The clinical course of comorbid substance use disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: protocol and clinical characteristics of the INCAS study
BACKGROUND:Substance use disorders (SUD) often co-occur with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the short-term effects of some specific interventions have been investigated in randomized clinical trials, little is known about the long-term clinical course of treatment-seeking SUD patients with comorbid ADHD. AIMS:This paper presents the protocol and baseline clinical characteristics of the International Naturalistic Cohort Study of ADHD and SUD (INCAS) designed and conducted by the International Collaboration on ADHD and Substance Abuse (ICASA) foundation. The overall aim of INCAS is to investigate the treatment modalities provided to treatment-seeking SUD patients with comorbid ADHD, and to describe the clinical course and identify predictors for treatment outcomes. This ongoing study employs a multicentre observational prospective cohort design. Treatment-seeking adult SUD patients with comorbid ADHD are recruited, at 12 study sites in nine different countries. During the follow-up period of nine months, data is collected through patient files, interviews, and self-rating scales, targeting a broad range of cognitive and clinical symptom domains, at baseline, four weeks, three months and nine months. RESULTS:A clinically representative sample of 578 patients (137 females, 441 males) was enrolled during the recruitment period (June 2017-May 2021). At baseline, the sample had a mean age (SD) of 36.7Â years (11.0); 47.5% were inpatients and 52.5% outpatients; The most prevalent SUDs were with alcohol 54.2%, stimulants 43.6%, cannabis 33.1%, and opioids 14.5%. Patients reported previous treatments for SUD in 71.1% and for ADHD in 56.9%. Other comorbid mental disorders were present in 61.4% of the sample: major depression 31.5%, post-traumatic stress disorder 12.1%, borderline personality disorder 10.2%. CONCLUSIONS:The first baseline results of this international cohort study speak to its feasibility. Data show that many SUD patients with comorbid ADHD had never received treatment for their ADHD prior to enrolment in the study. Future reports on this study will identify the course and potential predictors for successful pharmaceutical and psychological treatment outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN15998989 20/12/2019.
Outcomes of a NYC Public Hospital System Low-Threshold Tele-Buprenorphine Bridge Clinic at 1 Year
Drug Abuse and Pain
[S.l.] : Springer International Publishing, 2022
Assessment of substance use disorders
Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG; Switzerland, 2022
Integrating Buprenorphine Into an Opioid Treatment Program: Tailoring Care for Patients With Opioid Use Disorders
OBJECTIVES: This report identifies the institutional barriers to, and benefits of, buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) integration in an established hospital-based opioid treatment program (OTP). METHODS: This case study presents the authors' experiences at the clinic, hospital, and corporation levels during efforts to integrate BMT into a hospital-based OTP in New York City and a descriptive quantitative analysis of the characteristics of hospital outpatients treated with buprenorphine from 2006 to 2013 (N=735). RESULTS: Integration of BMT into an OTP offered patients the flexibility to transition between intensive structured care and primary care or outpatient psychiatry according to need. Main barriers encountered were regulations, clinical logistics of dispensing medications, internal cost and reimbursement issues, and professional and cultural resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Buprenorphine integration offers a model for other OTPs to facilitate partnerships among primary care and mental health clinics to better serve diverse patients with varying clinical needs and with varying levels of social support.
Technology-based intervention preferences to enhance self-management of substance use disorders, HIV, and hepatitis c among patients in inpatient detoxification
Temporal discounting and addiction: Tracking impulsivity through treatment [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Impulsivity is a core feature of substance use disorders. Temporal discounting (TD) paradigms provide a modelbased approach to studying the dynamics of impulsive decisionmaking as drug-addicted individuals undergo treatment. Here we examine (1) how TD changes as opioid use disorder (OUD) subjects stabilize on maintenance therapy; and (2) how TD is predicted by (or is predictive of) relevant clinical outcomes. Methods: 30 individuals initiating treatment for OUD and 29 matched community controls (CC) were assessed weekly (up to 15 weeks) on a TD task. Drug use was monitored by urine toxicology and chart review. We analyzed the data with a hyperbolic discounting model and derived subject-specific parameters forTD rate, and the non-parametric proportion of immediate choices. Results: OUD subjects showed higher TD rates than CC (Means: 0.039 versus 0.139 respectively, p = 0.005). Although this measure had high test-retest reliability, OUD subjects exhibited more variability across the repeated measures. Subjects in the initial phase of treatment showed a progressive decrease of TD (p = 0.007). Recent heroin use predicted subjects' level of impulsivity: positive use in the previous week correlated with a significantly higher proportion of immediate choices (p = 0.02). We did not And a predictive effect of TD on heroin use the following week. Conclusions: These results suggest that TD greatly fluctuates in treatment-seeking heroin users, in contrast to its stability in CC. TD is both sensitive to the initial phase of treatment for OUD and to recent heroin use, but not predictive of future use in this population
Dextromethorphan and quinidine combination for heroin detoxification
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a low-affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that has shown promise in preclinical and preliminary clinical studies for the reduction of opioid withdrawal symptoms, but when used at higher doses, it is associated with deleterious side effects attributed to its metabolite, dextrorphan. A clinical trial was therefore conducted to test the withdrawal-suppressant effect of a combination of dextromethorphan with quinidine (DM/Q). Quinidine inhibits the metabolism of dextromethorphan, reducing dextrorphan levels. Opioid-dependent patients were admitted to an inpatient unit, stabilized for three days on morphine (25 mg, sc, every six hours), and randomly assigned on day 2 to DM/Q (30 mg/30 mg, twice a day) (n = 22) or matching placebo (n = 9) prior to the discontinuation of morphine on day 4. Withdrawal symptoms, measured with the Modified Himmelsbach Opioid Withdrawal Scale (MHOWS), increased significantly on days 4 and 5 (Z = 3.70, p = .0002), and by day 6, 90% of the sample (28/31) had dropped out of the study. There were no differences between treatment groups on either outcome measure. The combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine appears ineffective as a primary treatment for opioid withdrawal. Future studies should examine dextromethorphan as an adjunct to other anti-withdrawal medications and focus more on the relationship between dextrorphan levels and withdrawal suppression.