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Progressive dysbiosis of human orodigestive microbiota along the sequence of gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

Hao, Yuhan; Karaoz, Ulas; Yang, Liying; Yachimski, Patrick S; Tseng, Wenzhi; Nossa, Carlos W; Ye, Weimin; Tseng, Mengkao; Poles, Michael; Francois, Fritz; Traube, Morris; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Yu; Torralba, Manolito; Peek, Richard M; Brodie, Eoin L; Pei, Zhiheng
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has drastically increased in the United States since 1970s for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that the widespread usage of antibiotics has increased the procarcinogenic potential of the orodigestive microbiota along the sequence of gastroesophageal reflux (GR), Barrett's esophagus (BE) and EA phenotypes. This case control study included normal controls (NC) and three disease phenotypes GR, BE and EA. Microbiota in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, and rectum were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, we discovered 44 significant pairwise differences in abundance of microbial taxa between the four phenotypes, with 12 differences in the mouth, 21 in the esophagus, two in the stomach, and nine in the rectum. Along the GR→BE→EA sequence, oral and esophageal microbiota were more diversified, the dominant genus Streptococcus was progressively depleted while six other genera Atopobium, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Lautropia progressively enriched. In NC, Streptococcus appeared to control populations of other genera in the foregut via numerous negative and positive connections, while in disease states, the rich network was markedly simplified. Inferred gene functional content showed a progressive enrichment through the stages of EA development in genes encoding antibiotic resistance, ligands of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors, nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and acetaldehyde metabolism. The orodigestive microbiota is in a progressive dysbiotic state along the GR-BE-EA sequence. The increasing dysbiosis and antibiotic and procarcinogenic genes in the disease states warrants further study to define their roles in EA pathogenesis.
PMID: 35751398
ISSN: 1097-0215
CID: 5282362

Dysphagia in the elderly

Khan, Abraham; Carmona, Richard; Traube, Morris
Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem in the elderly. Based on the initial clinical history and physical examination, the dysphagia is assessed as either primarily oropharyngeal or esophageal in origin. Most oropharyngeal dysphagia is of neurologic origin, and management is coordinated with a clinical swallow specialist in conjunction with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physician if warning signs imply malignancy. Several structural and functional esophageal disorders can cause dysphagia. If a patient has likely esophageal dysphagia, a video barium esophagram is a good initial test, and referral to a gastroenterologist is generally warranted leading to appropriate treatment.
PMID: 24267601
ISSN: 0749-0690
CID: 652452

A Burning Issue: Defining GERD in Non-Erosive Disease [Meeting Abstract]

Khan, Abraham; Sam Serouya, Sam; Poles, Michael A; Traube, Morris; Halahalli-Srinivasa, Vani Murthy; Chen, Chien Ting; Yang, Liying; Pei, Zhiheng; Francois, Fritz
ISSN: 0016-5085
CID: 523002

Potentially reversible pseudoachalasia after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

Khan, Abraham; Ren-Fielding, Christine; Traube, Morris
BACKGROUND: Although esophageal dilation after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has been reported, the effect of banding on esophageal peristalsis, including the development of aperistalsis and its potential reversibility, have received only little attention. GOALS: Our aim was to report our experience with 6 patients who developed manometric evidence of esophageal aperistalsis after LAGB. STUDY: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, manometric, and radiologic data of 6 patients referred between September 2005 and June 2007 to our Center for Esophageal Disease for evaluation of dysphagia or heartburn that developed after LAGB, and in whom manometric studies showed aperistalsis. Patients had the fluid in the band completely removed (N=5) or had the band removed (N=1). Reversibility of esophageal aperistalsis was then assessed. Clinical follow-up was obtained from 2009 to early 2010. RESULTS: Six patients (all female, age range, 37 to 55 y old) were evaluated because of dysphagia or heartburn after LAGB and had complete aperistalsis on manometry. Five of the 6 patients had manometry after removal of all the fluid from the band (N=4) or after surgical removal of the band (N=1). Two patients had partial return of peristalsis, 1 had normal peristalsis, and 2 others had continued aperistalsis but did show clinical improvement. Another patient had improvement of radiologic esophageal dilation but declined repeat manometry. CONCLUSIONS: LAGB can cause an achalasia-like esophageal aperistalsis that may be reversible. Gastroenterologists caring for bariatric patients need be aware of this pseudoachalasia, as the treatment of such patients differs from those with primary achalasia
PMID: 21778895
ISSN: 1539-2031
CID: 137441

Patients with Throat Symptoms on Acid Suppressive Therapy: Do They Have Reflux?

Khan, Abraham; Cho, Ilseung; Traube, Morris
Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize the reflux events in patients with laryngeal symptoms unresponsive to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly implicated as the cause of laryngeal symptoms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the pH/impedance records of 21 patients evaluated for persistent throat symptoms despite PPI therapy. They were compared to 30 others with typical reflux symptoms despite medication. Results Five of 21 (24%) patients in the 'throat group' had normal reflux values, 13 (62%) continued to have abnormal acid reflux, and three (14%) had abnormal nonacid reflux but normal acid reflux while on medication. These results did not differ from those with typical symptoms unresponsive to medication. Conclusion In patients with chronic laryngeal symptoms despite PPI therapy, a substantial minority have no reflux at all, but the majority have abnormal amounts of acid reflux despite their taking PPI medication
PMID: 19255848
ISSN: 1573-2568
CID: 95042

A Reversible Achalasia-Like Disorder Aft er Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding [Meeting Abstract]

Khan, A; Ren, C; Traube, M
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 106463

Lap-band impact on the function of the esophagus

Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Schaye, Verity; Francois, Fritz; Traube, Morris; Fielding, Christine J; Fielding, George A; Youn, Allison Heekoung; Weinshel, Elizabeth H
BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) has been widely used to treat morbid obesity. There is conflicting data on its long-term effect on esophageal function. Our aim was to assess the long-term impact of the LAGB on esophageal motility and pH-metry in patients who had LAGB who had normal and abnormal esophageal function at baseline. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for bariatric surgery were prospectively enrolled. A detailed medical history was obtained, and esophageal manometric and 24-h pH evaluations were performed in standard fashion preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively; patients served as their own controls. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients completed manometric evaluation. Ten patients had normal manometric parameters at baseline; at 6 months, mean lower esophageal sphincter (LES) residual pressure increased significantly from baseline (3.9 +/- 2 vs. 8.9 +/- 4 mmHg, p = 0.014). At 12 months, the mean peristaltic wave duration increased from 3.6 +/- 1 at baseline to 6.8 +/- 2 s, p = 0.025 and wave amplitude decreased during the same period (98.7 +/- 22 vs. 52.3 +/- 24, p = 0.013). LES pressure and percent peristalsis did not differ significantly pre- and post-LAGB. Twelve patients had one or more abnormal manometric findings at baseline; at 12 months, LES pressure in these 12 patients decreased significantly (31.1 +/- 10 vs 23.6 +/- 7, p = 0.011) and wave amplitude was significantly reduced (125.9 +/- 117 vs 103 +/- 107, p = 0.039). LES residual pressure did not change significantly pre- and post-LAGB. Twenty-two individuals were evaluated for impact of Lap-Band on esophageal acid exposure. Sixteen of these patients had normal esophageal pH-metry values at baseline and had no significant changes in 12 months in any pH-metry measurement. Six patients had abnormal pH-metry values at baseline. Among these patients, time with pH < 4.0 and Johnson/DeMeester score did not change significantly during follow-up. There was a significant decrease in the number of reflux episodes from baseline to 6 months (159 +/- 48 vs. 81 +/- 61, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal manometric findings are frequently encountered post-LAGB. Increases in LES residual pressure and peristaltic wave duration were the most significant changes. LAGB is not associated with an increase in total esophageal acidification time. Further evaluation of the clinical significance of manometric abnormalities is warranted
PMID: 18663546
ISSN: 0960-8923
CID: 91869

Patients with throat symptoms on acid suppressive therapy: Do they have reflux? [Meeting Abstract]

Khan, Abraham; Cho, Ilseung; Traube, Morris
ISSN: 0016-5085
CID: 4722532

The acid achalasia association [Comment]

Traube, Morris
PMID: 11907348
ISSN: 0192-0790
CID: 49237

Effect of tracheotomy tube occlusion on upper esophageal sphincter and pharyngeal pressures in aspirating and nonaspirating patients

Leder SB; Joe JK; Hill SE; Traube M
The biomechanics of the pharyngeal swallow in patients with a tracheotomy tube were investigated with manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and pharyngeal pressure recordings were made with and without occlusion of the tracheotomy tube. Criteria for selection were ability to tolerate tracheotomy tube occlusion for both 5 minutes prior to and during the first manometric analysis, absence of surgery to the upper aerodigestive tract other than tracheotomy, and no history of oropharyngeal cancer or stroke. Aspiration was determined objectively by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) immediately prior to manometric recording. Eleven adult individuals with tracheotomy participated; 7 swallowed successfully and 4 exhibited aspiration on FEES. The results indicated no significant effect of tracheotomy tube occlusion on UES or pharngeal pressures in either aspirating or nonaspirating patients. It was concluded that the biomechanics of the swallow as determined by UES and pharyngeal manometric pressure measurements were not changed significantly by tracheotomy tube occlusion in aspirating or nonaspirating patients. These results support previous observations that subjects either aspirated or swallowed successfully regardless of tracheotomy tube occlusion status
PMID: 11305225
ISSN: 0179-051x
CID: 49238