Primary Whole-gland Ablation for the Treatment of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: A Focal Therapy Society Best Practice Statement
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Whole-gland ablation is a feasible and effective minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer (PCa). Previous systematic reviews supported evidence for favorable functional outcomes, but oncological outcomes were inconclusive owing to limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the real-world data on the mid- to long-term oncological and functional outcomes of whole-gland cryoablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with clinically localized PCa, and to provide expert recommendations and commentary on these findings. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION/METHODS:We performed a systematic review of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library publications through February 2022 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. As endpoints, baseline clinical characteristics, and oncological and functional outcomes were assessed. To estimate the pooled prevalence of oncological, functional, and toxicity outcomes, and to quantify and explain the heterogeneity, random-effect meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS/RESULTS:Twenty-nine studies were identified, including 14 on cryoablation and 15 on HIFU with a median follow-up of 72 mo. Most of the studies were retrospective (n = 23), with IDEAL (idea, development, exploration, assessment, and long-term study) stage 2b (n = 20) being most common. Biochemical recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival, overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and metastasis-free survival rates at 10 yr were 58%, 96%, 63%, 71-79%, and 84%, respectively. Erectile function was preserved in 37% of cases, and overall pad-free continence was achieved in 96% of cases, with a 1-yr rate of 97.4-98.8%. The rates of stricture, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, rectourethral fistula, and sepsis were observed to be 11%, 9.5%, 8%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The mid- to long-term real-world data, and the safety profiles of cryoablation and HIFU are sound to support and be offered as primary treatment for appropriate patients with localized PCa. When compared with other existing treatment modalities for PCa, these ablative therapies provide nearly equivalent intermediate- to long-term oncological and toxicity outcomes, as well as excellent pad-free continence rates in the primary setting. This real-world clinical evidence provides long-term oncological and functional outcomes that enhance shared decision-making when balancing risks and expected outcomes that reflect patient preferences and values. PATIENT SUMMARY/RESULTS:Cryoablation and high-intensity focused ultrasound are minimally invasive treatments available to selectively treat localized prostate cancer, considering their nearly comparable intermediate- to long term cancer control and preservation of urinary continence to other radical treatments in the primary setting. However, a well-informed decision should be made based on one's values and preferences.
Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy Versus Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Perioperative, Oncological, and Quality of Life Outcomes Using Randomized Controlled Trials
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Differences in recovery, oncological, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes between open radical cystectomy (ORC) and robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for patients with bladder cancer are unclear. OBJECTIVE:This review aims to compare these outcomes within randomized trials of ORC and RARC in this context. The primary outcome was the rate of 90-d perioperative events. The secondary outcomes included operative, pathological, survival, and health-related QoL (HRQoL) measures. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION/METHODS:Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and clinicaltrials.gov were performed up to May 31, 2022. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS/RESULTS:Eight trials, reporting 1024 participants, were included. RARC was associated with a shorter hospital length of stay (LOS; mean difference [MD] 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.39, p = 0.02) than and similar complication rates to ORC. ORC was associated with higher thromboembolic events (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.02-3.31, p = 0.04). ORC was associated with more blood loss (MD 322 ml, 95% CI 193-450, p < 0.001) and transfusions (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.65-3.36, p < 0.001), but shorter operative time (MD 76 min, 95% CI 39-112, p < 0.001) than RARC. No differences in lymph node yield (MD 1.07, 95% CI -1.73 to 3.86, p = 0.5) or positive surgical margin rates (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.54-1.67, p = 0.9) were present. RARC was associated with better physical functioning or well-being (standardized MD 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.65, p < 0.001) and role functioning (MD 8.8, 95% CI 2.4-15.1, p = 0.007), but no improvement in overall HRQoL. No differences in progression-free survival or overall survival were seen. Limitations may include a lack of generalization given trial patients. CONCLUSIONS:RARC offers various perioperative benefits over ORC. It may be more suitable in patients wishing to avoid blood transfusion, those wanting a shorter LOS, or those at a high risk of thromboembolic events. PATIENT SUMMARY/RESULTS:This study compares robot-assisted keyhole surgery with open surgery for bladder cancer. The robot-assisted approach offered less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and fewer blood clots. No other differences were seen.
Salvage Cryoablation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer Following Primary External Beam Radiotherapy or Primary Cryotherapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis of Mid-term Oncologic and Functional Outcomes
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Local prostate cancer recurrence following radiotherapy (XRT) or cryoablation (CRYO) may be addressed with salvage cryotherapy (SCT), although little is known about how the primary treatment modality affects SCT results. Oncologic and functional outcomes of patients who underwent SCT after primary XRT (XRT-SCT) or cryoablation (CRYO-SCT) were studied. METHODS:Data was collected using the Duke Prostate Cancer database and the Cryo On-Line Data (COLD) registry. The primary outcome was biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS). Urinary incontinence, rectourethral fistula, and erectile dysfunction were secondary outcomes. The Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and univariable/multivariable Cox proportional hazards (CPH) models were utilized to evaluate BPFS between groups. RESULTS:419 XRT-SCT and 63 CRYO-SCT patients met inclusion criteria, that was reduced to 63 patients in each cohort after propensity matching. There was no difference in BPFS at 2 and 5 years both before (P = .5 and P = .7) and after matching (P = .6 and P = .3). On multivariable CPH, BPFS was comparable between treatment groups (CRYO-SCT, HR=1.1, [0.2-2.2]). On the same analysis, BPFS was lower in D'Amico high-risk (HR 3.2, P < .01) and intermediate-risk (HR 1.95, P < .05) categories compared to low-risk. There was no significant difference in functional outcomes between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Following primary cryotherapy, salvage cryoablation provides comparable intermediate oncological outcomes and functional outcomes compared to primary radiotherapy.
Re: Microwave focal therapy of prostate cancer: A non-clinical study and exploratory clinical trial
Re: Microwave focal therapy of prostate cancer: A non-clinical study and exploratory clinical trial
Oncological and Functional Outcomes for Men Undergoing Salvage Whole-gland Cryoablation for Radiation-resistant Prostate Cancer
BACKGROUND:There is no consensus on the optimal approach for salvage local therapy in radiation-resistant/recurrent prostate cancer (RRPC). OBJECTIVE:To investigate oncological and functional outcomes for men treated with salvage whole-gland cryoablation (SWGC) of the prostate for RRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected cryosurgery database between January 2002 and September 2019 for men who were treated with SWGC of the prostate at a tertiary referral center. INTERVENTION/METHODS:SWGC of the prostate. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS/METHODS:The primary outcome was biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) according to the Phoenix criterion. Secondary outcomes included metastasis-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and adverse events. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:A total of 110 men with biopsy-proven RRPC were included in the study. Median follow-up for patients without biochemical recurrence (BCR) after SWGC was 71 mo (interquartile range [IQR] 42.3-116). BRFS was 81% at 2 yr and 71% at 5 yr. A higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir after SWGC was associated with worse BRFS. The median International Index of Erectile Function-5 score was 5 (IQR 1-15.5) before SWGC and 1 (IQR 1-4) after SWGC. Stress urinary incontinence, strictly defined as the use of any pads after treatment, was 5% at 3 mo and 9% at 12 mo. Clavien-Dindo grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in three patients (2.7%). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with localized RPPC, SWGC achieved excellent oncological outcomes with a low rate of urinary incontinence, and represents an alternative to salvage radical prostatectomy. Patients with fewer positive cores and lower PSA tended to have better oncological outcomes following SWGC. PATIENT SUMMARY/RESULTS:For men with prostate cancer that persists after radiotherapy, a freezing treatment applied to the whole prostate gland can achieve excellent cancer control. Patients who did not have elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at 6 years after this treatment appeared to be cured.
An Atypical Bladder Mass: Extra Adrenal Paraganglioma
Partial gland cryoablation for prostate cancer - where are we?
Effectiveness of Intrarectal Povidone-iodine Cleansing Plus Formalin Disinfection of the Needle Tip in Decreasing Infectious Complications After Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Letter [Comment]
Oncological and functional outcomes of men undergoing primary whole gland cryoablation of the prostate: A 20-year experience
BACKGROUND:This study reports the oncological and functional outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer (Pca) who were treated with primary whole gland cryoablation (WGC) of the prostate. METHODS:The authors retrospectively reviewed their prospectively collected cryosurgery database between January 2002 and September 2019 for men who were treated with WGC of the prostate at a tertiary referral center. Primary outcome includes biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). Secondary outcomes include failure-free survival (FFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS) and adverse events. RESULTS:A total of 260 men were included in the study. Men having had prior treatment for Pca were excluded. Median follow-up was 107â€‰months (interquartile range [IQR], 68.3-132.5â€‰months). BRFS, FFS, and MFS at 10â€‰years were 84%, 66%, and 96%, respectively. High risk D'Amico classification was associated with a lower BRFS and FFS on multivariable analysis. No patient had any Pca-related death during follow-up. American Urological Association symptoms score and bother index were unchanged following cryoablation. Median International Index of Erectile Function score precryoablation and post-cryoablation was 7 (IQR, 3-11) and 1 (IQR, 1-5), respectively. Stress urinary incontinence, defined as requiring any protective pads only occurred in five patients (2%). No patient developed a fistula. Gradeâ€‰>â€‰2 Clavien-Dindo adverse events occurred in six (2.3%) patients. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:WGC of the prostate can achieve excellent oncological and functional outcomes in men with localized Pca at the 10-year mark. Primary WGC may be a good option for men who desire to preserve urinary continence and have an excellent oncologic outcome. LAY SUMMARY/BACKGROUND:Primary whole gland cryoablation is an alternative treatment option to radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy for men with organ-confined prostate cancer. Patients had excellent cancer outcomes 1â€‰years after whole gland cryoablation, and patients with PSA nadir 0.1â€‰ng/ml or lower after treatment were less likely to have disease recurrence.