Not Frail and Elderly: How Invasive Can We Go In This Different Type of Adult Spinal Deformity Patient?
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review of a single-center spine database. OBJECTIVE:Investigate the intersections of chronological age and physiological age via frailty to determine the influence of surgical invasiveness on patient outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Frailty is a well-established factor in preoperative risk stratification and prediction of postoperative outcomes. The surgical profile of operative adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who present as elderly and not frail has yet to be investigated. Our aim was to examine the surgical profile and outcomes of ASD patients who were not frail and elderly. METHODS:Included: ASD patientsâ‰¥18â€Šyears old, â‰¥4 levels fused, with baseline(BL) and follow up data. Patients were categorized by ASD frailty index: Not Frail[NF], Frail[F], Severely Frail [SF]. An elderly patient was defined as â‰¥70â€Šyears. Patients were grouped into NF/elderly and F/elderly. SRS-Schwab modifiers were assessed at baseline and 1-year(0, +, ++). Logistic regression analysis assessed the relationship between increasing invasiveness, no reoperations, or major complications, and improvement in SRS-Schwab modifiers[Good Outcome]. Decision tree analysis assessed thresholds for an invasiveness risk/benefit cutoff point. RESULTS:598 ASD pts included(55.3yrs, 59.7%F, 28.3â€Škg/m2). 29.8% of patients were above age 70. At baseline, 51.3% of patients were NF, 37.5% F, and 11.2% SF. 66(11%) of patients were NF and elderly. 24.2% of NF-Elderly patients improved in SRS-Schwab by 1-year and had no reoperation or complication postoperatively. Binary regression analysis found a relationship between worsening SRS-Schwab, postop complication, and reoperation with invasiveness score(OR: 1.056[1.013-1.102], pâ€Š=â€Š0.011). Risk/benefit cut-off was 10(pâ€Š=â€Š0.004). Patients below this threshold were 7.9[2.2-28.4] times more likely to have a Good Outcome. 156 patients were elderly and F/SF with 16.7% having Good Outcome, with a risk/benefit cut-off point of <8 (4.4[2.2-9.0], pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Frailty status impacted the balance of surgical invasiveness relative to operative risk in an inverse manner, while the opposite was seen amongst elderly patients with a frailty status less than their chronologic age. Surgeons should perhaps consider incorporation of frailty status over age status when determining realignment plans in patients of advanced age.Level of Evidence: ???
Does Matching Roussouly Spinal Shape and Improvement in SRS-Schwab Modifier Contribute to Improved Patient-reported Outcomes?
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of matching Roussouly and improving in Schwab modifier following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:The Roussouly Classification system of sagittal spinal shape and the SRS-Schwab classification system have become important indicators of spine deformity. No previous studies have examined the outcomes of matching both Roussouly type and improving in Schwab modifiers postoperatively. METHODS:Surgical ASD patients with available baseline (BL) and 1 year (1Y) radiographic data were isolated in the single-center spine database. Patients were classified by their "theoretical" and "current" Roussouly types as previously published. Patients were considered a "Match" if their theoretical and current Roussouly types were the same, or a "Mismatch" if the types differed. Patients were noted as improved if they were Roussouly "Mismatch" preoperatively, and "Match" at 1Y postop. Schwab modifiers at BL were categorized as follows: no deformity (0), moderate deformity (+), and severe deformity (++) for PT, SVA, and PI-LL. Improvement in SRS-Schwab was defined as a decrease in any modifier severity at 1Y. RESULTS:103 operative ASD patients (61.8 years, 63.1% female, 30â€Škg/m2) were included. At baseline, breakdown of "current" Roussouly type was: 28% Type 1, 25.3% Type 2, 32.0% Type 3, 14.7% Type 4. 65.3% of patients were classified as Roussouly "Mismatch" at BL. Breakdown of BL Schwab modifier severity: PT (+: 41.7%, ++: 49.5%), SVA (+: 20.3%, ++: 50%), PI-LL (+: 25.2%, ++: 46.6%). At 1 year postop, 19.2% of patients had Roussouly "Match". Analysis of Schwab modifiers showed that 12.6% improved in SVA, 42.7% in PI-LL, and 45.6% in PT. Count of patients who both had a Roussouly type "Match" at 1Y and improved in Schwab modifier severity: nine PT (8.7%), eight PI-LL (7.8%), and two SVA (1.9%). There were two patients (1.9%) who met their Roussouly type and improved in all three Schwab. 1Y matched Roussouly patients improved more in health-related quality of life scores (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] for Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], EuroQol-5D-3L [EQ5D], Visual Analogue Score Leg/Back Pain), compared to mismatched, but was not significant (Pâ€Š>â€Š0.05). Match Roussouly and improvement in PT Schwab met MCID for EQ5D more (P = 0.050). Matched Roussouly and improvement in SVA Schwab met MCID for ODI more (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.024). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients who both matched Roussouly sagittal spinal type and improved in SRS-Schwab modifiers had superior patient-reported outcomes. Utilizing both classification systems in surgical decision-making can optimize postop outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
Frailty Severity Impacts Development of Hospital-acquired Conditions in Patients Undergoing Corrective Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of a national dataset. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of frailty on the development of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) in adult spinal deformity (ASD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:HACs frequently include reasonably preventable complications. Eleven events are identified as HACs by the Affordable Care Act. In the surgical ASD population, factors leading to HACs are important to identify to optimize health care. METHODS:Patients 18 years and older undergoing corrective surgery for ASD identified in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). The relationship between HACs and frailty as defined by the NSQIP modified 5-factor frailty index (mFI-5) were assessed using Ï‡2 and independent sample t tests. The mFI-5 is assessed on a scale 0-1 [not frail (NF): <0.3, mildly frail (MF): 0.3-0.5, and severely frail (SF): >â€‰0.5]. Binary logistic regression measured the relationship between frailty throughout HACs. RESULTS:A total of 9143 ASD patients (59.1â€‰y, 56% female, 29.3â€‰kg/m2) were identified. Overall, 37.6% of procedures involved decompression and 100% fusion. Overall, 6.5% developed at least 1 HAC, the most common was urinary tract infection (2.62%), followed by venous thromboembolism (2.10%) and surgical site infection (1.88%). According to categorical mFI-5 frailty, 82.1% of patients were NF, 16% MF, and 1.9% SF. Invasiveness increased with mFI-5 severity groups but was not significant (NF: 3.98, MF: 4.14, SF: 4.45, P>0.05). Regression analysis of established factors including sex [odds ratio (OR): 1.22; 1.02-146; P=0.030], diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.70; 0.52-0.95; P=0.020), total operative time (OR: 1.01; 1.00-1.01; P<0.001), body mass index (OR: 1.02; 1.01-1.03; P=0.008), and frailty (OR: 8.44; 4.13-17.26; P<0.001), as significant predictors of HACs. Overall, increased categorical frailty severity individually predicted increased total length of stay (OR: 1.023; 1.015-1.030; P<0.001) and number of complications (OR: 1.201; 1.047-1.379; P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS:For patients undergoing correction surgery for ASD, the incidence of HACs increased with worsening frailty score. Such findings suggest the importance of medical optimization before surgery for ASD.
The Approach to Pseudarthrosis After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Is a Multiple-Rod Construct Necessary?
STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Our goal was to evaluate the rate of rod fracture and persistent pseudarthrosis in cohorts of patients treated with a dual rod or multiple-rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A dual rod construct was used in 23 patients, and a multiple rod construct in 24 patients, spanning the pseudarthrosis level. Two-year fusion grading, and rates of pseudarthrosis and implant failure, were assessed. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:There were no differences in patient or surgical characteristics between the groups: (2- rod construct: Age 60 Â± 14, Levels 10 Â± 5, 3-column osteotomy:17%; multiple-rod construct: Age: 62 Â± 11, Levels 9 Â± 4, 3-column osteotomy:30%). Patients in the multiple rod construct were transfused a greater volume of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) intraoperatively (2.6 Â± 2.9 vs. 1.1 Â± 1.5 U, p < 0.0001). At 2 year follow up there was no difference in fusion grades at the previous level of pseudarthrosis, the rate of rod fracture or pseudarthrosis between the 2 groups, or rate of reoperation for pseudarthrosis, rod fracture, wound infection, hardware prominence, or PJK/PJF. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Our data demonstrate no difference in fusion grade, or rates of rod fracture and revision at 2 years, after utilizing a dual rod versus multiple rod construct in revision surgery for pseudarthrosis. The low complication rates seen with either configuration warrant further investigation of the optimal instrumentation configuration.
CORR Synthesis: What Is the Evidence for Age-appropriate Alignment Goals in Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity?
Complications After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgeries: All Are Not Created Equal
BACKGROUND:Data on timing of complications are important for accurate quality assessments. We sought to better define pre- and postdischarge complications occurring within 90 days of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery and quantify the effect of multiple complications on recovery. METHODS:We performed a review of 1040 patients who underwent ASD surgery (age: 46 Â± 23; body mass index: 25 Â± 7, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score: 2.5 Â± 0.6, levels: 10 Â± 4, revision: 9%, 3-column osteotomy: 13%). We assessed pre- and postdischarge complications and risk factors for isolated versus multiple complications, as well as the impact of multiple complications. RESULTS:= .02). Patients who developed multiple complications (9.3%) had a longer length of stay, and increased risk for readmission and unplanned reoperation. CONCLUSIONS:Knowledge regarding timing of postoperative complications in relation to discharge may better inform quality improvement measures. PE and implant-related complications play a prominent role in perioperative complications and need for readmission, with several modifiable risk factors identified. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level 3. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation have improved postoperative radiographic and clinical outcomes after ASD surgery. The rate of complications after complex ASD surgery remains high, both at early postoperative and long term follow-up. This study reviews complications within 90 days of surgery, with an assessment of patient and surgical risk factors. We found that modifiable risk factors for early complications after ASD surgery include COPD, and current smoking. The data presented in this study also provide surgeons with knowledge of the most common complications encountered after ASD surgery, to aid in preoperative patient discussion.
Pseudarthrosis and Rod Fracture Rates After Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion at the Caudal Levels of Long Constructs for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery
Background: Interbody fusion at the caudal levels of long constructs for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is used to promote fusion and secure a solid foundation for maintenance of deformity correction. We sought to evaluate long-term pseudarthrosis, rod fracture, and revision rates for TLIF performed at the base of a long construct for ASD. Methods: We reviewed 316 patients who underwent TLIF as a component of ASD surgery for medical comorbidities, surgical characteristics, and rate of unplanned reoperation for pseudarthrosis or instrumentation failure at the TLIF level. Fusion grading was assessed after revision surgery for pseudarthrosis at the TLIF level. Results: Rate of pseudarthrosis at the TLIF level was 9.8% (31/316), and rate of rod fractures was 7.9% (25/316). The rate of revision surgery at the TLIF level was 8.9% (28/316), and surgery was performed at a mean of 20.4 ± 16 months from the index procedure. Current smoking status (odds ratio 3.34, P = 0.037) was predictive of pseudarthrosis at the TLIF site. At a mean follow-up of 43 ± 12 months after revision surgery, all patients had achieved bony union at the TLIF site. Conclusions: At 3-year follow-up, the rate of pseudarthrosis after TLIF performed at the base of a long fusion for ASD was 9.8%, and the rate of revision surgery to address pseudarthrosis and/or rod fracture was 8.9%. All patients were successfully treated with revision interbody fusion or posterior augmentation of the fusion mass, without need for further revision procedures at the TLIF level.
Intraoperative considerations in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery
Advanced age and other comorbid factors correlate with age-increased morbidity associated with spine surgery. It is crucial that spine surgeons critically assess perioperative risks versus postoperative benefits of spine surgery in the growing elderly population. Close coordination between the surgeon, anesthesia team and the patient can minimize complications, improve function and contribute to decreased costs of these complex procedures.
A Simpler, Modified Frailty Index Weighted by Complication Occurrence Correlates to Pain and Disability for Adult Spinal Deformity Patients
BACKGROUND:The Miller et al adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI) correlates with complication risk; however, its development was not rooted in clinical outcomes, and the 40 factors needed for its calculation limit the index's clinical utility. The present study aimed to develop a simplified, weighted frailty index for ASD patients METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of a single-center database. Component ASD-FI parameters contributing to overall ASD-FI score were assessed via Pearson correlation. Top significant, clinically relevant factors were regressed against ASD-FI score to generate the modified ASD-FI (mASD-FI). Component mASD-FI factors were regressed against incidence of medical complications, and factor weights were calculated from regression of these coefficients. Total mASD-FI score ranged from 0 to 21, and was calculated by summing weights of expressed parameters. Linear regression and published ASD-FI cutoffs generated corresponding mASD-FI frailty cutoffs: not frail (NF, <7), frail (7-12), severely frail (SF, >12). Analysis of variance assessed the relationship between frailty category and validated baseline measures of pain and disability at baseline. RESULTS:= .001). CONCLUSIONS:This study modifies an existing ASD frailty index and proposes a weighted, shorter mASD-FI. The mASD-FI relies less on patient-reported variables, and it weights component factors by their contribution to adverse outcomes. Because increasing mASD-FI score is associated with inferior clinical measures of pain and disability, the mASD-FI may serve as a valuable tool for preoperative risk assessment.
A cost utility analysis of treating different adult spinal deformity frailty states
The aim of this study was to investigate the cost utility of treating non-frail versus frail or severely frail adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. 79 surgical ASD patients >18Â years with available frailty and ODI data at baseline and 2-years post-surgery (2Y) were included. Utility data was calculated using the ODI converted to the SF-6D. QALYs utilized a 3% discount rate to account for decline to life expectancy (LE). Costs were calculated using the PearlDiver database. ICER was compared between non-operative (non-op.) and operative (op.) NF and F/SF patients at 2Y and LE. When compared to non-operative ASD, the ICER was $447,943.96 vs. $313,211.01 for NF and F/SF at 2Y, and $68,311.35 vs. $47,764.61 for NF and F/SF at LE. Frail and severely frail patients had lower cost per QALY compared to not frail patients at 2Y and life expectancy, and had lower ICER values when compared to a non-operative cohort of ASD patients. While these results support operative correction of frail and severely frail patients, it is important to note that these patients are often at worse baseline disability, which is closely related to frailty scores, and have more opportunity to improve postoperatively. Furthermore, there may be a threshold of frailty that is not operable due to the risk of severe complications that is not captured by this analysis. While future research should investigate economic outcomes at extended follow up times, these findings support the cost effectiveness of ASD surgery at all frailty states.