Pigs or Pumps: A new strategy emerges for liver perfusion [Comment]
Author Correction: Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance
Author Correction: The necrosome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via CXCL1 and Mincle-induced immune suppression
Î³Î´ T Cells Support Pancreatic Oncogenesis by Restraining Î±Î² T Cell Activation
Î³Î´ T cells Promote Steatohepatitis by Orchestrating Innate and Adaptive Immune Programming
The recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in the liver delineates the transition from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis. We found that in steatohepatitis, Î³Î´T cells are recruited to the liver by CCR2, CCR5, and NOD2 signaling and are skewed towards an IL-17A+ phenotype in an ICOS-ICOSL dependent manner. Î³Î´T cells exhibit a distinct VÎ³4+ , PD1+ , Ly6C+ CD44+ phenotype in steatohepatitis. Moreover, Î³Î´T cells upregulate both CD1d, which is necessary for lipid-based antigens presentation, and the free fatty acid receptor CD36. Î³Î´T cells are stimulated to express IL-17A by palmitic acid and CD1d ligation. Deletion, depletion, and targeted interruption of Î³Î´T cell recruitment protects against diet-induced steatohepatitis and accelerates disease resolution. We demonstrate that hepatic Î³Î´T cells exacerbate steatohepatitis, independent of IL-17 expression, by mitigating conventional CD4+ T cell expansion and modulating their inflammatory program via CD1d-dependent VEGF expression.
Targeting SYK signaling in myeloid cells protects against liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis
Liver fibrosis and fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis are driven by chronic inflammation and are leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide. SYK signaling regulates critical processes in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as parenchymal cells. We discovered high SYK expression in the parenchymal hepatocyte, hepatic stellate cell (HSC), and the inflammatory compartments in the fibrotic liver. We postulated that targeting SYK would mitigate hepatic fibrosis and oncogenic progression. We found that inhibition of SYK with the selective small molecule inhibitors Piceatannol and PRT062607 markedly protected against toxin-induced hepatic fibrosis, associated hepatocellular injury and intra-hepatic inflammation, and hepatocarcinogenesis. SYK inhibition resulted in increased intra-tumoral expression of the p16 and p53 but decreased expression of Bcl-xL and SMAD4. Further, hepatic expression of genes regulating angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence were affected by targeting SYK. We found that SYK inhibition mitigated both HSC trans-differentiation and acquisition of an inflammatory phenotype in T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. However, in vivo experiments employing selective targeted deletion of SYK indicated that only SYK deletion in the myeloid compartment was sufficient to confer protection against fibrogenic progression. Targeting SYK promoted myeloid cell differentiation into hepato-protective TNFÎ±low CD206hi phenotype downregulating mTOR, IL-8 signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. Collectively, these data suggest that SYK is an attractive target for experimental therapeutics in treating hepatic fibrosis and oncogenesis.
Specialized dendritic cells induce tumor-promoting IL-10+IL-17+ FoxP3neg regulatory CD4+ T cells in pancreatic carcinoma
The drivers and the specification of CD4+ T cell differentiation in the tumor microenvironment and their contributions to tumor immunity or tolerance are incompletely understood. Using models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), we show that a distinct subset of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DC) promotes PDA growth by directing a unique TH-program. Specifically, CD11b+CD103- DC predominate in PDA, express high IL-23 and TGF-Î², and induce FoxP3neg tumor-promoting IL-10+IL-17+IFNÎ³+Â regulatory CD4+ T cells. The balance between this distinctive TH program and canonical FoxP3+Â TREGS is unaffected by pattern recognition receptor ligation and is modulated by DC expression of retinoic acid. This TH-signature is mimicked in human PDA where it is associated with immune-tolerance and diminished patient survival. Our data suggest that CD11b+CD103- DC promote CD4+ T cell tolerance in PDA which may underscore its resistance to immunotherapy.
The Pancreatic Cancer Microbiome Promotes Oncogenesis by Induction of Innate and Adaptive Immune Suppression
We found that the cancerous pancreas harbors a markedly more abundant microbiome compared with normal pancreas in both mice and humans, and select bacteria are differentially increased in the tumorous pancreas compared with gut. Ablation of the microbiome protects against preinvasive and invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), whereas transfer of bacteria from PDA-bearing hosts, but not controls, reverses tumor protection. Bacterial ablation was associated with immunogenic reprogramming of the PDA tumor microenvironment, including a reduction in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and an increase in M1 macrophage differentiation, promoting TH1 differentiation of CD4+T cells and CD8+T-cell activation. Bacterial ablation also enabled efficacy for checkpoint-targeted immunotherapy by upregulating PD-1 expression. Mechanistically, the PDA microbiome generated a tolerogenic immune program by differentially activating select Toll-like receptors in monocytic cells. These data suggest that endogenous microbiota promote the crippling immune-suppression characteristic of PDA and that the microbiome has potential as a therapeutic target in the modulation of disease progression.SIGNIFICANCE:We found that a distinct and abundant microbiome drives suppressive monocytic cellular differentiation in pancreatic cancer via selective Toll-like receptor ligation leading to T-cell anergy. Targeting the microbiome protects against oncogenesis, reverses intratumoral immune tolerance, and enables efficacy for checkpoint-based immunotherapy. These data have implications for understanding immune suppression in pancreatic cancer and its reversal in the clinic.Cancer Discov; 8(4);1-14. Â©2018 AACR.
Macrophages in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Friend or Foe?
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is characterised by steatosis, chronic inflammation, and hepatocellular injury with or without fibrosis. The role and activation of macrophages in the pathogenesis of NASH is complex and is being studied for possible therapeutic options to help the millions of people diagnosed with the disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis of NASH through the activation and role of Kupffer cells and other macrophages in causing inflammation and progression of NASH. Furthermore, this review aims to outline some of the current therapeutic options targeting the pathogenesis of NASH.
NLRP3 signaling drives macrophage-induced adaptive immune suppression in pancreatic carcinoma
The tumor microenvironment (TME) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by immune tolerance, which enables disease to progress unabated by adaptive immunity. However, the drivers of this tolerogenic program are incompletely defined. In this study, we found that NLRP3 promotes expansion of immune-suppressive macrophages in PDA. NLRP3 signaling in macrophages drives the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into tumor-promoting T helper type 2 cell (Th2 cell), Th17 cell, and regulatory T cell populations while suppressing Th1 cell polarization and cytotoxic CD8+ T cell activation. The suppressive effects of NLRP3 signaling were IL-10 dependent. Pharmacological inhibition or deletion of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD complex), or caspase-1 protected against PDA and was associated with immunogenic reprogramming of innate and adaptive immunity within the TME. Similarly, transfer of PDA-entrained macrophages or T cells from NLRP3-/- hosts was protective. These data suggest that targeting NLRP3 holds the promise for the immunotherapy of PDA.