Reduced Hospital Mortality With Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Outcome Study
Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate outcomes after surgical ligation (SL) of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. BACKGROUND:Optimal management of PDA in this specialized population remains undefined. Currently, surgical therapy is largely reserved for infants failing medical management. To date, a large-scale, risk-matched population-based study has not been performed to evaluate differences in mortality and resource utilization. METHODS:Data on identified premature (<37 weeks) and ELBW (<1000 â€Šg) infants with PDA (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, 747.0) and respiratory distress (769) were obtained from Kids' Inpatient Database (2003-2009). RESULTS:Overall, 12,470 cases were identified, with 3008 undergoing SL. Propensity score-matched analysis of 1620 SL versus 1584 non-SL found reduced mortality (15% vs 26%) and more routine disposition (48% vs 41%) for SL (P < 0.001). SL had longer length of stay and higher total cost (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, SL mortality predictors were necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; surgical odds ratio, 5.95; medical odds ratio, 4.42) and sepsis (3.43) (P < 0.006). Length of stay increased with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; 1.77), whereas total cost increased with surgical NEC (1.82) and sepsis (1.26) (P < 0.04). Non-SL mortality predictors were NEC (surgical, 76.3; medical, 6.17), sepsis (2.66), and intraventricular hemorrhage (1.97) (P < 0.005). Length of stay increased with BPD (2.92) and NEC (surgical, 2.04; medical, 1.28) (P < 0.03). Total cost increased with surgical NEC (2.06), medical NEC (1.57), sepsis (1.43), and BPD (1.30) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Propensity score-matched analysis demonstrates reduced mortality in premature/ELBW infants with SL for PDA. NEC and sepsis are predictors of mortality and resource utilization.
Pattern of Biliary Disease Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Adolescents
Tashiro, Jun; Thenappan, Arunachalam A; Nadler, Evan P
OBJECTIVE:The use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has risen steadily as a treatment for adolescents with obesity. This study determined whether obstructive biliary complications after rapid, LSG-related weight loss occur similarly in adolescents compared with adults. METHODS:Between 2010 and 2019, 309 patients underwent LSG. Demographics and clinical factors, including pre- and perioperative BMI and weight changes, were included. RESULTS:. Preoperative excess BMI loss was 7.1% (SDÂ 11.3%). An ultrasound revealed gallstones (71%) and sludge or crystals (12%). Eighteen patients underwent cholecystectomy between 4 weeks and 29 months afterÂ LSG. CONCLUSIONS:Pediatric patients present with BD at a similar rateÂ after LSG compared with adults. The majority of adolescents, however, manifest with AP. Thus, pancreatitis should be high on the differential diagnosis list when evaluating post-LSG abdominal symptoms. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the pathophysiology of post-LSG AP for prevention in the future because its etiology may or may not be solely related to BD.
Peritoneal drainage is associated with higher survival rates for necrotizing enterocolitis in premature, extremely low birth weight infants
Tashiro, Jun; Wagenaar, Amy E; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E
BACKGROUND:To evaluate peritoneal drainage (PD) and laparotomyÂ Â±Â resection/ostomy (LAP) as initial approaches to the surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS:Kids' Inpatient Database (2003-2012) was searched for cases of NEC (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 777.5x) in premature (<37Â weeks), extremely low birth weight (<1000Â g) infants. Infants were admitted at <28Â days of life. Propensity score (PS)-matched analyses were performed, using end points of hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization. Cases were matched 1:1 on 48 confounding variables (demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics and 39 comorbidities). RESULTS:On PS-matched comparison, PD had higher survival versus LAP, PÂ =Â 0.0009. LOS and cost were higher for PD versus LAP, PÂ <Â 0.003. Survival rates did not differ between PDÂ +Â LAP and PD-only treatments. LOS and cost were higher for PDÂ +Â LAP versus PD-only, PÂ <Â 0.02. PDÂ +Â LAP infants had higher survival versus LAP, PÂ =Â 0.0193. LOS and cost were higher for PDÂ +Â LAP, PÂ <Â 0.005. CONCLUSIONS:A risk-adjusted PS-matched analysis of operative management in premature, ELBW infants with NEC found higher survival rates associated with PD placement versus LAP, whether PD was used as definitive treatment or with subsequent LAP even after controlling for potential contributors to selection bias (i.e., stability influencing management preference).
The impact of parental bariatric surgery and patient age on laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy outcomes in adolescents
Tashiro, Jun; McKenna, Elise; Alberto, Emily C; Mackey, Eleanor R; Nadler, Evan P
BACKGROUND:Adolescent obesity is multifactorial, but parental history is the most significant risk factor. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is part of the multidisciplinary approach to adolescent weight loss. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the effects of parental history of bariatric surgery, as well as age at time of operation, on adolescents who underwent LSG at our institution. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of patients, aged 10 to 19Â years, who underwent LSG from January 2010 to December 2019. The adolescent bariatric surgical dataset maintained by our group was used to obtain patient demographics, weight, body mass index (BMI), and parental history of bariatric surgery. RESULTS:Among 328 patients, 76 (23.2%) had parents who had previously undergone bariatric surgery. These patients were significantly heavier by weight (pâ€‰=â€‰0.012) at the time of operation but had no difference in postoperative weight loss. When all patients were compared by age at operation (<â€‰16Â years, nâ€‰=â€‰102,â€‰â‰¥â€‰16Â years, nâ€‰=â€‰226), there were few differences in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:LSG is an effective approach to surgical weight loss in adolescents. Patient age should not be a barrier to weight loss surgery, especially among patients with a parental history of obesity. By intervening at a younger age, the metabolic sequelae of obesity may be reduced.
It's time to deconstruct treatment-failure: A randomized controlled trial of nonoperative management of uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with antibiotics alone [Meeting Abstract]
Otero, Sofia Perez; Metzger, Julia W.; Choi, Beatrix H.; Ramaraj, Akila; Tashiro, Jun; Kuenzler, Keith A.; Ginsburg, Howard B.; Tomita, Sandra S.; Fisher, Jason C.
Metrics of shock in pediatric trauma patients: A systematic search and review
Alberto, Emily C; McKenna, Elise; Amberson, Michael J; Tashiro, Jun; Donnelly, Katie; Thenappan, Arunachalam A; Tempel, Peyton E; Ranganna, Adesh S; Keller, Susan; Marsic, Ivan; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; O'Connell, Karen J; Burd, Randall S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:. Shock-index (SI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are metrics for identifying children and adults with hemodynamic instability following injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of these metrics as predictors of outcomes following pediatric injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted a literature search in Pubmed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL to identify studies describing the association between shock metrics on the morbidity and mortality of injured children and adolescents. We used the data presented in the studies to calculate the sensitivity and specificity for each metric. This study was registered with Prospero, protocol CRD42020162971. RESULTS:Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. seven studies evaluated SI or SIPA score, an age-corrected version of SI, as predictors of outcomes following pediatric trauma, with one study comparing SIPA score and SBP and one study comparing SI and SBP. The remaining eight studies evaluated SBP as the primary indicator of shock. The median sensitivity for predicting mortality and need for blood transfusion was highest for SI, followed by SIPA, and then SBP. The median specificity for predicting these outcomes was highest for SBP, followed by SIPA, and then SI. CONCLUSIONS:Common conclusions were that high SIPA scores were more specific than SI and more sensitive than SBP. SIPA score had better discrimination for severely injured children compared to SI and SBP. An elevated SIPA was associated with a greater need for blood transfusion and higher in-hospital mortality. SIPA is specific enough to exclude most patients who do not require a blood transfusion.
Variations in the management of adolescent adnexal torsion at a single institution and the creation of a unified care pathway
Alberto, Emily C; Tashiro, Jun; Zheng, Yinan; Sandler, Anthony; Kane, Timothy; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica; Petrosyan, Mikael
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Adnexal torsion is a gynecologic emergency, requiring intervention for tissue preservation. At our institution, torsion is managed by pediatric surgeons or gynecologists. We evaluated differences between specialties to streamline evaluation for children with gynecological emergencies, develop a clinical pathway, and prevent care delays. METHODS:A retrospective review of adolescents undergoing intervention for adnexal torsion from 2004-2018 was performed. Differences in time to intervention, operation duration, the procedure performed, and length of stay (LOS) between the specialties were analyzed. RESULTS:Eighty-six patients underwent 94 operations for presumed adnexal torsion with 87 positive cases. Pediatric surgeons performed 60 operations and 34 cases were performed by gynecologists. Preservation of fertility was the goal in both cohorts and the rate of oophoropexy, cystectomy, and oophorectomy were similar between the cohorts (pâ€‰=â€‰0.14, pâ€‰=â€‰1.0, pâ€‰=â€‰0.39, respectively). There was no difference in intra-operative time (pâ€‰=â€‰0.69). LOS was shorter in the gynecology cohort (median 1Â day [1-2] vs. 2Â days [2-3], pâ€‰>â€‰0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Adnexal torsion is a time-sensitive diagnosis requiring prompt intervention for ovarian or fallopian tube preservation. A multidisciplinary institutional care pathway should be developed and implemented.
Current management of pediatric achalasia
Tashiro, Jun; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D
Achalasia is a rare condition affecting esophageal motility in children. In a manner similar to the disease found in the adult population, children experience symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, and chest pain due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Standard diagnostic approaches include upper endoscopy and esophageal manometry. New developments in diagnosis include high-resolution esophageal manometry and the endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe. Therapies available include endoscopic balloon dilations and botulinum toxin injections into the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as surgical interventions. The Heller myotomy was first described in 1913; since then, there have been many modifications to the procedure to improve outcomes and lower morbidity. Currently, the most commonly performed surgical procedure is the laparoscopic Heller myotomy, in which the sphincter muscle is divided using longitudinal incisions with or without a partial fundoplication procedure. In recent years, per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is gaining support as a viable natural orifice therapy for achalasia. Complications of POEM occur at a relatively low rate, and outcomes following the procedure have been promising. The treatment of end-stage achalasia however, may include partial or total esophagectomy with reconstruction if possible. Future research is focused primarily on increasing the efficacy, and lowering complications, of existing therapeutic modalities.
Preclinical evaluation of ultrasound-augmented needle navigation for laparoscopic liver ablation
Liu, Xinyang; Plishker, William; Kane, Timothy D; Geller, David A; Lau, Lung W; Tashiro, Jun; Sharma, Karun; Shekhar, Raj
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:For laparoscopic ablation to be successful, accurate placement of the needle to the tumor is essential. Laparoscopic ultrasound is an essential tool to guide needle placement, but the ultrasound image is generally presented separately from the laparoscopic image. We aim to evaluate an augmented reality (AR) system which combines laparoscopic ultrasound image, laparoscope video, and the needle trajectory in a unified view. METHODS:We created a tissue phantom made of gelatin. Artificial tumors represented by plastic spheres were secured in the gelatin at various depths. The top point of the sphere surface was our target, and its 3D coordinates were known. The participants were invited to perform needle placement with and without AR guidance. Once the participant reported that the needle tip had reached the target, the needle tip location was recorded and compared to the ground truth location of the target, and the difference was the target localization error (TLE). The time of the needle placement was also recorded. We further tested the technical feasibility of the AR system in vivo on a 40-kg swine. RESULTS:The AR guidance system was evaluated by two experienced surgeons and two surgical fellows. The users performed needle placement on a total of 26 targets, 13 with AR and 13 without (i.e., the conventional approach). The average TLE for the conventional and the AR approaches was 14.9Â mm and 11.1Â mm, respectively. The average needle placement time needed for the conventional and AR approaches was 59.4Â s and 22.9Â s, respectively. For the animal study, ultrasound image and needle trajectory were successfully fused with the laparoscopic video in real time and presented on a single screen for the surgeons. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:By providing projected needle trajectory, we believe our AR system can assist the surgeon with more efficient and precise needle placement.
Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
Babb, Jaqueline; Davis, James; Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E; Pandya, Samir