MRI-Derived Sarcopenia Associated with Increased Mortality Following Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Y radioembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:for women. Survival at 90Â days, 180Â days, 1Â year, and 3Â years following initial treatment was assessed using medical and public obituary records. RESULTS:Sarcopenia was identified in 30% (25/82) of patients. Death was reported for 49% (32/65) of males and 71% (8/17) of females (mean follow-up 19.6Â months, range 21Â days-58Â months). Patients with sarcopenia were found to have increased mortality at 180Â days (31.8% vs. 8.9%) and 1Â year (68.2% vs. 21.2%). Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of mortality adjusted for BCLC stage and sub-analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia independently predicted increased mortality for patients with BCLC stage B disease. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Y radioembolization. Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of survival adjusted for BCLC stage with significant deviation in the survival curves of BCLC stage B patients with and without sarcopenia.
Revenue Sources in Interventional Radiology: Revenue Analysis of an Interventional Oncology Service Line [Letter]
Comparison of Non-Tumoral Portal Vein Thrombosis Management in Cirrhotic Patients: TIPS Versus Anticoagulation Versus No Treatment
BACKGROUND:There is a lack of consensus in optimal management of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis. The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and thrombosis burden change for cirrhotic patients with non-tumoral PVT managed by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) only, anticoagulation only, or no treatment. METHODS:This single-center retrospective study evaluated 52 patients with cirrhosis and non-tumoral PVT managed by TIPS only (14), anticoagulation only (11), or no treatment (27). The demographic, clinical, and imaging data for patients were collected. The portomesenteric thrombosis burden and liver function tests at early follow-up (6-9 months) and late follow-up (9-16 months) were compared to the baseline. Adverse events including bleeding and encephalopathy were recorded. RESULTS:= 0.007). No bleeding complications attributable to anticoagulation were observed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:TIPS decreased portomesenteric thrombus burden compared to anticoagulation or no treatment for cirrhotic patients with PVT. Both TIPS and anticoagulation were safe therapies.
Essentials of Insulinoma Localization with Selective Arterial Calcium Stimulation and Hepatic Venous Sampling
Insulinomas are the most common functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Most insulinomas can be localized non-invasively with cross-sectional and nuclear imaging. Selective arterial calcium stimulation and hepatic venous sampling is an effective and safe minimally-invasive procedure for insulinoma localization that may be utilized when non-invasive techniques are inconclusive. The procedure's technical success and proper interpretation of its results is dependent on the interventional radiologist's knowledge of normal and variant pancreatic arterial perfusion. Accurate pre-operative localization aids in successful surgical resection. Technical and anatomic considerations of insulinoma localization with selective arterial calcium stimulation and hepatic venous sampling are reviewed.
Safety and Effectiveness of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization around the Time of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Unresectable Hepatic Metastases
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety and effectiveness of yttrium-90 radioembolization and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy within a short interval for the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This single-institution retrospective study included 22 patients (12 men; median age, 65 y Â± 11) with unresectable hepatic metastases and preserved functional status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1) who received immunotherapy and radioembolization within a 15-month period (median, 63.5 d; interquartile range, 19.7-178.2 d) from February 2013 to March 2018. Primary malignancies were uveal melanoma (12 of 22; 54.5%), soft tissue sarcoma (3; 13.6%), cutaneous melanoma (3; 14%), and others (4; 18.2%). Studies were reviewed to March 2019 to assess Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3/4 toxicities, disease progression, and death. RESULTS:There were no grade 4 toxicities within 6 mo of radioembolization. Grade 3 hepatobiliary toxicities occurred in 3 patients (13.6%) within 6 months, 2 from rapid disease progression and 1 from a biliary stricture. Two patients (9.1%) experienced clinical toxicities, including grade 4 colitis at 6 months and hepatic abscess at 3 months. Median overall survival (OS) from first radioembolization was 20 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5-27.5 mo), and median OS from first immunotherapy was 23 months (95% CI, 15.9-30.1 mo). Within the uveal melanoma subgroup, the median OS from first radioembolization was 17.0 months (95% CI, 14.2-19.8 mo). Median time to progression was 7.8 months (95% CI, 3.3-12.2 mo), and median progression-free survival was 7.8 mo (95% CI, 3.1-12.4 mo). CONCLUSIONS:Checkpoint immunotherapy around the time of radioembolization is safe, with a low incidence of toxicity independent of primary malignancy.
Comparative Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of Transarterial Chemoembolization for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with and without Pre-Existing Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This single-institution study included a retrospective review of 50 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization for HCC between January 2010 and April 2017. Twenty-five patients had preexisting TIPS, and 25 patients were selected to control for age, sex, and target tumor size. Baseline median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD; 13 TIPS, 9 control; P < .001) and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI; 3 TIPS, 2 control; P < .001) differed between groups. Safety was assessed on the basis of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) and change in MELD and ALBI grade assessed between 3 and 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by tumor response and time to progression (TTP). RESULTS:There was 1 severe adverse event (CTCAE grade >2) in the TIPS group. There was no difference in the change in MELD or ALBI grade. Although there was no difference in tumor response (PÂ = .19), more patients achieved a complete response in the control group (19/25, 76%) than in the TIPS group (13/25, 52%). There was no difference in TTP (PÂ = .82). At 1 year, 2 patients in the control group and 3 patients in the TIPS group received a liver transplant. Seven patients died in the TIPS group. CONCLUSIONS:Transarterial chemoembolization is as safe and effective in patients with TIPS as in patients without TIPS, despite worse baseline liver function. Severe adverse events are rare and may be transient.
Muscle mass on magnetic resonance imaging predicts hepatocellular carcinoma survival following Yttrium-90 radioembolization [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To assess the impact of muscle mass on survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization. Materials: The medical records of 186 patients undergoing Yttrium-90 radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma between April 2014 and May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty patients with an abdominal MRI performed within 90 days prior to treatment were identified. All patients underwent standardized abdominal and liver MRI sequence protocols. Axial T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences were used for image analysis. The paraspinal musculature was manually segmented at the level of the origin of the superior mesenteric artery using syngo.via (Siemens Healthineers, USA) and used to calculate skeletal muscle area (cm2) and skeletal muscle index (cm2/m2). Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle area < 35.23 cm2 for men and < 31.53 cm2 for women. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient survival following treatment. Descriptive statistics, including Mann-Whitney tests and receiver operating characteristic curves, were performed.
Result(s): Fifty patients (86% male) with mean age 64 years (range, 31-83 years) met inclusion criteria. Death was reported for 49% (21/43) of male and 57% (4/7) of female patients, with average follow-up of 21 months (range, 0.7-56 months). Sarcopenia was identified in 16% (7/43) of male and 29% (2/7) of female patients. There were statistically significant differences in skeletal muscle area (48.72 +/- 12.01 cm2 vs. 42.18 +/- 15.13 cm2) (P = 0.047) and skeletal muscle index (16.26 +/- 2.69 cm2/m2 vs. 14.56 +/- 5.83 cm2/m2) (P = 0.024) between men who survived and died. Differences for the seven female patients included in the study did not achieve statistical significance, likely due to small sample size. Median survival was estimated as 1403 days for nonsarcopenic men (36/43) and 243 days for sarcopenic men (7/43) (P = 0.272).
Conclusion(s): Muscle mass on pre procedure MRI predicts survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing Yttrium-90 radioembolization. Sarcopenia may be associated with shorter survival and ongoing analysis of additional patients will improve study power to detect significant differences.
Gonadal vein embolization for treatment of symptomatic varicocele [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To evaluate the technical success, clinical efficacy, and safety of gonadal vein embolization in men presenting with symptomatic varicoceles. Materials: A retrospective study of 83 consecutive male patients who had varicocele embolization between January 2008 and December 2018 was conducted. 39 patients (mean age, 33.8 years; range, 18-70 years) met the inclusion criteria of symptomatic varicocele (scrotal pain and/or heaviness) and had complete clinical records. The primary outcome was symptomatic improvement. Secondary outcomes were technical success rate defined as successful catheterization and embolization of the gonadal vein(s) and adverse events.
Result(s): Of the 39 patients, 33 (84.6%) presented had scrotal pain, 3 (7.7%) had heaviness, and 3 (7.7%) had pain and heaviness. Nine (23.1%) had prior varicocelectomy. 32 patients had complete preprocedural ultrasound; of those 12 (37.5%) had testicular asymmetry, 22 (68.8%) had left varicocele, 1 (3.1%) had right varicocele, and 9 (28.1%) had bilateral varicoceles. Procedural approach was transfemoral in 34 (87.2%) and transjugular in 5 (12.8%) patients. Only symptomatic sides were treated; of the 39 patients, 8 (20.5%) had bilateral, 1 (2.6%) had right, and 30 (76.9%) had left embolization. Embolic agents used were coils + Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) in 3 (7.7%), coils + n-Butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue in 8 (20.5%), n-BCA glue alone in 20 (51.3%), and a combination of different embolization material in the remainder of the patients (STS, vascular plugs, n-BCA, Gelfoam, and/or coils). The mean time to follow-up was 8.3 months. The overall technical success rate was 94.9%; of those, 28 (75.7%) indicated an improvement in their preprocedural symptoms. In patients with symptomatic improvement, the recurrence rate was 7.1%, with a mean time to recurrence of 7.5 months. There were no recorded complications. Conclusion(s): GVE is safe, has high technical success rate, and is effective in improving scrotal pain and heaviness
4:21 PM Abstract No. 155 Percutaneous image-guided lung cryoablation: technical and procedural factors impacting outcomes [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To describe our experience with lung cryoablation and factors impacting procedural outcomes. Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all percutaneous lung cryoablation patients done at a single institution between August 2017 and May 2019. Procedures were performed using computed tomographic guidance and triple freeze-thaw protocol. Complications and intraprocedural imaging features of the ice balls were recorded. Tumor progression was determined via World Health Organization guidelines. Overall survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Result(s): A total of 39 patients (mean age, 75.1 years; range 40-94 years), 61.5% (25/39) of whom were female, underwent a total of 45 procedures. The mean follow-up time was 398.4 days (range, 34-746). The mean pre-ablation size of the lung cancer was 19.0 x 13.4 mm. 48.9% (22/45) of tumors were ground glass or part solid. An average of 1.3 probes (range, 1-3) were used for each case (1.4 probe per cm of tumor). 5 cases were performed with a round 2.1 cm diameter ice device, while 40 were performed with an ovoid 2.1 cm diameter device. The immediate post ablation zone measured an average of 28.0 x 21.2 mm (range, 9.4-62.5 mm). At 1-month follow-up, the ablation zone measured 29.3 x 19.3 mm (range, 14.3-47.0 mm). Pneumothorax was the most common complication seen in 46.7% (21/45) of cases. Chest tube placement was required in 33.3% (15/45) of cases. Local recurrence was seen in 6.7% (3/45) of lesions during the follow-up period. There were no 30-day mortalities; however, there were 6 deaths recorded (15.3%) during the study period. 83.3% (5/6) of the deaths were patients with solid tumors. Mean tumor size in these patients was 21.8 x 17.3 mm (range, 15.0-33.0 mm). Mean overall survival probability by Kaplan-Meier was 88.8% (SE: 0.05) at 1 year and 73.2% (SE: 1.4) at 2 years.
Conclusion(s): Lung cryoablation remains a safe and effective therapy option for patients with early stage malignant lung tumors, including both ground glass and part solid tumors. Current cryoablation technologies provide adequate ablation zones for tumors up to 2.0 cm.
Abstract No. 634 Factors influencing time to inpatient procedure for an inpatient interventional radiology service [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To identify clinical, procedural, and logistical factors that influence time to inpatient interventional radiology (IR) procedures. Materials: All inpatient IR procedures performed at two tertiary care academic medical centers in January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Procedures were included if a complete consult note (with an associated time), and procedure start time were available. Time to procedure (TTP) was defined as the interval from consult note entry to procedure start time in hours. Clinical and procedure data which may influenced TTP were analyzed, including day of week, time of consult, procedure urgency and complexity, availability of imaging and laboratory values, requesting clinical service, patient vital signs, and procedural urgency. Consult time of day was divided into four time periods: early day (08:00-12:00), late day (12:00-16:00), evening (16:00-20:00), and overnight (20:00 - 08:00).
Result(s): A total of 127 inpatient procedures were performed on 116 patients (mean age, 59 years; 43% male). Procedures performed on Wednesdays and Fridays had the longest TTP (mean, 32 and 21 hours respectively, P = 0.010). Procedures performed during the weekend and on Mondays had the shortest TTP (mean, 2.9 and 10.8 hours, respectively, P = 0.010). The time of day the consult was completed correlated significantly with TTP (P = 0.038), with the shortest TTP for consults requested in the early day (mean, 11.4 hours) and overnight (mean, 11.5 hours) and the longest TTP for those requested in the afternoon (mean, 27.4 hours). Lack of appropriate imaging resulted in longer TTP (mean, 35 vs. 17 hours, P = 0.029). High urgency procedures had significantly shorter TTP (P = 0.038). There was no significant correlation between TTP and fasting status (P = 0.073), anticoagulation (P = 0.073), availability of appropriate labs (0.225), procedure category (P = 0.086), bed location (P = 0.094), and requesting service (P = 0.100).
Conclusion(s): Overnight, early day, and urgent procedures had the shortest TTP, whereas afternoon and later week consults had the longest TTP. Examining the underlying reasons for these trends may offer opportunities to reduce TTP for inpatient IR procedures.