Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes After Introduction of a Dedicated Infectious Diseases-Critical Care Medicine Service in Critical Care Units
Background/UNASSIGNED:Infection is a leading cause of admission to intensive care units (ICUs), with critically ill patients often receiving empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. Nevertheless, a dedicated infectious diseases (ID) consultation and stewardship team is not routinely established. An ID-critical care medicine (ID-CCM) pilot program was designed at a 400-bed tertiary care hospital in which an ID attending was assigned to participate in daily rounds with the ICU team, as well as provide ID consultation on select patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of this dedicated ID program on antibiotic utilization and clinical outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In this single-site retrospective study, we analyzed antibiotic utilization and clinical outcomes in patients admitted to an ICU during the postintervention period from January 1 to December 31, 2017, and compared it to antibiotic utilization in the same ICUs during the preintervention period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. Results/UNASSIGNED:Our data showed a statistically significant reduction in usage of most frequently prescribed antibiotics including vancomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefepime during the intervention period. When compared to the preintervention period there was no difference in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, and readmission. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:With this multidisciplinary intervention, we saw a decrease in the use of the most frequently prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics without a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Our study shows that the implementation of an ID-CCM service is a feasible way to promote antibiotic stewardship in the ICU and can be used as a strategy to reduce unnecessary patient exposure to broad-spectrum agents.
Analysis of Catheter Utilization, Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections, and Costs Associated with an Inpatient Critical Care-driven Vascular Access Model
BACKGROUND:Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) carry serious risks for patients and financial consequences for hospitals. Avoiding unnecessary temporary central venous catheters (CVC) can reduce CLABSI. Critical Care Medicine (CCM) is often consulted to insert CVC when alternatives are unavailable. We aim to describe clinical and financial implications of a CCM-driven vascular access model. METHODS:In this retrospective, observational cohort study, all CLABSI and a sample of CCM consults for CVC insertion on adult medical-surgical inpatient units were reviewed in 2019. Assessment of CVC appropriateness and financial analysis of labor, reimbursement, and attributable CLABSI cost was conducted. RESULTS:Of 554 CCM consult requests, 75 (13.5%) were for CVC and 36 (48.0%) resulted in CVC insertion; 6 (16.7%) CVC were avoidable. Three CLABSI occurred in avoidable CVC with estimated annual attributable cost of $165,099. Estimated annual CCM consultant cost for CVC was $78,094 generating $110,733 in reimbursement. Overall estimated annual loss was $132,460. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Reliance on CCM for intravenous access resulted in avoidable CVC, CLABSI, inefficient physician effort, and financial losses; nurse-driven vascular access models offer potential cost savings and risk reduction. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:CCM-driven vascular access models may not be cost-effective; alternatives should be considered for utilization reduction, CLABSI prevention, and financial viability.
Infectious Complications in Lung Transplant Recipients
Lung transplantation is a lifesaving intervention for patients with advanced lung disease. Due to a combination of immunosuppression, continuous exposure of the lungs to the environment, and complications at the anastomotic sites, lung transplant recipients are at high risk for infectious complications. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in the field of infectious diseases as it pertains to lung transplant recipients.
An Interesting Fact
Vaping-Associated Acute Respiratory Failure Due to Acute Lipoid Pneumonia
Electronic cigarettes, pens, cartridges and other devices were developed as nicotine delivery systems not requiring combustion of tobacco leaves. This technology was subsequently employed to deliver the cannabis component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) via products often manufactured without adequate quality oversight and sold illegally. Recently, five patients presenting within a 2-month period with acute respiratory failure due to acute lipoid pneumonia after inhaling THC-containing concentrates or oils have been described. We report a 28-year-old previously healthy man who presented in acute respiratory failure 2Â weeks after initiating use of a street-purchased THC-containing vape cartridge. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology with oil red O staining confirmed the diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and eosinophilic pneumonia were excluded. Evolving evidence supports a clinical entity of acute respiratory failure due to acute, exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by THC-containing concentrates or oils inhaled through a variety of vaping products. All six patients reported to date received intravenous corticosteroids and survived to hospital discharge.
Risk factors of laryngeal cryptococcosis: A case report [Case Report]
Cryptococcal infections are acquired by inhalation of encapsulated yeast cells or basidiospores. While Cryptococcus has a propensity to invade the lungs and central nervous system, other sites can be affected. Laryngeal cryptococcosis is rare with less than 30 previously reported cases, which commonly occurred in apparently immunocompetent hosts on inhaled corticosteroids. We present a case of laryngeal cryptococcosis with a long-term inhaled corticosteroid use, co-infection of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, and mannose-binding lectin deficiency.
Listeria brain abscess in a patient with autoimmune hepatitis [Case Report]
Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of brain abscesses. Immunocompromised hosts, pregnant women and patients at extremes of age are especially susceptible. We discuss the successful management of a woman with autoimmune hepatitis on prednisone and azathioprine therapy with a L. monocytogenes brain abscess. Previously thought to be a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection, the incidence of CNS listeriosis has increased due to a rise in organ and bone marrow transplantation requiring immunosuppressive medications. L. monocytogenes brain abscesses are now more frequently described and are associated with high rates of concomitant bacteremia suggesting a hematogenous route of infection.
A Case of Invasive Gastrointestinal Mycotypha Infection in a Patient with Neutropenia [Case Report]
Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection to which neutropenic patients are especially vulnerable. Mycotypha microspora is a mucormycete that has not been described as a human pathogen. We discuss the successful eradication of gastrointestinal Mycotypha microspora in a neutropenic patient with simultaneous pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.