The epidemiology of inpatient pediatric trauma in United States hospitals 2000 to 2011
BACKGROUND: This study provides important updates to the epidemiology of pediatric trauma in the United States. METHODS: Age-specific epidemiologic analysis of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample, representing 2.4 million pediatric traumatic injury discharges in the US from 2000 to 2011. We present yearly data with overlying loess smoothing lines, proportions of common injuries and surgical procedures, and survey-adjusted logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2011 there was a 21.7% decline in US pediatric trauma injury inpatient discharges from 273.2 to 213.7 admissions per 100,000. Inpatient case-fatality decreased 5.5% from 1.26% (95% CI 1.05-1.47) to 1.19% (95% CI 1.01-1.38). Severe injuries accounted for 26.5% (se=0.11) of all discharges in 2000 increasing to 31.3% (se=0.13) in 2011. The most common injury mechanism across all age groups was motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), followed by assaults (15-19years), sports (10-14), falls (5-9) and burns (<5). The total injury-related, inflation-adjusted cost was $21.7 billion, increasing 56% during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The overall rate of inpatient pediatric injury discharges across the United States has been declining. While injury severity is increasing in hospitalized patients, case-fatality rates are decreasing. MVCs remain a common source of all pediatric trauma. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III.
Intramural Bowel Hematoma Presenting as Small Bowel Obstruction in a Patient on Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin
There is increasing use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for treatment of pediatric thromboembolic disease as it has been shown to be safe and effective. It has several advantages over unfractionated heparin, such as reduced need for monitoring, easier route of administration, decreased risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and lack of drug-drug interactions. Nevertheless, LMWH still poses a bleeding risk as with any anticoagulant therapy. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who was placed on LMWH for a catheter-related deep venous thrombosis in the setting of intractable seizures and subsequently developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to a suspected intussusception. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have an intramural bowel hematoma. Prior to this bleed, the patient had been monitored daily, and his anti-Xa levels were found to be in the therapeutic range. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for spontaneous bleeding even in the setting of therapeutic anti-Xa levels.
Ultrasound Has Limited Utility in the Surgical Management of Geographically Clustered Pediatric MRSA Infections [Meeting Abstract]
Increased capture of pediatric surgical complications utilizing a novel case-log web application to enhance quality improvement
PURPOSE: Documenting surgical complications is limited by multiple barriers and is not fostered in the electronic health record. Tracking complications is essential for quality improvement (QI) and required for board certification. Current registry platforms do not facilitate meaningful complication reporting. We developed a novel web application that improves accuracy and reduces barriers to documenting complications. METHODS: We deployed a custom web application that allows pediatric surgeons to maintain case logs. The program includes a module for entering complication data in real time. Reminders to enter outcome data occur at key postoperative intervals to optimize recall of events. Between October 1, 2014, and March 31, 2015, frequencies of surgical complications captured by the existing hospital reporting system were compared with data aggregated by our application. RESULTS: 780 cases were captured by the web application, compared with 276 cases registered by the hospital system. We observed an increase in the capture of major complications when compared to the hospital dataset (14 events vs. 4 events). CONCLUSIONS: This web application improved real-time reporting of surgical complications, exceeding the accuracy of administrative datasets. Custom informatics solutions may help reduce barriers to self-reporting of adverse events and improve the data that presently inform pediatric surgical QI. TYPE OF STUDY: Diagnostic study/Retrospective study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I
Imperforate Anus with Jejunal Atresia Complicated by Intestinal Volvulus: A Case Report
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) commonly co-occur with other congenital anomalies, particularly VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, limb, and duodenal) associations. However, this collection of associations is not comprehensive, and other concurrent anomalies may exist that can be missed during the standard work-up of patients with ARMs. We present a rare case of a neonate with a low ARM with concurrent jejuno-ileal atresia that was diagnosed after the correction of the ARM when the patient developed segmental volvulus. This case illustrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion when deviation from a classic presentation occurs.
Factors associated with failure of nonoperative treatment of complicated appendicitis in children
Appendicitis remains the most common cause for emergency abdominal surgery in children. Immediate appendectomy in complicated, perforated appendicitis can be hazardous and nonoperative therapy has been gaining use as an initial therapy in children. Previous studies have reported failure rates in nonoperative therapy in such cases ranging from 10% to 41%. Factors leading to treatment failures have been studied with various and disparate results. We reviewed our institutional experience in treated complicated appendicitis, with focus on those initially managed nonoperatively. METHODS: Records of all children admitted with the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis to NYU Langone Medical Center and Bellevue Hospital Center from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013 were reviewed. The diagnosis was made with ultrasound and/or computed tomography scan. Those with abscesses amenable to drainage underwent aspiration and drain placement by an interventional radiologist. Broad spectrum intravenous (IV) antibiotics were given until the patient became afebrile, pain free and tolerating a regular diet. Oral antibiotics were continued for an additional week and interval appendectomy was done eight weeks later. The primary outcome measure was treatment response with failure defined as those who did not improve or required readmission for additional IV antibiotics and/or early appendectomy. Multiple patient and treatment related variables, including those previously reported as predicting failure in nonoperative therapy, were studied. Continuous variables were reported as means +/- standard error and compared using 2-tailed unpaired t tests; nonparametric variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U tests. Categorical variables were reported as medians +/- interquartile ranges and compared using Chi-square testing. Statistical significance was accepted for p<.05. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were identified as undergoing initial nonoperative therapy. Fifty-two (81%) were categorized as treatment successes being treated nonoperatively and 12 (19%) were failures. Variables showing no significance in predicting treatment failures included duration of symptoms, presence of appendicolith, presence of phlegmon, presence of abscess, initial white blood cell count, and SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome) positive. The variables that predicted failure of nonoperative therapy vs. successes were presence of bandemia (75% vs. 40%, p=0.052) and small bowel obstruction on imaging (42% vs. 15%, p=0.052) and presence of bandemia >/=15% which was highly predictive of failure (67% vs. 4%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Predicting which patients with complicated perforated appendicitis will respond well to nonoperative therapy may allow us to more effectively treat patients with complicated perforated appendicitis. In our study the presence of small bowel obstruction and bandemia, especially >/=15% correlated with treatment failure; this suggests that these select patients may need a modified treatment strategy.
A novel approach to leveraging electronic health record data to enhance pediatric surgical quality improvement bundle process compliance
PURPOSE: Quality improvement (QI) bundles have been widely adopted to reduce surgical site infections (SSI). Improvement science suggests when organizations achieve high-reliability to QI processes, outcomes dramatically improve. However, measuring QI process compliance is poorly supported by electronic health record (EHR) systems. We developed a custom EHR tool to facilitate capture of process data for SSI prevention with the aim of increasing bundle compliance and reducing adverse events. METHODS: Ten SSI prevention bundle processes were linked to EHR data elements that were then aggregated into a snapshot display superimposed on weekly case-log reports. The data aggregation and user interface facilitated efficient review of all SSI bundle elements, providing an exact bundle compliance rate without random sampling or chart review. RESULTS: Nine months after implementation of our custom EHR tool, we observed centerline shifts in median SSI bundle compliance (46% to 72%). Additionally, as predicted by high reliability principles, we began to see a trend toward improvement in SSI rates (1.68 to 0.87 per 100 operations), but a discrete centerline shift was not detected. CONCLUSION: Simple informatics solutions can facilitate extraction of QI process data from the EHR without relying on adjunctive systems. Analyses of these data may drive reductions in adverse events. Pediatric surgical departments should consider leveraging the EHR to enhance bundle compliance as they implement QI strategies.
Fallopian Tube Torsion as a Cause of Acute Pelvic Pain in Adolescent Females
Purpose. Torsion of the fallopian tube, involving hydatids of Morgagni, though a rare cause of acute pelvic pain in young girls, can pose significant risks to future fertility. Tubal torsion may present as a diagnostic dilemma since the ovary itself usually appears normal on ultrasound. Thus, surgical intervention may be delayed which can lead to worsening necrosis and result in the need for resection of the affected tube. Methods. We reviewed two cases of fallopian tube torsion associated with hydatids of Morgagni in adolescent females. Results. The patients were premenarchal in both cases, aged 10 and 13 years. Both presented with acute clinical signs of ovarian torsion but ultrasound showed the ovary itself to be normal with an adjacent cystic structure. In both cases, the fallopian tube was detorsioned laparoscopically and preserved. The associated cyst was excised in one case and marsupialized in the other. Conclusions. We propose that prompt recognition and operative management of this relatively uncommon source of pelvic pain may prevent unnecessary tubal resection and improve long-term fertility in this population.
Recurrent Pelvic Infections and Salpingitis after Perforated Appendicitis
BACKGROUND: The effect of perforated appendicitis on the adnexa is an issue of concern and controversy. Long-term fertility studies have been conflicting. CASE: We present the case of a patient with chronic pelvic infections, salpingitis, and hydrosalpinx after perforated appendicitis. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in diagnosing a chronically obstructed fallopian tube, likely secondary to the dense adhesions from her previously treated perforated appendicitis. Salpingectomy relieved her symptoms of chronic pain and recurrent infections.
The challenging ultrasound diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in children: constellations of sonographic findings improve specificity
BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of appendicitis, particularly with respect to the presence or absence of perforation, is essential in guiding appropriate management. Although many studies have explored sonographic findings associated with acute appendicitis, few investigations discuss specific signs that can reliably differentiate perforated appendicitis from acute appendicitis prior to abscess formation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to identify sonographic findings that improve the specificity of US in the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. Our assessment of hepatic periportal echogenicity, detailed analysis of intraperitoneal fluid, and formulation of select constellations of sonographic findings expands upon the literature addressing this important diagnostic challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 116 abdominal US examinations for evaluation of abdominal pain in children ages 2 to 18 years from January 2008 to September 2011 at a university hospital pediatric radiology department. The study group consisted of surgical and pathology proven acute appendicitis (n = 51) and perforated appendicitis (n = 22) US exams. US exams without a sonographic diagnosis of appendicitis (n = 43) confirmed by follow-up verbal communication were included in the study population as the control group. After de-identification, the US exams were independently reviewed on a PACS workstation by four pediatric radiologists blinded to diagnosis and all clinical information. We recorded the presence of normal or abnormal appendix, appendicolith, appendiceal wall vascularity, thick-walled bowel, dilated bowel, right lower quadrant (RLQ) echogenic fat, increased hepatic periportal echogenicity, bladder debris and abscess or loculated fluid. We also recorded the characteristics of intraperitoneal fluid, indicating the relative quantity (number of abdominal regions) and quality of the fluid (simple fluid or complex fluid). We used logistic regression for correlated data to evaluate the association of diagnosis with the presence versus absence of each US finding. We conducted multivariable analysis to identify constellations of sonographic findings that were predictive of perforated appendicitis. RESULTS: The individual US findings of abscess/loculated fluid, appendicolith, dilated bowel and increased hepatic periportal echogenicity were significantly associated with perforated appendicitis when compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The sonographic observation of increased hepatic periportal echogenicity demonstrated a statistically significant association with perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The presence of complex fluid yielded a specificity of 87.7% for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. The US findings of >/=2 regions or >/=3 regions with fluid had specificity of 87.3% and 99.0%, respectively, for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. Select combinations of sonographic findings yielded high specificity in the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis. These constellations yielded higher specificity than that of each individual finding in isolation. The constellation of dilated bowel, RLQ echogenic fat, and complex fluid had the highest specificity (99.5%) for perforated appendicitis (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that identification of select constellations of findings using abdominal sonography, in addition to focused US examination of the right lower quadrant, can improve sonographic diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in the pediatric population.