Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an uncommon but emerging syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While the presentation of MIS-C is generally delayed after exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus 2019, both MIS-C and Kawasaki disease (KD) share similar clinical features. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge given the lack of definitive diagnostic tests and a paucity of evidence regarding treatment modalities. We review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluations, and management of MIS-C and compare its clinical features to those of KD.
Pediatric emergency care in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown and reopening periods
OBJECTIVE:New York City (NYC) is home to the largest public healthcare system in the United States and was an early epicenter of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. This system serves as the safety net for underserved and marginalized communities disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Prior studies reported substantial declines in pediatric emergency department (ED) volume during the initial pandemic surge, but few describe the ongoing impact of COVID-19 throughout the year. We evaluated the characteristics of pediatric ED visits to NYC public hospitals during the pandemic lockdown and reopening periods of 2020 compared to the prior year. METHODS:Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric ED visits from 11 NYC public hospitals from January 2019-December 2020. Visit demographics, throughput times, and diagnosis information during the early (3/7/20-6/7/20) and late (6/8/20-12/31/20) pandemic periods coinciding with the New York State of emergency declaration (3/7/20) and the first reopening date (6/7/20) were compared to similar time periods in 2019. Findings were correlated with key pandemic shutdown and reopening events. RESULTS:There was a 47% decrease in ED volume in 2020 compared to 2019 (125,649 versus 238,024 visits). After reopening orders began in June 2020, volumes increased but peaked at <60% of 2019 volumes. Admission rates, triage acuity, and risk of presenting with a serious medical illness were significantly higher in 2020 versus 2019 (P < 0.001). Time-to-provider times decreased however provider-to-disposition times increased during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Infectious and asthma diagnoses declined >70% during the pandemic in contrast to the year prior. After reopening periods began, penetrating traumatic injuries significantly increased compared to 2019 [+34%, Relative Risk: 3.2 (2.6, 3.8)]. CONCLUSIONS:NYC public hospitals experienced a sharp decrease in pediatric volume but an increase in patient acuity during both the initial pandemic surge and through the reopening periods. As COVID-19 variants emerge, the threat of the current pandemic expanding remains. Understanding its influence on pediatric ED utilization can optimize resource allocation and ensure equitable care for future surge events.
Point-of-Care Ultrasound on Management of Cellulitis Versus Local Angioedema in the Pediatric Emergency Department
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether ultrasound can differentiate between cellulitis and angioedema from insect bites in pediatric patients. METHODS:A prospective, pre-post study in an urban pediatric emergency department of patients younger than 21 years with soft tissue swelling from insect bites without abscesses were enrolled. Treating physician's pretest opinions regarding the diagnosis and need for antibiotics were determined. Ultrasound of the affected areas was performed, and effects on management were recorded. Further imaging, medications, and disposition were at the discretion of the enrolling physician. Phone call follow-ups were made within a week of presentation. RESULTS:Among 103 patients enrolled with soft tissue swelling secondary to insect bites, ultrasound changed the management in 27 (26%) patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-35%). Of the patients who were indeterminate or believed to require antibiotics, ultrasound changed management in 6 (23%) of 26 patients (95% CI, 6%-40%). In those patients who were believed not to require antibiotics, ultrasound changed management in 12 (16%) 77 patients (95% CI, 7%-24%). Patients with diagnosis of local angioedema achieved symptom resolution 1.4 days sooner than patients diagnosed with cellulitis (mean, -1.389; 95% CI, -2.087 to -0.690; P < 0.001). No patient who was initially diagnosed as local angioedema received antibiotics upon patient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Point-of-care ultrasound changed physician management in 1 of 4 patients in the pediatric emergency department with soft tissue swelling secondary to insect bites. Ultrasound may guide the management in these patients and lead to improved antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with history and physical examination.
Barriers to Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youth in the Emergency Department
OBJECTIVE:Given the increasing rates of youth suicide, it is important to understand the barriers to suicide screening in emergency departments. This review describes the current literature, identifies gaps in existing research, and suggests recommendations for future research. METHODS:A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Web of Science was conducted. Data extraction included study/sample characteristics and barrier information categorized based on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment model. RESULTS:All studies focused on inner context barriers of implementation and usually examined individuals' attitudes toward screening. No study looked at administrative, policy, or financing issues. CONCLUSIONS:The lack of prospective, systematic studies on barriers and the focus on individual adopter attitudes reveal a significant gap in understanding the challenges to implementation of universal youth suicide risk screening in emergency departments.
Interobserver Agreement of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound Collapse Duration and Correlated Outcomes in Children With Dehydration
OBJECTIVE:Dehydration is a common concern in children presenting to pediatric emergency departments and other acute care settings. Ultrasound (US) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) may be a fast, noninvasive tool to gauge volume status, but its utility is unclear. Our objectives were to determine the interobserver agreement of IVC collapse and collapse duration, then correlate IVC collapse with the outcome of intravenous (IV) versus oral (PO) rehydration. METHODS:We conducted a prospective study by enrolling patients 0 to 21 years old with emesis requiring ondansetron or diarrhea requiring IV hydration. Clinical operators interpreted US examinations in real time to determine whether the IVC was collapsed. Two blinded reviewers interpreted the US videos to determine IVC collapse and collapse duration. Cohen's kappa(Îº) was calculated for reviewer-reviewer and reviewer-operator agreement. Primary outcomes were PO versus IV rehydration, and admitted versus discharged. RESULTS:One hundred twelve patients were enrolled, and 102 had complete data for analysis. The mean age was 7.2 years with 51% female. Twenty-nine patients received IV hydration. The reviewer-operator agreement for IVC collapse was Îº = 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.75) and interreviewer agreement was Îº = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-1.0). The interreviewer agreement for collapse duration was Îº = 0.66 (95% CI, 0.51-0.82). All patients with noncollapsed IVCs tolerated PO hydration. The likelihood of receiving IV hydration was correlated with the duration of IVC collapse (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS:Based on a novel dynamic measure of IVC collapse duration, children with increasing duration of IVC collapse correlated positively with the need for IV rehydration. Noncollapsing IVCs on US were associated with successful PO rehydration without need for IV fluids or emergency department revisits.
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
BACKGROUND:Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly recognized condition affecting children with recent infection or exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MIS-C has symptoms that affect multiple organs systems, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW/UNASSIGNED:Our goal was to review the current literature and describe the evaluation and treatment algorithms for children suspected of having MIS-C who present to the emergency department. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:MIS-C has a wide clinical spectrum and diagnosis is based on a combination of both clinical and laboratory findings. The exact mechanism of immune dysregulation of MIS-C is not well understood. Physical findings may evolve and do not necessarily appear at the same time. Gastrointestinal, cardiac, inflammatory, and coagulopathy manifestations and dysfunction are seen frequently in MIS-C. CONCLUSIONS:The diagnosis of MIS-C is based on clinical presentation and specific laboratory findings. In the emergency setting, a high level of suspicion for MIS-C is required in patients exposed to COVID-19. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy offer the best chance for optimal outcomes.
Emergency department-based rapid response team for hospital visitors, employees, and ambulatory clinic patients [Letter]
Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youths in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:To address escalating youth suicide rates, universal suicide risk screening has been recommended in pediatric care settings. The emergency department (ED) is a particularly important setting for screening. However, EDs often fail to identify and treat mental health symptoms among youths, and data on implementation of suicide risk screening in EDs are limited. A systematic review was conducted to describe the current literature on universal suicide risk screening in EDs, identify important gaps in available studies, and develop recommendations for strategies to improve youth screening efforts. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was conducted. Studies focused on universal suicide risk screening of youths served in U.S. EDs that presented screening results were coded, analyzed, and evaluated for reporting quality. Eleven studies were included. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:All screening efforts occurred in teaching or children's hospitals, and research staff administered suicide screens in eight studies. Thus scant information was available on universal screening in pediatric community ED settings. Large variation was noted across studies in participation rates (17%-86%) and in positive screen rates (4.1%-50.8%), although positive screen rates were influenced by type of presenting concern (psychiatric versus nonpsychiatric). Only three studies concurrently examined barriers to screening, providing little direction for effective implementation. STROBE guidelines were used to rate reporting quality, which ranged from 51.9% to 87.1%, with three studies having ratings over 80%. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Research is needed to better inform practice guidelines and clinical pathways and to establish sustainable screening programs for youths presenting for care in EDs.
The use of smartphones and tablets for video visits between patients and families during the height of COVID-19 in new york city [Meeting Abstract]
Rationale: In March of 2020, New York City became an epicenter of COVID-19. Due to the risk of airborne transmission and limited personal protective equipment, hospitals restricted patient visitations to protect both healthcare workers and patients. In response to the initiation of this visitation restriction at our hospital on March 18, 2020, we piloted a video-based communication program for families to virtually "visit" their family members in the hospital. This is a quality improvement project designed to evaluate the utility and limitations of these virtual family visits during the pandemic.
Method(s): A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients over 17 years-old hospitalized between March 18 and May 31, 2020 for documented video encounters performed by hospital staff at a New York City public hospital. All video calls were performed using Whatsapp, Facetime, or Google Hangout communication app on a hospital-issued smartphone or tablet. Data collected included date of call, patient age, call facilitator, preferred language, patient location during hospitalization, use of mechanical equipment for assisted breathing, hospital length of stay, patient disposition, discharge diagnosis, and any additional limitations noted by the staff during video visits. Patients admitted to the psychiatric, rehabilitation, pediatric, labor and delivery, forensics wards, or if only a voice call was performed, were excluded.
Result(s): Of the 2068 hospitalizations qualified for chart review, 177 patients have thus far been identified with documented video visits. A total of 1416 video visits were performed in these patients. 71.0% of the patients were intubated during their hospitalization and when video visits occurred. 37.3% of the patients expired, while 24.9% were discharged home or to a short-term rehabilitation center (38.9%). The average length of stay was 35.2 days (SD 2.1). Majority of the diagnoses were COVID-related illnesses (61.0%). Social workers conducted 78.5% of the video visits, followed by physicians (57.7%) and hospital chaplains (9.6%). Average patient age was 62 years-old. Chart review process is currently ongoing.
Conclusion(s): The use of smartphones and tablets for video visits facilitated communication between patients and their families when in-person visits were restricted. We were able to provide visual visits to families when patients were intubated and were unable to verbalize. While a significant number of patients expired during this period, families were able to "see" and communicate with their family members prior to their deaths. The use of this technology is an invaluable tool for families to communicate and partake in patient care.
Infected urachal duct cyst in a young adult male