Crossing the Bridge from Degeneration to Deformity: When Does Sagittal Correction Impact Outcomes in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery?
Williamson, Tyler K; Krol, Oscar; Tretiakov, Peter; Joujon-Roche, Rachel; Imbo, Bailey; Ahmad, Salman; Owusu-Sarpong, Stephane; Lebovic, Jordan; Ihejirika-Lomedico, Rivka; Dinizo, Michael; Vira, Shaleen; Dhillon, Ekamjeet; O'Connell, Brooke; Maglaras, Constance; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Janjua, M Burhan; Alan, Nima; Diebo, Bassel; Paulino, Carl; Smith, Justin S; Raman, Tina; Lafage, Renaud; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Lafage, Virginie; Passias, Peter G
BACKGROUND:Patients with less severe adult spinal deformity undergo surgical correction and often achieve good clinical outcomes. However, it is not well understood how much clinical improvement is due to sagittal correction rather than treatment of the spondylotic process. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Determine baseline thresholds in radiographic parameters that, when exceeded, may result in substantive clinical improvement from surgical correction. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective. METHODS:ASD patients with BL and 2-year(2Y) data were included. Parameters assessed: SVA, PI-LL, PT, T1PA, L1PA, L4-S1 Lordosis, C2-C7 SVA(cSVA), C2-T3, C2 Slope(C2S). Outcomes: Good Outcome(GO) at 2Y: [Meeting either: 1) SCB for ODI(change greater than 18.8), or 2) ODI<15 and SRS-Total>4.5. Binary logistic regression assessed each parameter to determine if correction was more likely needed to achieve GO. Conditional inference tree(CIT) run machine learning analysis generated baseline thresholds for each parameter, above which, correction was necessary to achieve GO. RESULTS:We included 431 ASD patients. There were 223(50%) that achieved a GO by two years. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated, with increasing baseline severity in deformity, sagittal correction was more often seen in those achieving GO for each parameter(all P<0.001). Of patients with baseline T1PA above the threshold, 95% required correction to meet Good Outcome(95% vs. 54%,P<0.001). A baseline PI-LL above 10Â° (74% of patients meeting GO) needed correction to achieve GO (OR: 2.6,[95% CI 1.4-4.8]). A baseline C2 slope above 15Â° also necessitated correction to obtain clinical success (OR: 7.7,[95% CI 3.7-15.7]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study highlighted point may be present at which sagittal correction has an outsized influence on clinical improvement, reflecting the line where deformity becomes a significant contributor to disability. These new thresholds give us insight into which patients may be more suitable for sagittal correction, as opposed to intervention for the spondylotic process only, leading to a more efficient utility of surgical intervention for adult spinal deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
Should Global Realignment Be Tailored to Frailty Status for Patients Undergoing Surgical Intervention for Adult Spinal Deformity?
Passias, Peter G; Williamson, Tyler K; Krol, Oscar; Tretiakov, Peter; Joujon-Roche, Rachel; Imbo, Bailey; Ahmad, Salman; Bennett-Caso, Claudia; Owusu-Sarpong, Stephane; Lebovic, Jordan; Robertson, Djani; Vira, Shaleen; Dhillon, Ekamjeet; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Janjua, M Burhan; Raman, Tina; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Maglaras, Constance; O'Connell, Brooke; Daniels, Alan H; Paulino, Carl; Diebo, Bassel G; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Renaud; Lafage, Virginie
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study. OBJECTIVE:Assess whether modifying spinal alignment goals to accommodate frailty considerations will decrease mechanical complications and maximize clinical outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:The Global Alignment and Proportion(GAP) score was developed to assist in reducing mechanical complications, but has had less success predicting such events in external validation. Higher frailty and many of its components have been linked to development of implant failure. Therefore, modifying the GAP score with frailty may strengthen its ability to predict mechanical complications. METHODS:We included 412 surgical ASD patients with two-year(2Y) follow-up. Frailty was quantified using the ASD modified Frailty Index(mASD-FI). Outcomes: proximal junctional kyphosis(PJK) and failure(PJF), major mechanical complications, and 'Best Clinical Outcome'(BCO), defined as ODI<15 and SRS-22 Total>4.5. Logistic regression analysis established a six-week score based on GAP score,frailty and ODI US-Norms. Logistic regression followed by conditional inference tree(CIT) analysis generated categorical thresholds. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for confounders was used to assess the performance of the frailty modified GAP score. RESULTS:Baseline frailty categories: 57% Not Frail,30% frail,14% severely frail. Overall, 39% of patients developed PJK, 8% PJF, 21% mechanical complications, 22% underwent reoperation, and 15% met BCO. The modified ASD-FI demonstrated correlation with developing PJF, mechanical complications, undergoing reoperation, and meeting BCO at 2Y(all P<0.05). Regression analysis generated the following equation: Frailty-Adjusted Realignment Score(FAR Score) =0.49*mASD-FI + 0.38*GAP Score. Thresholds for the FAR score(0-13): Proportioned:<3.5,Moderately Disproportioned:3.5-7.5,Severely Disproportioned:>7.5. Multivariable logistic regression assessing FAR Score demonstrated associations with mechanical complications, reoperation, and meeting Best Clinical Outcome by two years(all P<0.05), whereas the original GAP score was only significant for reoperation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated adjusting alignment goals in adult spinal deformity surgery for a patient's baseline frailty status and disability may be useful in minimizing the risk of complications and adverse events, outperforming the original GAP score in terms of prognostic capacity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
Augmented Reality in Orthopedics History to Current Applications
Dinizo, Michael; Raman, Tina
Orthopedic surgeons play a pivotal role in developing ways to practically and safely integrate new technology into their surgical workflow with the aim of improving safety, efficiency, and clinical outcomes. Interest in augmented reality applications to orthopedic surgery has grown significantly in the last decade due to a desire to limit complications and improve procedural efficiency. However, despite this technology remaining in its infancy, it is now emerging from proof of concept toward clinical use. This review provides a history and brief overview of the different applications of this technology in order to critically appraise its potential usefulness as its becomes more widespread.
Case Start Timing of Adult Spinal Deformity Surgeries: Does the Wait Matter?
Dinizo, Michael; Patel, Karan; Dolgalev, Igor; Passias, Peter G; Errico, Thomas J; Raman, Tina
BACKGROUND:Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery can entail complex reconstructive procedures. It is unclear whether there is any effect of case start time on outcomes. We sought to evaluate the effects of case start time and day of the week on 90-day complication, readmission, and revision rates after ASD surgery. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of 1040 ASD patients from a single institution. We collected start times and day of the week for cases from 2011 to 2018. Early start was designated as any case starting either before or at 7:30 am or between 7:30 and 11 am; late start was designated as any case starting at 11 am or later. Outcome measures include 90-day complication, revision, and readmission rates. RESULTS:= 0.046). CONCLUSIONS:A late OR start time was predictive of increased risk for neurologic complication, 90-day readmission, and unplanned reoperation. The well-established protocols for first start OR times for elective ASD surgery may decrease outcome risk and reduce variability in complication rates. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Understanding the impact of start time on outcomes and complications after ASD surgery is helpful for surgeons in preoperative planning and for institutions and hospitals' allocation of operating room staff and resources. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3.
Not Frail and Elderly: How Invasive Can We Go In This Different Type of Adult Spinal Deformity Patient?
Passias, Peter G; Pierce, Katherine E; Passfall, Lara; Adenwalla, Ammar; Naessig, Sara; Ahmad, Waleed; Krol, Oscar; Kummer, Nicholas A; O'Malley, Nicholas; Maglaras, Constance; O'Connell, Brooke; Vira, Shaleen; Schwab, Frank J; Errico, Thomas J; Diebo, Bassel G; Janjua, Burhan; Raman, Tina; Buckland, Aaron J; Lafage, Renaud; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Lafage, Virginie
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review of a single-center spine database. OBJECTIVE:Investigate the intersections of chronological age and physiological age via frailty to determine the influence of surgical invasiveness on patient outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Frailty is a well-established factor in preoperative risk stratification and prediction of postoperative outcomes. The surgical profile of operative adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who present as elderly and not frail has yet to be investigated. Our aim was to examine the surgical profile and outcomes of ASD patients who were not frail and elderly. METHODS:Included: ASD patientsâ‰¥18â€Šyears old, â‰¥4 levels fused, with baseline(BL) and follow up data. Patients were categorized by ASD frailty index: Not Frail[NF], Frail[F], Severely Frail [SF]. An elderly patient was defined as â‰¥70â€Šyears. Patients were grouped into NF/elderly and F/elderly. SRS-Schwab modifiers were assessed at baseline and 1-year(0, +, ++). Logistic regression analysis assessed the relationship between increasing invasiveness, no reoperations, or major complications, and improvement in SRS-Schwab modifiers[Good Outcome]. Decision tree analysis assessed thresholds for an invasiveness risk/benefit cutoff point. RESULTS:598 ASD pts included(55.3yrs, 59.7%F, 28.3â€Škg/m2). 29.8% of patients were above age 70. At baseline, 51.3% of patients were NF, 37.5% F, and 11.2% SF. 66(11%) of patients were NF and elderly. 24.2% of NF-Elderly patients improved in SRS-Schwab by 1-year and had no reoperation or complication postoperatively. Binary regression analysis found a relationship between worsening SRS-Schwab, postop complication, and reoperation with invasiveness score(OR: 1.056[1.013-1.102], pâ€Š=â€Š0.011). Risk/benefit cut-off was 10(pâ€Š=â€Š0.004). Patients below this threshold were 7.9[2.2-28.4] times more likely to have a Good Outcome. 156 patients were elderly and F/SF with 16.7% having Good Outcome, with a risk/benefit cut-off point of <8 (4.4[2.2-9.0], pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Frailty status impacted the balance of surgical invasiveness relative to operative risk in an inverse manner, while the opposite was seen amongst elderly patients with a frailty status less than their chronologic age. Surgeons should perhaps consider incorporation of frailty status over age status when determining realignment plans in patients of advanced age.Level of Evidence: ???
Pseudarthrosis and Rod Fracture Rates After Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion at the Caudal Levels of Long Constructs for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery
Dinizo, Michael; Srisanguan, Karnmanee; Dolgalev, Igor; Errico, Thomas J; Raman, Tina
BACKGROUND:Interbody fusion at the caudal levels of long constructs for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is used to promote fusion and secure a solid foundation for maintenance of deformity correction. We sought to evaluate long-term pseudarthrosis, rod fracture, and revision rates for TLIF performed at the base of a long construct for ASD. METHODS:We reviewed 316 patients who underwent TLIF as a component of ASD surgery for medical comorbidities, surgical characteristics, and rate of unplanned reoperation for pseudarthrosis or instrumentation failure at the TLIF level. Fusion grading was assessed after revision surgery for pseudarthrosis at the TLIF level. RESULTS:Rate of pseudarthrosis at the TLIF level was 9.8% (31/316), and rate of rod fractures was 7.9% (25/316). The rate of revision surgery at the TLIF level was 8.9% (28/316), and surgery was performed at a mean of 20.4 Â± 16 months from the index procedure. Current smoking status (odds ratio 3.34, PÂ = 0.037) was predictive of pseudarthrosis at the TLIF site. At a mean follow-up of 43 Â± 12 months after revision surgery, all patients had achieved bony union at the TLIF site. CONCLUSIONS:At 3-year follow-up, the rate of pseudarthrosis after TLIF performed at the base of a long fusion for ASD was 9.8%, and the rate of revision surgery to address pseudarthrosis and/or rod fracture was 8.9%. All patients were successfully treated with revision interbody fusion or posterior augmentation of the fusion mass, without need for further revision procedures at the TLIF level.
Does Matching Roussouly Spinal Shape and Improvement in SRS-Schwab Modifier Contribute to Improved Patient-reported Outcomes?
Passias, Peter G; Pierce, Katherine E; Raman, Tina; Bortz, Cole; Alas, Haddy; Brown, Avery; Ahmad, Waleed; Naessig, Sara; Krol, Oscar; Passfall, Lara; Kummer, Nicholas A; Lafage, Renaud; Lafage, Virginie
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of matching Roussouly and improving in Schwab modifier following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:The Roussouly Classification system of sagittal spinal shape and the SRS-Schwab classification system have become important indicators of spine deformity. No previous studies have examined the outcomes of matching both Roussouly type and improving in Schwab modifiers postoperatively. METHODS:Surgical ASD patients with available baseline (BL) and 1 year (1Y) radiographic data were isolated in the single-center spine database. Patients were classified by their "theoretical" and "current" Roussouly types as previously published. Patients were considered a "Match" if their theoretical and current Roussouly types were the same, or a "Mismatch" if the types differed. Patients were noted as improved if they were Roussouly "Mismatch" preoperatively, and "Match" at 1Y postop. Schwab modifiers at BL were categorized as follows: no deformity (0), moderate deformity (+), and severe deformity (++) for PT, SVA, and PI-LL. Improvement in SRS-Schwab was defined as a decrease in any modifier severity at 1Y. RESULTS:103 operative ASD patients (61.8 years, 63.1% female, 30â€Škg/m2) were included. At baseline, breakdown of "current" Roussouly type was: 28% Type 1, 25.3% Type 2, 32.0% Type 3, 14.7% Type 4. 65.3% of patients were classified as Roussouly "Mismatch" at BL. Breakdown of BL Schwab modifier severity: PT (+: 41.7%, ++: 49.5%), SVA (+: 20.3%, ++: 50%), PI-LL (+: 25.2%, ++: 46.6%). At 1 year postop, 19.2% of patients had Roussouly "Match". Analysis of Schwab modifiers showed that 12.6% improved in SVA, 42.7% in PI-LL, and 45.6% in PT. Count of patients who both had a Roussouly type "Match" at 1Y and improved in Schwab modifier severity: nine PT (8.7%), eight PI-LL (7.8%), and two SVA (1.9%). There were two patients (1.9%) who met their Roussouly type and improved in all three Schwab. 1Y matched Roussouly patients improved more in health-related quality of life scores (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] for Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], EuroQol-5D-3L [EQ5D], Visual Analogue Score Leg/Back Pain), compared to mismatched, but was not significant (Pâ€Š>â€Š0.05). Match Roussouly and improvement in PT Schwab met MCID for EQ5D more (P = 0.050). Matched Roussouly and improvement in SVA Schwab met MCID for ODI more (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.024). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients who both matched Roussouly sagittal spinal type and improved in SRS-Schwab modifiers had superior patient-reported outcomes. Utilizing both classification systems in surgical decision-making can optimize postop outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
Frailty Severity Impacts Development of Hospital-acquired Conditions in Patients Undergoing Corrective Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity
Pierce, Katherine E; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Bortz, Cole; Alas, Haddy; Brown, Avery E; Diebo, Bassel G; Raman, Tina; Jain, Deeptee; Lebovic, Jordan; Passias, Peter G
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of a national dataset. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of frailty on the development of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) in adult spinal deformity (ASD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:HACs frequently include reasonably preventable complications. Eleven events are identified as HACs by the Affordable Care Act. In the surgical ASD population, factors leading to HACs are important to identify to optimize health care. METHODS:Patients 18 years and older undergoing corrective surgery for ASD identified in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). The relationship between HACs and frailty as defined by the NSQIP modified 5-factor frailty index (mFI-5) were assessed using Ï‡2 and independent sample t tests. The mFI-5 is assessed on a scale 0-1 [not frail (NF): <0.3, mildly frail (MF): 0.3-0.5, and severely frail (SF): >â€‰0.5]. Binary logistic regression measured the relationship between frailty throughout HACs. RESULTS:A total of 9143 ASD patients (59.1â€‰y, 56% female, 29.3â€‰kg/m2) were identified. Overall, 37.6% of procedures involved decompression and 100% fusion. Overall, 6.5% developed at least 1 HAC, the most common was urinary tract infection (2.62%), followed by venous thromboembolism (2.10%) and surgical site infection (1.88%). According to categorical mFI-5 frailty, 82.1% of patients were NF, 16% MF, and 1.9% SF. Invasiveness increased with mFI-5 severity groups but was not significant (NF: 3.98, MF: 4.14, SF: 4.45, P>0.05). Regression analysis of established factors including sex [odds ratio (OR): 1.22; 1.02-146; P=0.030], diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.70; 0.52-0.95; P=0.020), total operative time (OR: 1.01; 1.00-1.01; P<0.001), body mass index (OR: 1.02; 1.01-1.03; P=0.008), and frailty (OR: 8.44; 4.13-17.26; P<0.001), as significant predictors of HACs. Overall, increased categorical frailty severity individually predicted increased total length of stay (OR: 1.023; 1.015-1.030; P<0.001) and number of complications (OR: 1.201; 1.047-1.379; P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS:For patients undergoing correction surgery for ASD, the incidence of HACs increased with worsening frailty score. Such findings suggest the importance of medical optimization before surgery for ASD.
The Approach to Pseudarthrosis After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Is a Multiple-Rod Construct Necessary?
Dinizo, Michael; Passias, Peter; Kebaish, Khaled; Errico, Thomas J; Raman, Tina
STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Our goal was to evaluate the rate of rod fracture and persistent pseudarthrosis in cohorts of patients treated with a dual rod or multiple-rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A dual rod construct was used in 23 patients, and a multiple rod construct in 24 patients, spanning the pseudarthrosis level. Two-year fusion grading, and rates of pseudarthrosis and implant failure, were assessed. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:There were no differences in patient or surgical characteristics between the groups: (2- rod construct: Age 60 Â± 14, Levels 10 Â± 5, 3-column osteotomy:17%; multiple-rod construct: Age: 62 Â± 11, Levels 9 Â± 4, 3-column osteotomy:30%). Patients in the multiple rod construct were transfused a greater volume of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) intraoperatively (2.6 Â± 2.9 vs. 1.1 Â± 1.5 U, p < 0.0001). At 2 year follow up there was no difference in fusion grades at the previous level of pseudarthrosis, the rate of rod fracture or pseudarthrosis between the 2 groups, or rate of reoperation for pseudarthrosis, rod fracture, wound infection, hardware prominence, or PJK/PJF. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Our data demonstrate no difference in fusion grade, or rates of rod fracture and revision at 2 years, after utilizing a dual rod versus multiple rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis. The low complication rates seen with either configuration warrant further investigation of the optimal instrumentation configuration.
CORR Synthesis: What Is the Evidence for Age-appropriate Alignment Goals in Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity?
Dinizo, Michael; Raman, Tina