Tobacco 21 laws may reduce smoking and tobacco-related health disparities among youth in the U.S
The goal of our study is to understand the impact of Tobacco 21 (T21) laws on youth smoking and health equity. We conducted modified Poisson regression models using 2014-2019 Monitoring the Future data to measure the impact of attending school in a county 100% covered by a T21 law versus counties withÂ <100% T21 coverage on past 30-day smoking participation (nÂ =Â 262,632), first cigarette smoking initiation (nÂ =Â 189,698), and daily smoking initiation among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (nÂ =Â 214,496), separately. Additive interactions were tested between T21 coverage and sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, and college plans. T21 coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking participation among 12th graders. T21 coverage was most strongly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking participation among: Hispanic and NH (Non-Hispanic) Other/Multiracial individuals; respondents with parents who had less than a college education; and respondents who were not definitely planning on attending college. T21 laws were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking participation among 12th graders. T21 policies were most impactful for individuals disproportionately impacted by tobacco, indicating T21 laws might help reduce tobacco-related health disparities.
Sexual Orientation Discrimination and Exclusive, Dual, and Polytobacco Use among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States
Research on whether sexual orientation discrimination is associated with multiple tobacco product use among sexual minority (SM) adults is limited. Thus, we explored the associations between sexual orientation discrimination and exclusive, dual, and polyuse among a subset of SM adults (18+) (n = 3453) using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. We evaluated six indicators of prior-to-past-year sexual orientation discrimination separately and as a summary scale and defined past-year exclusive, dual, and polyuse based on cigarette, electronic nicotine delivery systems, other combustible (cigars and traditional pipe), and smokeless tobacco products. Using multinomial logistic regression, we estimated adjusted associations between sexual orientation discrimination and exclusive, dual, and polyuse. Experiencing discrimination in public places, being called names, and being bullied, assaulted, or threatened were associated with dual use, while experiencing discrimination when obtaining health care or insurance and when receiving health care were associated with polyuse. Each one-unit increase in the sexual orientation discrimination summary scale was associated with 5% and 10% higher odds of dual (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) and polyuse (95% CI: 1.02-1.18), respectively. To conclude, we advise health professionals to consider the salience of discrimination against SM adults and how these experiences lead to dual/polyuse.
Examining Truth and State-Sponsored Media Campaigns as a Means of Decreasing Youth Smoking and Related Disparities in the U.S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:To analyze the impact of Truth and state-sponsored anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking in the U.S., and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities. METHODS:Our study included data from the 2000-2015 Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally representative survey of youth in 8 th (n=201,913), 10 th (n=194,468), and 12 th grades (n=178,379). Our primary exposure was Gross Ratings Points (GRPS) of Truth or state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertisements, from Nielsen Media Research. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the impact of a respondent's GRPs on smoking intentions, past 30-day smoking participation, and first and daily smoking initiation. Additive interactions with sex, parental education, college plans, and race/ethnicity were used to test for differential effects of campaign exposure on each outcome. RESULTS:Greater campaign exposure (80 th vs. 20 th GRP percentile) was associated with lower probabilities of smoking intentions among 8 th graders, smoking participation among 8 th and 12 th graders, and initiation among 8 th graders. Greater exposure was associated with a greater reduction in the likelihood of smoking participation among 10 th and 12 th grade males than females; 10 th and 12 th graders with parents of lower education versus those with a college degree; and 12 th graders who did not definitely plan to go to college relative to those who did. CONCLUSIONS:Media campaign exposure was associated with a lower likelihood of youth smoking behaviors. Associations were more pronounced for groups disproportionately affected by smoking, including youth of lower socioeconomic status. Media campaigns may be useful in reducing smoking disparities and improving health equity. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Few recent studies have investigated the impact of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in the U.S. We found media campaigns - specifically state-sponsored media campaigns - reduced the likelihood of several smoking outcomes among youth, with some evidence that they mitigate disparities for disproportionately affected groups.
A longitudinal analysis of smoke-free laws and smoking initiation disparities among young adults in the United States
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Tobacco control policies may differentially impact smoking initiation among socio-demographic groups. We measured longitudinal associations between exposure to smoke-free laws in grade 12 (modal age 18â€‰years) and patterns of smoking initiation in the United States. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective longitudinal analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:We used data on US young adults sampled at modal age 18â€‰years from the Monitoring the Future Survey. Baseline data were collected between 2000 and 2017, with the last year of follow-up in 2018. The sample number varied by outcome and time-point, ranging from 7314 to 17â€‰702. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Smoke-free law coverage in work-places and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars) was measured as the percentage of the county population covered by each type of law. We examined associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20, 21/22 and 23/24, using Poisson regression and calculating average marginal effects. We explored effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity and parental education by testing the significance of interaction terms. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Work-place law coverage at modal age 18 was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 21/22 [-2.4 percentage points (p.p.); 95% confidence interval (CI)â€‰=â€‰-3.9, -0.9] and 23/24 (-2.0 p.p.; 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰-3.9, -0.2). Hospitality law coverage was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20 (-1.6 p.p.; 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰-2.8, -0.4), 21/22 (-2.3 p.p.; 95% CI =â€‰-3.7, -0.9) and 23/24 (-1.8 p.p.; 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰-3.6, -0.0). Findings were inconclusive with regard to associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and with regard to effect modification, after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to smoke-free laws at age 18 appears to be prospectively associated with reduced daily smoking initiation 1-6â€‰years later.
Population-based estimates of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) prevalence and characteristics
BACKGROUND:Emerging evidence suggests many people have persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 illness. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). METHODS:We employed a population-based probability survey of adults with COVID-19 in Michigan. Living non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ in the Michigan Disease Surveillance System with COVID-19 onset through mid-April 2020 were eligible for selection (n=28,000). Among 2,000 selected, 629 completed the survey between June - December 2020. We estimated PASC prevalence, defined as persistent symptoms 30+ (30-day COVID-19) or 60+ days (60-day COVID-19) post COVID-19 onset, overall and by sociodemographic and clinical factors, including self-reported symptom severity and hospitalization status. We used modified Poisson regression to produce adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for potential risk factors. RESULTS:The analytic sample (n=593) was predominantly female (56.1%), aged 45 and older (68.2%), and Non-Hispanic White (46.3%) or Black (34.8%). 30- and 60-day COVID-19 were highly prevalent (52.5% and 35.0%), even among non-hospitalized respondents (43.7% and 26.9%) and respondents reporting mild symptoms (29.2% and 24.5%). Respondents reporting very severe (vs. mild) symptoms had 2.25 times higher prevalence of 30-day COVID-19 ([aPR] 2.25, 95% CI 1.46-3.46) and 1.71 times higher prevalence of 60-day COVID-19 (aPR 1.71, 95% 1.02-2.88). Hospitalized (vs. non-hospitalized) respondents had about 40% higher prevalence of both 30-day (aPR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.69) and 60-day COVID-19 (aPR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93). CONCLUSIONS:PASC is highly prevalent among cases reporting severe initial symptoms, and, to a lesser extent, cases reporting mild and moderate symptoms.
Are sexual minority adults differentially exposed to smoke-free laws and televised anti-tobacco media campaigns compared to the general US population? A descriptive analysis
BACKGROUND:Sexual minority (SM) (gay, lesbian and bisexual) adults are at higher risk of smoking compared with heterosexual individuals, yet little is known about how the tobacco control policy landscape interacts with sexual orientation smoking disparities. METHODS:We conducted a descriptive analysis to explore differential exposure to smoke-free laws and televised anti-tobacco media using two sources of national data from the United States: Census data on same-sex couple households/all households and data on SM adults/all adults from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We combined this information with variables representing the proportion of individuals in each county covered by smoke-free laws (2013-2017), and average county-level exposure to televised anti-tobacco media campaigns (2013-2015). We compared average coverage levels for SM populations to average coverage levels for the broader US population. RESULTS:Between 2013 and 2017, same-sex couple households/SM adults lived in counties with higher levels of smoke-free law coverage compared with all US households/adults for workplaces (Census: 71.3% vs 68.0%; NHIS: 70.7% vs 67.9%) and hospitality venues (Census: 82.3% vs 77.0%; NHIS: 80.5% vs 77.2%). There were no consistent differences in exposures to anti-tobacco media campaigns across datasets. CONCLUSIONS:SM adults may be more likely to live in areas with smoke-free laws, compared with the general population. Findings point to the need to examine other potential drivers of smoking in SM populations.
Similarities and Differences in Substance Use Patterns Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Mexican Adult Smokers
Smoke-free laws and disparities in secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults in the United States, 1999-2014
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Little is known about the relationship between smoke-free laws and persistent disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in the U.S. METHODS:We constructed time-varying smoke-free law measures representing whether or not at least 50% of each U.S. county's population was covered by smoke-free laws in workplaces and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars). We merged this data with restricted data on cotinine-derived SHS exposure among nonsmokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2014 (N=25,444). Using logistic regression, we estimated associations between smoke-free law coverage and SHS exposure among all nonsmokers, and within age strata (25-39, 40-59, 60+). We explored differential associations by gender, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty income ratio (PIR) by testing the significance of interactions terms for the full sample and within age strata. RESULTS:In adjusted models, hospitality coverage was associated with lower odds of SHS exposure in the full sample (odds ratio/OR=0.62; 95% confidence interval/CI=0.51-0.76), and within each age group, with ORs ranging from 0.58 (ages 25-39) to 0.67 (ages 60+). Workplace coverage was associated with lower SHS exposure only among younger adults (OR=0.81; 95% CI=0.65-0.99). Within the full sample and among adults ages 40-59, hospitality laws were associated with narrowing SHS exposure differentials between males and females. Among adults ages 40-59, workplace laws were associated with narrowing exposure differentials between males and females, but worsening exposure disparities by PIR. CONCLUSIONS:Smoke-free laws may reduce SHS exposure among adult nonsmokers, but may be insufficient to improve disparities in SHS exposure.
Exploring How Exposure to Truth and State-Sponsored Anti-Tobacco Media Campaigns Affect Smoking Disparities among Young Adults Using a National Longitudinal Dataset, 2002-2017
BACKGROUND:Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. METHODS:We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand the long-term impacts of televised Truth and state-sponsored ad campaign exposure at baseline (age 18) on first cigarette and daily smoking initiation 1 to 2 years later (at modal ages 19/20). We also used additive interactions to test for potential effect modification between campaign exposure and smoking outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment. RESULTS:We found no evidence for baseline media campaign exposure to be associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at modal age 19/20. Further, results showed no evidence for effect modification between campaign exposure and first cigarette or daily smoking initiation. CONCLUSIONS:We found no evidence that baseline Truth and state-sponsored ad exposure was associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at follow up, nor did we find any evidence for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, or parental education. We hypothesize that anti-tobacco media campaigns might have had a short-term impact on smoking behaviors, though these effects were not sustained long term.
State-Level Structural Stigma and Smoking Among Sexual Minority Adults in the USA, 2012-2014
BACKGROUND:Exposure to structural stigma (i.e., societal norms and policies that constrain access to resources) may help explain poor health outcomes among sexual minority (SM) individuals in the USA. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:We examined the relationship between structural stigma and smoking prevalence among U.S. SM and heterosexual adults. METHODS:We adapted an index to capture multiple state-level structural stigma indicators, including attitudes toward same-sex marriage; the geographical density of same-sex couples; and state-level policies toward SMs. The outcome variable was current smoking, derived from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (2012-2014). Poisson regression models stratified by SM status were used to assess the relationship between structural stigma and the prevalence ratio (PR) of current smoking. We included a squared term for stigma to explore nonlinear relationships between stigma and smoking. Interaction terms were used to examine effect modification by sex. RESULTS:Adjusted models suggested a curvilinear PR relationship between stigma and smoking for both SM (linear PR = 1.03 [0.97-1.08]; quadratic PR = 0.98 [0.97-1.00]) and heterosexual (linear PR = 1.00 [0.99-1.02]; quadratic PR = 0.99 [0.988-0.995]) adults. The quadratic term was significant (p < .05) for both SM and heterosexual respondents, however, the change in probability of smoking associated with structural stigma was more pronounced among SM individuals. Specifically, the highest and lowest exposures to stigma were associated with the lowest probabilities of smoking. There was no apparent effect modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS:Findings lend support to addressing SM structural stigma as a driver of smoking, particularly among SM adults.