RGC-32 is essential for TGF-beta mediated Th17 cell differentiation [Meeting Abstract]
RGC-32 regulates TGF- beta 3 extracellular matrix expression in reactive astrocytes [Meeting Abstract]
Role of C5b-9 complement complex and response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32) in cancer
Complement system activation plays an important role in both innate and acquired immunity, with the activation of complement and the subsequent formation of C5b-9 terminal complement complex on cell membranes inducing target cell death. Recognition of this role for C5b-9 leads to the assumption that C5b-9 might play an antitumor role. However, sublytic C5b-9 induces cell cycle progression by activating signal transduction pathways and transcription factors in cancer cells, indicating a role in tumor promotion for this complement complex. The induction of the cell cycle by C5b-9 is dependent upon the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FOXO1 and ERK1 pathways in a Gi protein-dependent manner. C5b-9 also induces response gene to complement (RGC)-32, a gene that plays a role in cell cycle promotion through activation of Akt and the CDC2 kinase. RGC-32 is expressed by tumor cells and plays a dual role in cancers, in that it has both a tumor suppressor role and tumor-promoting activity. Thus, through the activation of tumor cells, the C5b-9-mediated induction of the cell cycle plays an important role in tumor proliferation and oncogenesis.
Dual role of Response gene to complement-32 in multiple sclerosis
Response gene to complement (RGC)-32 is a novel molecule that plays an important role in cell proliferation. We investigated the expression of RGC-32 in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We found that CD3(+), CD68(+), and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)(+) cells in MS plaques co-localized with RGC-32. Our results show a statistically significant decrease in RGC-32 mRNA expression in PBMCs during relapses when compared to the levels in stable MS patients. This decrease might be useful in predicting disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. RGC-32 expression was also correlated with that of FasL mRNA during relapses. FasL mRNA expression was significantly reduced after RGC-32 silencing, indicating a role for RGC-32 in the regulation of FasL expression. In addition, the expression of Akt1, cyclin D1, and IL-21 mRNA was significantly increased during MS relapses when compared to levels in healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated the role of RGC-32 in TGF-Î²-induced extracellular matrix expression in astrocytes. Blockage of RGC-32 using small interfering RNA significantly inhibits TGF-Î² induction of procollagen I, fibronectin and of the reactive astrocyte marker Î±-smooth muscle actin (Î±-SMA). Our data suggest that RGC-32 plays a dual role in MS, both as a regulator of T-cells mediated apoptosis and as a promoter of TGF-Î²-mediated profibrotic effects in astrocytes.
IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms
T cell-driven B cell hyperactivity plays an essential role in driving autoimmune disease development in systemic lupus erythematosus. IL-21 is a member of the type I cytokine family with pleiotropic activities. It regulates B cell differentiation and function, promotes T follicular helper (T(FH)) cell and Th17 cell differentiation, and downregulates the induction of T regulatory cells. Although IL-21 has been implicated in systemic lupus erythematosus, the relative importance of IL-21R signaling in CD4(+) T cells versus B cells is not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of two induced models of lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease by using wild-type or IL-21R(-/-) mice as donors in the parent-into-F1 model and as hosts in the Bm12â†’B6 model. We show that IL-21R expression on donor CD4(+) T cells is essential for sustaining T(FH) cell number and subsequent help for B cells, resulting in autoantibody production and more severe lupus-like renal disease, but it does not alter the balance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. In contrast, IL-21R signaling on B cells is critical for the induction and maintenance of germinal centers, plasma cell differentiation, autoantibody production, and the development of renal disease. These results demonstrate that IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4(+) T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms and suggest that IL-21 blockade may attenuate B cell hyperactivity, as well as the aberrant T(FH) cell pathway that contributes to lupus pathogenesis.
Membrane attack by complement: the assembly and biology of terminal complement complexes
Complement system activation plays an important role in both innate and acquired immunity. Activation of the complement and the subsequent formation of C5b-9 channels (the membrane attack complex) on the cell membranes lead to cell death. However, when the number of channels assembled on the surface of nucleated cells is limited, sublytic C5b-9 can induce cell cycle progression by activating signal transduction pathways and transcription factors and inhibiting apoptosis. This induction by C5b-9 is dependent upon the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FOXO1 and ERK1 pathways in a Gi protein-dependent manner. C5b-9 induces sequential activation of CDK4 and CDK2, enabling the G1/S-phase transition and cellular proliferation. In addition, it induces RGC-32, a novel gene that plays a role in cell cycle activation by interacting with Akt and the cyclin B1-CDC2 complex. C5b-9 also inhibits apoptosis by inducing the phosphorylation of Bad and blocking the activation of FLIP, caspase-8, and Bid cleavage. Thus, sublytic C5b-9 plays an important role in cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, thereby contributing to the maintenance of cell and tissue homeostasis.
C5b-9-activated, K(v)1.3 channels mediate oligodendrocyte cell cycle activation and dedifferentiation
Voltage-gated potassium (K(v)) channels play an important role in the regulation of growth factor-induced cell proliferation. We have previously shown that cell cycle activation is induced in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) by complement C5b-9, but the role of K(v) channels in these cells had not been investigated. Differentiated OLGs were found to express K(v)1.4 channels, but little K(v)1.3. Exposure of OLGs to C5b-9 modulated K(v)1.3 functional channels and increased protein expression, whereas C5b6 had no effect. Pretreatment with the recombinant scorpion toxin rOsK-1, a highly selective K(v)1.3 inhibitor, blocked the expression of K(v)1.3 induced by C5b-9. rOsK-1 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and activation by C5b-9 but had no effect on ERK1 activation. These data strongly suggest a role for K(v)1.3 in controlling the Akt activation induced by C5b-9. Since Akt plays a major role in C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation, we also investigated the effect of inhibiting K(v)1.3 channels on DNA synthesis. rOsK-1 significantly inhibited the DNA synthesis induced by C5b-9 in OLG, indicating that K(v)1.3 plays an important role in the C5b-9-induced cell cycle. In addition, C5b-9-mediated myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein mRNA decay was completely abrogated by inhibition of K(v)1.3 expression. In the brains of multiple sclerosis patients, C5b-9 co-localized with NG2(+) OLG progenitor cells that expressed K(v)1.3 channels. Taken together, these data suggest that K(v)1.3 channels play an important role in controlling C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation and OLG dedifferentiation, both in vitro and in vivo.
Response gene to complement 32 mediate TGF-beta induced production of extracellular matrix by astrocytes [Meeting Abstract]
FLT-3 expression and function on microglia in multiple sclerosis
Inflammatory cell infiltration and resident microglial activation within the central nervous system (CNS) are pathological events in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). While MS therapies target the peripheral immune system, no treatment is currently known to also modulate microglia. FMS-like tyrosine-3 (FLT-3) is expressed on hematopoietic and dendritic cells. We reported that FLT-3 inhibition ameliorates early actively induced EAE by predominantly modulating dendritic cell function as compared to microglia. We demonstrate in this report that FLT-3 is expressed in perivascular cuffs, brain parenchyma and in non-lesioned gray and white matter within MS brain but not in these regions within control brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FLT-3 is expressed on two populations of cells within MS brain; one which expresses the dendritic cell marker CD209, and the other which does not, suggesting that FLT-3 within MS brain is expressed on infiltrating dendritic cells and a non-dendritic cell such as microglia. Additionally, we report that FLT-3 inhibition in murine microglia blocks, in a dose-dependent manner, IFN-Î³-induced expression of MHC class II and CD86, and LPS-induced secretion of IL-6. These data suggest that FLT-3 is involved in microglial cells' capacity to respond to environmental cues to function as antigen presenting cells and mediate CNS inflammation. Furthermore these data suggest that FLT-3 may be a therapeutic target on microglia to mitigate CNS inflammation.
Epigenetic modifications induced by RGC-32 in colon cancer
First described as a cell cycle activator, RGC-32 is both an activator and a substrate for CDC2. Deregulation of RGC-32 expression has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers. We have now shown that RGC-32 is expressed in precancerous states, and its expression is significantly higher in adenomas than in normal colon tissue. The expression of RGC-32 was higher in advanced stages of colon cancer than in precancerous states or the initial stages of colon cancer. In order to identify the genes that are regulated by RGC-32, we used gene array analysis to investigate the effect of RGC-32 knockdown on gene expression in the SW480 colon cancer cell line. Of the 230 genes that were differentially regulated after RGC-32 knockdown, a group of genes involved in chromatin assembly were the most significantly regulated in these cells: RGC-32 knockdown induced an increase in acetylation of histones H2B lysine 5 (H2BK5), H2BK15, H3K9, H3K18, and H4K8. RGC-32 silencing was also associated with decreased expression of SIRT1 and decreased trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3). In addition, RGC-32 knockdown caused a significantly higher percentage of SW480 cells to enter S phase and subsequently G2/M. These data suggest that RGC-32 may contribute to the development of colon cancer by regulating chromatin assembly.