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A Case of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Therapeutic Ketamine Use for Sedation [Case Report]

Yoo, Noah; Thomas, Sarun; Bender, Michael; Cheng, Xian Jie Cindy
Ketamine, initially developed as an anesthetic, has shown versatility in medical applications, including pain management, treatment-resistant depression, and sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU). While generally well-tolerated, long-term use at high doses raises concerns about potential toxicities, particularly in the liver. We present a case of a 27-year-old female with a complex medical history who received ketamine infusion for ICU sedation and experienced a sudden rise in liver function tests (LFTs), indicating possible ketamine-induced liver injury (KILI). The patient's liver function normalized after ketamine discontinuation. KILI is infrequent with short-term ketamine use, but emerging case reports suggest it may be associated with chronic or intermittent exposure. The underlying mechanisms for KILI are not fully understood but may involve the accumulation of ketamine metabolites, causing direct toxic effects on the liver. As ketamine's use expands, especially in critical care settings, clinicians should be vigilant for the potential development of KILI. Further research is needed to better understand its risk factors and mechanisms, as early detection and management of KILI are crucial to ensuring patient safety and optimizing ketamine's therapeutic benefits.
PMID: 38505599
ISSN: 2090-6420
CID: 5640512

Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

Angel, Luis F; Amoroso, Nancy E; Rafeq, Samaan; Mitzman, Brian; Goldenberg, Ronald; Shekar, Saketh Palasamudram; Troxel, Andrea B; Zhang, Yan; Chang, Stephanie H; Kwak, Paul; Amin, Milan R; Sureau, Kimberly; Nafday, Heidi B; Thomas, Sarun; Kon, Zachary; Sommer, Philip M; Segal, Leopoldo N; Moore, William H; Cerfolio, Robert
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING/METHODS:Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS/METHODS:Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS:In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.
PMID: 33826583
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 4839312

Low-Dose Tocilizumab With High-Dose Corticosteroids in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Improves Mortality Without Increased Infection Risk

Brosnahan, Shari B; Chen, Xian Jie Cindy; Chung, Juri; Altshuler, Diana; Islam, Shahidul; Thomas, Sarun V; Winner, Megan D; Greco, Allison A; Divers, Jasmin; Spiegler, Peter; Sterman, Daniel H; Parnia, Sam
BACKGROUND:Severe hypoxic respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia carries a high mortality risk. There is uncertainty surrounding which patients benefit from corticosteroids in combination with tocilizumab and the dosage and timing of these agents. The balance of controlling inflammation without increasing the risk of secondary infection is difficult. At present, dexamethasone 6 mg is the standard of care in COVID-19 hypoxia; whether this is the ideal choice of steroid or dosage remains to be proven. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The primary objective was to assess the impact on mortality of tocilizumab only, corticosteroids only, and combination therapy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. METHODS:A multihospital, retrospective study of adult patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19 who received supportive therapy, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, or combination therapy were assessed for 28-day mortality, biomarker improvement, and relative risk of infection. Propensity-matched analysis was performed between corticosteroid alone and combination therapies to further assess mortality benefit. RESULTS:= 0.005] without increasing the risk of infection. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:Combination of tocilizumab and corticosteroids was associated with improved 28-day survival when compared with corticosteroids alone. Modification of steroid dosing strategy as well as steroid type may further optimize therapeutic effect of the COVID-19 treatment.
PMID: 34180274
ISSN: 1542-6270
CID: 4926192

Megakaryocytes and platelet-fibrin thrombi characterize multi-organ thrombosis at autopsy in COVID-19: A case series

Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Mai, Xingchen; Carsons, Steven E; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kleiner, David E; Berger, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Sarun; Adler, Nicole M; Charytan, David M; Gasmi, Billel; Hochman, Judith S; Reynolds, Harmony R
Background/UNASSIGNED:There is increasing recognition of a prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Post-mortem examination can provide important mechanistic insights. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We present a COVID-19 autopsy series including findings in lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and bone, from a New York academic medical center. Findings/UNASSIGNED: = 2). Platelet-rich peri‑tubular fibrin microthrombi were a prominent renal feature. Acute tubular necrosis, and red blood cell and granular casts were seen in multiple cases. Significant glomerular pathology was notably absent. Numerous platelet-fibrin microthrombi were identified in hepatic sinusoids. All lungs exhibited diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with a spectrum of exudative and proliferative phases including hyaline membranes, and pneumocyte hyperplasia, with viral inclusions in epithelial cells and macrophages. Three cases had superimposed acute bronchopneumonia, focally necrotizing. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:In this series of seven COVID-19 autopsies, thrombosis was a prominent feature in multiple organs, in some cases despite full anticoagulation and regardless of timing of the disease course, suggesting that thrombosis plays a role very early in the disease process. The finding of megakaryocytes and platelet-rich thrombi in the lungs, heart and kidneys suggests a role in thrombosis. Funding/UNASSIGNED:None.
PMID: 32766543
ISSN: 2589-5370
CID: 4555682

Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis: Rapid Recovery with Therapeutic Apheresis [Meeting Abstract]

John, S. Gheevarghese; Ashraf, S.; Gour, A. C.; Thomas, S. V.
ISSN: 1073-449x
CID: 3513092

The Role of High Flow Nasal Oxygen in Hospitalized Patients With Pneumonia [Meeting Abstract]

Thomas, Sarun; Love, Angela; Miyakawa, Lina; Deseda, Jaime; Berlin, Boris; Patrawalla, Paru; Acquah, Samuel; Steiger, David
ISSN: 0012-3692
CID: 3509182

The Utility of Ultrasound and Multidisciplinary Teams for Management of Clot in Transit [Meeting Abstract]

Thomas, Sarun; Chakravarti, Aloke; Steiger, David; Lee, Young
ISSN: 0012-3692
CID: 3509202

Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis: An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer [Meeting Abstract]

Olazagasti, Coral; Mercader, Mariana; Thomas, Sarun; Steinberg, Jason; Merrill, Eve
ISSN: 0012-3692
CID: 3509192


Gao, Xuan; Joshi, Vijan; Thomas, Sarun V.; Grabscheid, Erica
ISSN: 0884-8734
CID: 3509172


Chapter by: Thomas, Sarun; Astua, Alfred
in: Pulmonary disease examination and board review by Go, Ronaldo Collo (Ed)
New York : McGraw-Hill Education Medical, [2016]
pp. ?-?
ISBN: 0071845291
CID: 4593612