with both patients and the medical team. Rather than viewing professional identity development as a longitudinal journey from one extreme to another, students have the power to call attention to entrenched problems within medical culture and increase empathy for patients by retaining their strong identification with the important issues of this time.
PMID: 37694819
ISSN: 1743-498x
CID: 5628002

Perinatal depression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City

Lantigua-Martinez, Meralis; Trostle, Megan E.; Torres, Anthony Melendez; Rajeev, Pournami; Dennis, Alyson; Silverstein, Jenna S.; Talib, Mahino
BACKGROUND: Quarantining and isolation during previous pandemics have been associated with higher levels of depression symptomatology. Studies in other countries found elevated rates of anxiety and/or depression among pregnant people during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with prepandemic rates. New York City was the initial epicenter of the pandemic in the United States, and the effects of the pandemic on perinatal depression in this population are not well known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the rates of perinatal depression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients screened for perinatal depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 2 private academic practices in New York City. This screen is done in these practices at the time of the glucose challenge test and at the postpartum visit. Patients aged ≥18 years who completed a screen at a postpartum visit and/or glucose challenge test from February 1, 2019 to July 31, 2019 and from February 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020 were identified, and the 2019 and 2020 groups were compared. The primary outcome was a positive screen, defined as ≥13 and ≥15 for postnatal and prenatal screens, respectively. Secondary outcomes included monthly changes in rates of positive screens and factors associated with perinatal depression. Data were analyzed using Mann"“Whitney U test, chi-square, or Fisher exact test, and univariate and multivariate analyses with P<.05 defined as significant. RESULTS: A total of 1366 records met the inclusion criteria; 75% of the prepandemic (2019) records were included, as opposed to 65% of pandemic (2020) records due to a lower screen completion rate in the pandemic cohort. The 2020 cohort had a higher proportion of Hispanic patients (P=.003) and higher rates of diabetes mellitus (P=.007), preterm labor (P=.03), and current or former drug use (P<.001). The 2019 cohort had higher rates of hypertension (P=.002) and breastfeeding (P=.03); 4.6% of the 2020 cohort had a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. There was no difference in perinatal depression between the 2019 and 2020 cohorts (2.8% vs 2.6%; P>.99). This finding persisted after adjusting for baseline differences (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.38"“1.86; P=.76). There were no differences in rates of positive Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale by month. Several risk factors were associated with a positive screen, including being unmarried (P<.001), pulmonary disease (P=.02), depression (P<.001), anxiety (P=.01), bipolar disorder (P=.009), and use of anxiolytics (P=.04). CONCLUSION: There were no differences in the rates of perinatal depression between the periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rate of perinatal depression in this cohort was below the reported averages in the literature. Fewer women were screened for perinatal depression in 2020, which likely underestimated the prevalence of depression in our cohort. These findings highlight potential gaps in care in a pandemic setting.
ISSN: 2666-5778
CID: 5567852

Postpartum depression, mode of delivery, and indication for unscheduled cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study

Lantigua-Martinez, Meralis; Silverstein, Jenna S; Trostle, Megan E; Melendez Torres, Anthony; Rajeev, Pournami; Dennis, Alyson; Talib, Mahino
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between postpartum depression (PPD), mode of delivery (MOD), and indication for unscheduled cesarean delivery (uCD). METHODS:Patients with antenatal and postpartum Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores were compared by MOD and indication for uCD if applicable. Patients with an antenatal EPDS>12 were excluded to ascertain the incidence of new depression. The primary outcome was EPDS≥13 by MOD. The secondary outcome was EPDS≥13 by indication for uCD. RESULTS:Seven hundred and thirty eight patients met inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant differences in MOD by age, race, BMI, and multi-gestation pregnancy. Patients delivered via uCD had a higher rate of peripartum complications and NICU admission. There were no differences in medical comorbidities or use of psychiatric medications by MOD. There was no difference in EPDS by MOD. The rate of PPD was higher in patients with uCD for non-reassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT) compared to other indications for uCD (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS:While there was no difference in the incidence of PPD by MOD, the incidence of PPD was higher among patients delivered via uCD for NRFHT. These findings may have implications for patient counseling, post-operative mental health surveillance, and support of postpartum patients.
PMID: 35166090
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5163382

Perinatal depression before and during the Coronavirus pandemic [Meeting Abstract]

Lantigua-Martinez, Meralis V.; Trostle, Megan E.; Torres, Anthony Melendez; Rajeev, Pournami; Dennis, Alyson; Silverstein, Jenna; Talib, Mahino
ISSN: 0002-9378
CID: 5242502